What was the Progressive Movement?• An early 20th Century reform movement• Aimed at: – Returning the control of the government to the people – Restoring economic opportunities – Correcting injustices in American life
Four Goals of Progressivism1. Protecting social welfare2. Promoting moral improvement3. Creating economic reform4. Fostering efficiency
Protecting Social Welfare• Review: What is Social Welfare?• Social Gospel/ Settlement House Movement continued through Progressive Era• What is the YMCA?? – Young Men’s Christian Association – Opened Libraries – Sponsored classes – Built Swimming Pools & Handball Courts• Salvation Army – Fed poor people in soup kitchens• Many women followed the lead of Jane Addams and started taking action• Slum brigades—teach immigrants
Promoting Moral Improvement• Some reformers felt that morality, not the workplace, held the key to improving the lives of poor people• Thought people could better themselves by improving their behavior• One of the strongest goals of reformers was to stop the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages – What was this known as?????
Prohibition• Banning of alcoholic beverages• Prohibitionists believed that alcohol was undermining American morals – What are morals?...examples of good morals?
Prohibition • Alcoholic beverages had been around for thousands of years • Certain immigrant groups used these beverages more than others • Hard to break old habits • Many individuals and groups of people were very upset by this movement
WCTU• What does this stand for? – Woman’s Christian Temperance Union• Spearheaded the crusade for prohibition• What did these women do? – Entered saloons and protested – Would sing and pray in the saloons – Urged bartenders to quit selling liquor• The WCTU grew from a small, Midwestern group to a national organization consisting of 245,000 members by 1911
Carry Nation• Most famous member of the temperance movement• Member of the WCTU• 6 ft., 175lbs• “Bulldog running along the feet of Jesus”• Nation was known for attacking saloons with a hatchet• Arrested 30 times in a 10 year span
Creating Economic Reform• Panic of 1893 caused many Americans to worry – What was the Panic of 1893? – Serious decline in the American economy due to lack of gold supply• Many Americans questioned the Capitalist economic system due to poverty• Some Americans, especially workers, embraced Socialism• What is: – Capitalism? – Socialism?
Capitalism• Economic System• The means of production are privately owned• $$ is invested in the production & distribution for a profit• “Free Market” What is this?• Chance to go from poor to rich• Laissez-Faire – Hands Off
Socialism• Social or Economic system• Property and distribution of wealth are determined by the Government• State or Government ownership of everything• Elimination of private property, everyone is equal• Karl Marx – Leading figure – Father of Communism
American Socialist Party• Founded in 1901• Its prominent leader was Eugene V. Debs• In the early 1900’s, the party had numerous elected officials in office• Debs ran for president 5 times unsuccessfully
• “Competition is natural enough at one time, but do you think you are competing today? Many of you think you are competing. Against whom? Against oil magnate John D. Rockefeller? About as I would if I had a wheelbarrow and competed with the Santa Fe Railroad from here to Kansas City!”
Muckrakers• Muckrakers played a big role in bringing reform• Investigative journalists• Exposed the problems of society• Upton Sinclair—The Jungle-meatpacking• Ida Tarbell—Exposed the ruthless methods of the Standard Oil Company• Lincoln Steffens-exposed corruption in gov’t
Fostering Efficiency• Scientific management to increase efficiency was used in factories• Frederick Taylor—Time Management studies• Assembly line• Henry Ford paid workers $5 a day!!• Progressives also worked for better efficiency in all levels of government
Limiting Working Hours• Many states enforced a 10 hour work day for both men and women• Progressives also succeeded in winning workers’ compensation for family members of hurt or killed workers – What is worker’s comp.? – Is it still around today?
Reforming Elections• States adopt secret ballot• Direct Primary• Initiative-a bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers• Referendum- when voters accept or reject the initiative (bill)• Recall- enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions – What did these five aim at doing????
Women’s Role• Many more women were getting an education• Many became teachers• Help push for the passing of the 18 th and 19th Amendments to the US Constitution -Prohibition -Women’s Suffrage
Teddy Roosevelt-TR• Born into a wealthy family-1858• Had asthma as a child- sickly• As a teen became a marksmen and learned to ride horses• Went to Harvard• Boxed and wrestled at Harvard• Served in the New York State Assembly from 1882-1884
• Served as US Civil Service Commissioner from 1889-1895• Commissioner of the New York City Police from 1895-1897• Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1897-1898• Fought in the Spanish- American War in 1898 as leader of the “Rough Riders”
• Governor of New York 1898-1900• Vice-President of the US in 1901• Served as President from 1901-1909• Wrote many history books• Owned and ran a ranch in the Dakota Territory• Avid hunter-African Safaris
Accomplishments as President• Used his personality, popularity and power of persuasion to get what he wanted• Believed that the federal government was there to help common people• Wanted to give everyone a “Square Deal”• Used the “bully pulpit” to influence media and help pass laws
• TR was the “trustbuster”• “good trusts” vs “bad trusts”• Helped settle the 1902 Coal strike in which miners got better pay and a nine hour workday• Passed the Elkins Act(1903-no rebates) and Hepburn Act(1906-ICC set max RR rates) which required railroads to be fair and just in their prices and practices• Passed the Meat Inspection Act-1906• Passed the Pure Food and Drug Act-1906• Newlands Act-1902-sold western land and made dams which allowed for irrigation• Conservation-map p. 323• Did not do much for African-Americans
Conservation Measures• Roosevelt condemned view that our “resources were endless”• T.R. set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves• 1.5 million acres of water-power sites• Established 50 wildlife sanctuaries and several national parks• Conservation- planned management of natural resources, involving the protection of some wilderness areas and the development of others
Theodore Roosevelt National Park—Badlands, N.D.
Willam Jennings Bryan vs William Howard Taft-1908 Election
William Howard Taft• Born September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, OH• Attended Yale College: New Haven, CT• Lawyer then Secretary of War• Never aimed at being president• After his presidency he was a Professor at Yale Law School• 1921, became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, which was his career goal• Only president to ever serve as Chief Justice• Only president to hold public office after leaving the White House
• “When I am addressed as ‘Mr. President,’ I turn to see whether you are not at my elbow.” – W.H. Taft• Taft never really felt like he was the president; always in Roosevelt’s shadow
Why was Taft Not Liked?• Not as energetic and well liked as Roosevelt• Not good at using the “Bully Pulpit”• Promised to lower tariffs but actually increased many with the Payne-Aldrich Tariff upsetting progressives• Appointed wealthy lawyer Richard Ballinger to Secretary of the Interior who removed land TR set aside for conservation• Supported Speaker of the House Joe Cannon who was anti-progressive
Federal Income Tax • 16th Amendment passed 2-3-13 • Legalized a graduated federal income tax • Provided $$ to the GOV’T by taxing individual earnings and corporate profits
Republican Party Split• Due to these problems with Taft, the Republicans split into old-guard republicans and progressive republicans• TR did not get the Republican nomination so he decided to run as a third party candidate in the Progressive Party(Bull Moose Party)• Why would this split guarantee a democrat win?
Bull-Moose Platform• Direct Election of Senators• Initiative, Referendum, Recall in all states• Woman Suffrage• Worker’s Compensation• 8 hour workday• Minimum wage for women• Federal Law against child labor
It Gets Nasty!!• During the campaign before the election, both Roosevelt & Taft take shots at each other• Taft called T.R. a “dangerous egotist”• Roosevelt branded Taft as “Fat Head with the brain of a guinea pig”• Wilson’s quote: “Don’t interfere when your enemy is destroying himself”
Election of 1912• Election offered several choices: – Wilson’s New Freedom – Taft’s Conservatism – Roosevelt’s Progressivism – Debs’ Socialism• Republican Split gives Wilson the presidency• Republican voters split between Taft & Roosevelt• Democrats voted for Wilson• Wilson only received 42% of the popular vote, but won 435 electoral votes• Roosevelt finished 2nd with 4.1 million votes
Wilson’s Background• Grew up in the South after the Civil War & Reconstruction• Son, Grandson, and Nephew of Presbyterian Ministers—strict upbringing• Before entering politics, Wilson worked as: – Lawyer – History Professor – President of Princeton University – Governor of N.J.
Wilson’s Accomplishments• Passed Clayton Anti-Trust Act(1914) – Could break up monopolies -Labor Unions were given the right to exist -Strikes, boycotts, picketing etc became legal• Federal Trade Commission was established in 1914 – Investigated companies for monopolistic practices
• Underwood Tariff(1913) drastically cut tariff rates for the first time since the Civil War
Federal Reserve System• America needed stronger banks• Federal Reserve Act of 1913• Divided the nation into 12 districts regional central bank in each district• “Bankers Bank”• Federal Reserve banks could issue new paper money in emergency situations• Also, helped with giving out loan $$• Banks within the system helped others from closing due to lack of money
Federal Reserve System• Controls the U.S. money supply and the availability of credit in the country• One of President Wilson’s most enduring achievements• We use this same system today as the basis of the nation’s banking system
• 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments were passed during his term – Direct election of senators(1913) – Prohibition(1919) – Women’s Vote(1920) *Led US during Mexican Crisis and WWI **Developed Missionary Diplomacy *African-Americans were for the most part ignored by Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson and the Progressive Movement *Wilson reinstated segregation in Washington D.C. and also started segregation in the US military.
The Twilight of Progressivism• Roosevelt, Taft, and the early part of Wilson’s presidencies marked the golden age of Progressivism within the United States• Question: Do you think the progressives accomplished very much?• World War I would dominate Wilson’s 2nd term and brought Progressivism to an end