Allied Intelligence• Churchill and Roosevelt knew the importance of intelligence in safeguarding Allied commerce to defeat the Axis powers.• The Anglo-American Allies shared information derived from newly developed technologies like RADAR and High Frequency Radio Direction Finding (HF/DF or "huff duff").• RADAR provided a means of detecting vessels and aircraft above the surface• HF/DF was used to locate the sources of enemy radio transmissions such as submarines.• Working together, British and American trackers exploited special intelligence to locate Axis forces with extreme precision.• Allied intelligence leaders began sharing code-breaking secrets, known as "very special intelligence" and classified under cover-names like "ULTRA" and "MAGIC".
Enigma• System in which Germany transferred their information through codes• Solving the Enigma system remains one of the great Allied triumphs of World War II• During periods when Allied cryptanalysts were unable to solve Enigma, U-boats caused great damage to Anglo-American commerce
Hunter-KillersHunter-Killers Chasing down an Axis Submarine—USS Pillsbury (DE 133) and USS Guadalcanal (CVE 60)U.S. Navy photograph in the collections of The Mariners Museum
Depth Charges• Bomb Bay Showing Depth Bombs and Sonobuoys inside a TBF "Avenger" U.S. Navy photograph in the collections of The Mariners Museum
Allied Hunter-Killer Escorts Conducting a Depth Charge Attack on a U-BoatU.S. Navy photograph in the collections of The Mariners Museum
• Hunter-Killer Grumman TBF "Avenger" Configured for Antisubmarine Warfare U.S. Navy photograph in the collections of The Mariners Museum
U-Tanker U-118 under Attack by U.S. Navy Aircraft, November 5, 1943U.S. Navy photograph in the collections of The Mariners Museum
Watch the Capture of U-505The Battle of the Atlantic: Allied Naval Intelligence in World War II
Hunter-Killer Grumman TBF "Avenger" Preparing to LaunchU.S. Navy photograph in the collections of The Mariners Museum
Operation Barbarosa• The greatest land war in recorded history began at 3:30 a.m. on June 22, 1941.• The initial German front was 995 miles long, and there was another 620 miles along the Finnish border.• The main front would soon expand to 1490 miles and extend to a depth of over 600 miles.• In to this great space of steppe, forest and swamp marched the best of the German Army, amounting to three quarters of its field strength.• By the end of the year, 3,500,000 Red Army soldiers were in captivity and 4,000,000 had died in battle.• At one time the Germans occupied some 900,000 square miles of Soviet territory.
German Wehrmacht(Army)• German Army in USSR was split:• 1. Army Group North whose main goal was Leningrad• 2. Army Group Centre whose main goal was Moscow• 3. Army Group South whose main goals were Rostov, the Caucasus Mts, the Crimean Peninsula and Stalingrad
Operation Uranus: German 6th Army Trapped in StalingradNovember 19, 1942 - February 6, 1943
Operation Winter Storm: Attempt to Relieve 6th ArmyBattle of Stalingrad: December 12-18, 1942
Soviet Pursuit After Stalingrad... German CounteroffensiveJanuary 13 - March 26, 1943
• “By any measure the battle of Stalingrad was one of the bloodiest, arguably the largest single battle in human history. It raged for 200 days. More than 100,000 German and Axis troops died during the first phase of the battle in 1942 alone. More than 100,000 Romanians, and 87,000 Italians perished when the Soviets launched their counter-offensive. After that, another 300,000 Germans were killed or captured when the Soviets sealed the ring around the city. Thousands more died in the German attempt to relieve the 6th Army. Of the 500,000 German and fellow Axis troops that began the battle, only 92,000 were ever captured alive. The others were either missing in action, killed in action, died of starvation, exposure or disease. Soviet defenders meanwhile suffered up to a total of 1,000,000 dead, wounded and missing during the defense of Stalingrad, the counter-offensive, the defense of the ring and the clearing of the pocket. More than 100,000 Soviet civilians died in Stalingrad and its suburbs.”
Battle of Leningrad• On August 30th 1941, the Germans took over Leningrads railroads, cutting them off from the rest of Russia and the world.• the only way for Leningrad to get supplies was through airdrop or crossing Lake Ladoga.• Between November 1941 and October 1942, 641,000 people died of starvation.• People resorted to eating rats, wallpaper paste and in some cases human flesh.• Finally, a successful Russian counter-offensive at Stalingrad, drained necessary resources the Germans needed to continue the blockade, and eventually, it failed.• The Germans never took Leningrad, but it was one of the most costly conflicts Russia had ever faced.
North African Campaign• Took place in North Africa from June, 1940 to May, 1943• Took place in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts also in Morocco, Algeria and ended in Tunisia• The campaign was fought between the Allies(GB, France, US) and Axis Powers(Germany, Italy, Vichy French)• The area was in conflict due to colonial interests dating back to the late 1800’s• The United States began direct military assistance in North Africa in May, 1942
BATTLE FACTS• The coldest, snowiest weather “in memory” in theArdennes Forest on the German/Belgium border.• Over a million men, 500,000 Germans, 600,000Americans (more than fought at Gettysburg) and 55,000British.• 100,000 German casualties, killed, wounded orcaptured.• 81,000 American casualties, including 23,554captured and 19,000 killed.• 1,400 British casualties 200 killed.• 800 tanks lost on each side, 1,000 German aircraft.• The Malmedy Massacre, where 86 American soldierswere murdered, was the worst atrocity committedagainst American troops during the course of the war inEurope.• In its entirety, the “Battle of the Bulge,” was the worstbattles- in terms of losses - to the American Forces inWWII.