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  • Population

    1. 1. Population
    2. 2. What is Population? <ul><li>The collection of people living in a given geographic area, or space, usually measured by a census </li></ul><ul><li>Demography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of human populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various aspects of human behavior in populations are studied in Sociology, Economics, and Geography </li></ul><ul><li>The study of populations is almost always governed by the laws of probability </li></ul><ul><li>www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html </li></ul>
    3. 4. World and Population Statistics World Population: 6.5 Billion-2006 World Population Information
    4. 5. World Population Clock 2005 Source: Population Reference Bureau, 2005 World Population Data Sheet . 137 151 2 154 Minute 197,004 217,971 3,383 221,354 Day 71,906,587 79,559,311 1,234,907 80,794,218 Year Less Developed Countries (less China) Less Developed Countries More Developed Countries World Natural Increase per
    5. 6. World Vital Events Per Time Unit: 2006 <ul><li>Births Deaths Natural Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Year 132,434,587 55,220,152 77,214,435 </li></ul><ul><li>Month 11,036,216 4,601,679 6,434,536 </li></ul><ul><li>Day 362,834 151,288 211,546 </li></ul><ul><li>Hour 15,118 6,304 8,814 </li></ul><ul><li>Minute 252 105 147 </li></ul><ul><li>Second 4.2 1.8 2.4 </li></ul>
    6. 7. Worldwide Population Growth <ul><li>Earth’s population hit 1 Billion in the early 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>As the world industrialized, people grew more and better food </li></ul><ul><li>Also, people improved their sanitation methods </li></ul><ul><li>This combination enabled the population to boom </li></ul>
    7. 8. World Population Growth, in Billions Number of years to add each billion (year) All of Human History (1800) 130 (1930) 30 (1960) 15 (1975) 12 (1987) 12 (1999) 14 (2013) 14 (2027) 21 (2048) Sources: First and second billion: Population Reference Bureau. Third through ninth billion: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.
    8. 10. World Population Growth Through History A.D. 2000 A.D. 1000 A.D. 1 1000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 3000 B.C. 4000 B.C. 5000 B.C. 6000 B.C. 7000 B.C. 1+ million years 8 7 6 5 2 1 4 3 Old Stone Age New Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age Middle Ages Modern Age Black Death — The Plague 9 10 11 12 A.D. 3000 A.D. 4000 A.D. 5000 1800 1900 1950 1975 2000 2100 Future Billions Source: Population Reference Bureau; and United Nations, World Population Projections to 2100 (1998).
    9. 11. Population Growth <ul><li>What area of the world do you think has the highest rate and lowest rate of population growth from 2000-2005? </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>List actual </li></ul>
    10. 13. Projected Population Change, by Country Source: Population Reference Bureau, 2005 World Population Data Sheet . Percent Population Change, 2005-2050
    11. 14. Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (2005). World population, 1950-2050 (projected) Global Population Growth: A Developing-Country Phenomenon
    12. 17. Trends in Population Growth Worldwide Population Increase and Growth Rate, Five-Year Periods Millions Percent increase per year Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.
    13. 18. Notes on Trends in Population Growth Worldwide <ul><li>Over the period 1985-1995, the population growth rate declined (a reflection of declining fertility), yet millions of people were added to the world’s population (which peaked around 1985, when 87 million people were added each year). </li></ul><ul><li>From 2000 on, the growth rate will continue to decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 2015 and 2020, we will still be adding 72 million people each year. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Because the generation of women now having their children is very large as the result of high fertility in their mothers’ and grandmothers’ generations. </li></ul>
    14. 19. Birth Rates <ul><li>Birthrate- the number of live births per 1,000 population </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, the highest birthrate in the world was more than 54/1000 in Niger </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest = 8/1000 in Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>World Average = 22/1000 </li></ul>
    15. 22. Birth and Death Rates, Worldwide Rates of birth, death, and natural increase per 1,000 population Natural Increase Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision , 2005.
    16. 23. Fertility Rate <ul><li>Shows the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>A fertility rate of 2.1 is necessary just to replace current population </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the worldwide average fertility rate is about 2.59 </li></ul>
    17. 24. Fertility Rates <ul><li>What do you think the average number of babies each woman has in the world? US? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think the highest average is? Where? </li></ul><ul><li>CIA - The World Factbook - Guide to Country Profiles </li></ul>
    18. 26. 10 Places With the Lowest Total Fertility Worldwide Average number of children per woman, 2000-2005 Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision , 2005.
    19. 27. Women of Childbearing Age Number of Women 15 to 49 Billions Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.
    20. 28. Women of Childbearing Age and Fertility Worldwide Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.
    21. 29. Diverging Trends in Fertility Reduction Average number of children per woman Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision , 2005.
    22. 30. Questions to Consider <ul><li>Why is the world’s population increasing but the growth rate is decreasing? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the world’s population growing so quickly? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems/implications does this growth bring about? </li></ul>
    23. 31. Mortality Rate <ul><li>Also called the death rate </li></ul><ul><li>Number of deaths per 1,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, a society is considered healthy if it has a low mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>However, some healthy nations have higher mortality rates because they have large numbers of elderly people </li></ul>
    24. 32. Birth and Death Rates, Worldwide Rates of birth, death, and natural increase per 1,000 population Natural Increase Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision , 2005.
    25. 33. Life Expectancy <ul><li>How long a person is expected to live </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries do you think have the highest and lowest life expectancy at birth? </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>List actual </li></ul>
    26. 34. Trends in Life Expectancy, by Region Life Expectancy at Birth, in Years Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005.
    27. 35. Infant Mortality Rate <ul><li>For this reason, geographers also look at infant mortality rates </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the number of deaths among infants under age 1 per 1,000 live births </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the 1800’s, the worldwide I.M.R. was 300/1,000 </li></ul>
    28. 37. Rate of Natural Increase <ul><li>Birthrate – Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>B-D = R </li></ul><ul><li>A.K.A. = Population Growth Rate </li></ul>
    29. 38. Birth and Death Rates, Worldwide Rates of birth, death, and natural increase per 1,000 population Natural Increase Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision , 2005.
    30. 39. Human Population Growth Rate
    31. 40. Population Pyramid <ul><li>Another way to analyze populations is to use a population pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>PP = a graphic device that shows sex & age distribution of a population </li></ul><ul><li>Allows geographers to examine how events in society, such as wars, famine, or epidemics, affect the population of a country or region </li></ul>
    32. 41. Age Distribution of the World’s Population Population Structures by Age and Sex, 2005 Millions Less Developed Regions More Developed Regions Male Female Male Female 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision , 2005.
    33. 46. Population Density <ul><li>The average number of people who live in a measurable area, such as a square mile </li></ul><ul><li>The number is reached by dividing the number of inhabitants in an area by the total amount of land they occupy </li></ul><ul><li>Geographers use this to understand how heavily populated an area is </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries do you think are the most densely populated? </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>List actual </li></ul>
    34. 49. Population Density <ul><li>This number can be misleading for an entire nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: U.S. P.D.  1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska = huge land area, small population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 person per square mile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey = small land area, large population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,098 people per square mile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Total U.S. Population Density = 70.3 people per square mile </li></ul>
    35. 50. Carrying Capacity <ul><li>The number of individuals an environment can support without significant negative impacts </li></ul><ul><li>A region with fertile land may be able to support far more people than one with land of poor quality or with little land available for cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of technology of a group living on the land may affect carrying capacity </li></ul></ul>
    36. 51. Carrying Capacity
    37. 53. Land Area <ul><li>Write what you think the five largest countries(land area) are. </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>List actual </li></ul>
    38. 55. Population Distribution <ul><li>Of the billions of people in the world, most are not distributed equally across the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Some lands are not suitable for human habitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Almost 90% of the world’s population lives in the Northern Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N.H.- ½ of the planets surface, which is north of the equator </li></ul></ul>
    39. 57. Population Distribution <ul><li>1 in 4 people in the world live in East Asia, and 1 in 2 people live in either East Asia or South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All influence where people live </li></ul></ul>
    40. 58. Urban-Rural Mix <ul><li>Currently, more than ½ of the world’s population lives in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>However, this number is changing rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>More and more people are migrating to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly, cities with populations of more than one million people </li></ul>
    41. 59. Trends in Urbanization, by Region Urban Population Percent Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision (medium scenario), 2004.
    42. 61. World Population by Country <ul><li>List what you think the top ten populated countries in the world were/are/will be in 1950, 2006 and 2050. </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>List actual </li></ul>
    43. 62. 54 107,000,000       Mexico 11 337 127,000,000       Japan 10 139 131,530,000       Nigeria 9 8 142,800,000       Russia 8 1,002 145,000,000       Bangladesh 7 202 164,000,000       Pakistan 6 21 186,405,000       Brazil 5 126 222,781,000       Indonesia 4 30 300,000,000       United States 3 328 1,110,000,000       India 2 136 1,315,844,000       China 1 43 6,661,208,350 World — Density (people/ km²) Population Country Rank
    44. 64. Population development of the largest countries from 1950 to 2050
    45. 66. Largest Metropolitan Areas <ul><li>List what you think the 10 largest metropolitan areas are in world. </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>List Actual </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive --2015 Projected </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive --1950-2015 Met. Areas </li></ul>
    46. 67. Megacities <ul><li>In 1950, New York City was the only World City with more than 10 million residents </li></ul><ul><li>Today, 26 giant cities are home to a total of more than 250 million people </li></ul><ul><li>The largest of these is Tokyo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>34 million inhabitants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These huge cities struggle with overcrowded conditions and immense demand for water & sanitation </li></ul>
    47. 70.                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    48. 71. Largest Cities <ul><li>List what you think the 10 largest cities are in world. </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>List actial </li></ul>
    49. 72. April 2007 Update <ul><li>http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/009865.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/04/05/metro.population.ap/index.html </li></ul>
    50. 75. Tokyo
    51. 76. Mexico City
    52. 77. Seoul, South Korea
    53. 78. Shanghai, China
    54. 79. Migration <ul><li>The large-scale migration of people from one location to another also alters the distribution of population </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for migrating are referred to as: Push-Pull Factors </li></ul>
    55. 81. Immigration <ul><li>Immigration- the movement of people from one nation-state to another </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration implies long-term permanent residence by the immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourists are not considered immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All of our ancestors immigrated to America from a foreign country </li></ul>
    56. 83. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 decennial census. In 1990, Almost Half of All U.S. Counties Had Less Than 1% Foreign-Born, and Only One-Tenth Had 5% or More.
    57. 84. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 decennial census. By 2000, Only One-Fourth of U.S. Counties Had Less Than 1% Foreign-Born, and One in Five Had 5% or More.
    58. 85. Push Factors <ul><li>Push Factors- those that cause people to leave their homeland & migrate or immigrate to another region or country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political – war, persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunity </li></ul></ul>
    59. 86. Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849)
    60. 87. Natural Disasters
    61. 88. Hurricane Katrina Migration
    62. 89. Religious Persecution
    63. 91. Pull Factors <ul><li>Pull factors draw or attract people to another location </li></ul><ul><li>Why would someone from Harlan, IA be “pulled” to Chicago or Kansas City? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were our ancestors “pulled” to America? </li></ul><ul><li>Countries with good economic opportunities & high salaries are the likely destinations of migrants & immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable Climate is another pull factor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Snow Birds” </li></ul></ul>
    64. 94. GDP <ul><li>List the countries that you think have the top five GDP. </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive : GDP - Top 50 for 2004 & 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>List actual </li></ul>
    65. 95. GDP—Per Capita Income <ul><li>List what you think the highest and lowest per capita income is in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think the per capita income is in the US? </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul>
    66. 96. Imports/Exports <ul><li>Which countries have the most exports? </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries have the most imports? </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important to have a trade balance? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the US fair? </li></ul>
    67. 97. Internet and Computer Users <ul><li>GeoHive --Computer users </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive --Internet Users </li></ul><ul><li>What does this info tell us? </li></ul>
    68. 98. Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption <ul><li>GeoHive –Oil reserves </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive –Oil production </li></ul><ul><li>GeoHive –Oil consumption </li></ul>
    69. 99. Energy Consumption <ul><li>GeoHive </li></ul><ul><li>What conclusions can be made from the last two slides? </li></ul>
    70. 100. Millennium Development Goals
    71. 101. United Nations Millennium Development Goals <ul><li>Passed in 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals form a blueprint agreed to by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions </li></ul><ul><li>The target year to achieve these goals is 2015 </li></ul>                                             
    72. 102. Goal #1: Eliminate Extreme Hunger and Poverty <ul><li>Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger </li></ul>
    73. 103. % Living on less than $1/ Day
    74. 104. % of People Living in Poverty
    75. 106. Goal #2: Achieve Universal Primary Education <ul><li>Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling </li></ul>
    76. 107. Goal #3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women <ul><li>Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 </li></ul>
    77. 108. Goal #4: Reduce Child Mortality <ul><li>Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five </li></ul>
    78. 109. Goal #5: Improve Maternal Health <ul><li>Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio </li></ul>
    79. 110. Goal #6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases <ul><li>Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases </li></ul>
    80. 111. Goal #7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability <ul><li>Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020 </li></ul>
    81. 112. Goal #8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development <ul><li>Develop further an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory, includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction— nationally and internationally </li></ul><ul><li>Address the least developed countries' special needs. This includes tariff- and quota-free access for their exports; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries; cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Address the special needs of landlocked and small island developing States </li></ul>
    82. 113. <ul><li>Deal comprehensively with developing countries' debt problems through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in the long term </li></ul><ul><li>In cooperation with the developing countries, develop decent and productive work for youth </li></ul><ul><li>In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies— especially information and communications technologies </li></ul>
    83. 114. <ul><li>Now that you have seen the eight goals, how are these goals coming along six years later(2006)? </li></ul><ul><li>Using the MDG Goals Report-2006, discuss how the goals are being met or how they aren’t. </li></ul><ul><li>http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/Resources/Static/Products/Progress2006/MDGReport2006.pdf </li></ul>
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    97. 128. 1997-2004* Physicians per 1,000 people Availability of Doctors, Selected Countries * Data are for the most recent year available for each country. Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators 2006 .
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    113. 144. Population Control