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  1. 1. Chapter 12 Politics Of The Roaring 20’s
  2. 2. The Red Scare 1919-1920
  3. 3. Karl Marx
  4. 4. Friedrich Engels
  5. 5. Vladimir Lenin
  6. 6. Soviet Flag
  7. 7. A. Mitchell Palmer-Attorney General <ul><li>The Red Scare </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Palmer Raids The Attorney General used the attacks to initiate a widespread clamp-down on radicalism. He brought in the young and ambitious Justice Department lawyer, J. Edgar Hoover, to head a campaign of raids and mass arrests. Later known as the &quot;Palmer raids,&quot; the widespread attack on radicals were largely Hoover's operation. He organized raids to be carried out in three different cities on January 2, 1920. Not possessing search or arrest warrants, the enforcers paid no regard to who was and who was not guilty of anything illegal. In the end, mass arrests were made and 249 people were deported including the prominent anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman. Hysteria hit an all time high when Palmer announced that there would be an attempted Communist takeover on May 1 st , 1920, but when it didn’t happen, the hysteria dissipated. Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman J. Edgar Hoover Mitchell Palmer                            
  9. 9. J. Edgar Hoover
  10. 10. Palmer House Bombing
  11. 11. Sacco and Vanzetti On April 15, 1920, two men robbed and murdered a paymaster and his guard as they transferred $15,776 from the Slater and Morrill Shoe factory. Three weeks later, in the spirit of the anti-immigrant, anti-communist times, two Italian immigrants and known anarchists, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, were accused and arrested for the crime, despite the scant evidence against them. Following a seven-week trial which many considered very unfairly manipulated by Judge Thayer, Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted on circumstantial evidence of capital murder and sentenced to death. Sacco and Vanzetti appealed their convictions and got a lot of support from those who opposed the death penalty and racism, but they lost and were executed in 1927.
  12. 12. Sacco and Vanzetti
  13. 13. Ku Klux Klan
  14. 14. President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover
  15. 15. Republican Philosophy-1920’s <ul><li>Trickle-down theory </li></ul><ul><li>laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Rugged individualism </li></ul>
  16. 16. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes
  17. 17. 4 Power Treaty <ul><li>US, GB, France, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Each country would respect each other possessions in the Pacific </li></ul>
  18. 18. 5 Power Treaty <ul><li>Same as 4 plus Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Freeze navies at 1921 levels </li></ul>
  19. 19. 9 Power Treaty <ul><li>Above plus Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium and China </li></ul><ul><li>Keep “open door” in China </li></ul><ul><li>Promise Chinese independence </li></ul>
  20. 20. Kellogg-Briand Pact <ul><li>Afghanistan, Finland, Peru, Albania, </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala, Portugal, Austria, Hungary, </li></ul><ul><li>Rumania, Bulgaria, Iceland, Russia, </li></ul><ul><li>China, Latvia, Kingdom of the Serbs, Cuba, Liberia, Croats and Slovenes, Denmark, Lithuania, Siam, Dominican Republic, Netherlands, Spain, Egypt, Nicaragua, Sweden, Estonia, Norway, Turkey, Ethiopia, Panama </li></ul>
  21. 21. Albert Fall
  22. 22. Warren Harding’s Funeral
  23. 23. President Calvin Coolidge
  24. 24. Route 66 “The Mother Road”
  25. 25. Route 66 “The Mother Road”
  26. 26. Henry Ford
  27. 27. Henry Ford and the Model T
  28. 28. 1920 Model T Ford
  29. 29. Charles Lindbergh “Lucky Lindy”
  30. 30. Lindbergh’s Flight
  31. 31. Amelia Earhart
  32. 33. Chapter 13 The Roaring Life of the 1920’s
  33. 34. Rural vs. Urban <ul><li>1920 Census- 51.2 people lived in cities of 2,500 or more </li></ul><ul><li>1922-1929-more than 2 million people moved from farms to the cities each year </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas tried to hold on to moral values and close social relationships </li></ul>
  34. 35. The Urban Scene <ul><li>Largest cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New York City(5.6 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago(3 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philadelphia(2 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65 other cities had over 100,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities tolerated drinking, gambling and casual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dating!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities were far from perfect however. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Prohibition “The Noble Experiment” <ul><li>18 th Amendment(1920-1933) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages was illegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters believed alcohol brought about corruption, crime, wife and child abuse and accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters came mostly from rural South and West(areas with a lot of Protestants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Saloon League and Women’s Christian Temperence Union led the attack on alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Prohibition <ul><li>Alcohol was allowed for medicinal and religious purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriptions and sacramental wine orders skyrocketed </li></ul>
  37. 38. Prohibition <ul><li>At first saloons closed and drunkeness went down </li></ul><ul><li>The Volstead Act created the Prohibition Bureau to enforce the law </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition failed for three reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People despised it. Saw it as government meddling in people’s lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Prohibition Bureau was underfunded. Had 1,500 people to supervise the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized crime became commonplace </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Speakeasies <ul><li>To obtain alcohol illegally, people went underground to secret bars call speakeasies (people spoke easily or quietly about it) </li></ul><ul><li>Speakeasies could be anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>To be admitted a card or password had to be given </li></ul>
  39. 44. Bootlegging in the 1920's <ul><li>Illegally making or distributing alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Bootleggers </li></ul><ul><li> - people that made or transported alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named because people carried liquor in the legs of boots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most imported alcohol came in from Canada, Cuba or the West Indies </li></ul></ul>
  40. 45. Bootlegging
  41. 46. Organized Crime <ul><li>Came about as a result of Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>Every major city had it’s gang </li></ul><ul><li>Al Capone’s bootlegging business in Chicago made over $60 million a year </li></ul><ul><li>Due to gang violence, only 19% of Americans supported Prohibition by 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition was repealed in 1933 by the 21 st Amendment </li></ul>
  42. 47. Al Capone-Scarface
  43. 49. St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
  44. 50. Tommy Gun
  45. 51. Taken down by Tax Evasion
  46. 53. Science vs Religion <ul><li>There was a struggle between the modern scientific people and the Christian fundamentalists </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalists believed everything could be explained by the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>They disagreed with the theory of evolution especially </li></ul>
  47. 54. Charles Darwin
  48. 55. The Scopes Monkey Trial <ul><li>In 1925, Tennessee passed the first law making it illegal to teach evolution in school </li></ul><ul><li>The American Civil Liberties Union(ACLU) said it would defend any teacher willing to break the law </li></ul><ul><li>John Scopes, biology teacher from Dayton, accepted. </li></ul>
  49. 56. John Scopes
  50. 57. Scopes-Monkey Trial <ul><li>Scopes taught evolution and was arrested </li></ul><ul><li>Clarence Darrow was hired by the ACLU to defend Scopes </li></ul><ul><li>William Jennings Bryan was the special prosecutor </li></ul><ul><li>Scopes did not deny teaching evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Trial was really about evolution in schools </li></ul>
  51. 58. Clarence Darrow
  52. 59. William Jennings Bryan
  53. 60. Scopes Monkey Trial <ul><li>Darrow called Bryan to the stand and asked him questions about the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Darrow made Bryan look foolish </li></ul><ul><li>In the end, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100 </li></ul>
  54. 62. The Flapper
  55. 64. Flagpole Sitting-Alvin Kelly
  56. 65. Oxford Bags
  57. 73. Greta Garbo
  58. 74. Clara Bo
  59. 75. Mary Pickford
  60. 76. Charlie Chaplin
  61. 77. Douglass Fairbanks
  62. 78. Rudolph Valentino
  63. 79. Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer
  64. 80. The Marx Brothers
  65. 81. Harry Houdini
  66. 82. Babe Ruth
  67. 83. Jack Dempsey
  68. 84. Gene Tunney
  69. 85. Bobby Jones
  70. 86. Bill Tilden
  71. 87. Red Grange
  72. 88. F. Scott Fitzgerald
  73. 89. W.E.B. DuBois
  74. 90. James Weldon Johnson
  75. 91. Marcus Garvey
  76. 92. Harlem Renaissance Lois M. Jones
  77. 93. William Johnson
  78. 94. Palmer Hayden
  79. 95. Louis Armstrong
  80. 97. The Cotton Club
  81. 100. Duke Ellington
  82. 101. Cab Calloway
  83. 102. Bessie Smith