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  1. 1. CognitionEncoding Information<br />
  2. 2. Information Processing<br />Sensory Memory<br />Working Memory<br />Long-term Memory<br />In order to put information in our long-term memory, we must ENCODE it.<br />
  3. 3. Ways to Encode: Mnemonic Devices<br />Acronyms- Form of abbreviation<br /> Example: ROY G BIV for the colors of the rainbow<br />Chain Mnemonics- connect items to be memorized in a jingle. <br /> Example: i before e, except after c<br />Keyword method- Associating sounds/images with concepts. <br /> Example: student learning spanish remembers the word for cow, vaca, by imagining a cow on vacation<br />Loci Method- Associating items with locations in familiar settings.<br /> Example: to remember grocery list, picture items sitting around the house (milk in the fridge, ect.)<br />
  4. 4. Ways to Encode: Mnemonic Devices Continued…<br />Peg-type Method- Associate things you already know to the new information.<br /> Example: Connecting items on your grocery list to words that rhyme with numbers. 1-bun, your first item is blueberries, so you associate that with bun (buns are raining down on blue bears) and then rhyme that with the number one.<br />Verbal Mediation-Using a word or phrase to connect two pieces of information.<br /> Example: the principal is my pal-use to remember the spelling of the end of that form of the word<br />
  5. 5. Ways to Encode: Visual Imagery<br />Involves constructing mental pictures<br />
  6. 6. Dividing Broad Concepts into narrower concepts and facts.<br />Ways to Encode: Hierarchies<br />
  7. 7. Encoding for Problem Solving<br />Algorithm- a prescribed sequence of steps for achieving a goal.<br /> Example: a2 + b2 = c2<br />Heuristic- general problem-solving strategy that might lead to a right answer or to a solution that usually is reasonably close to the best possible answer.<br /> Example: PEMDAS– order of opperations<br />
  8. 8. Sources<br />Facts/Information borrowed from:<br />EdPsych Modules by Lisa Bohlin, Cheryl CiseroDurwin, and Marla Reese-Weber, Modules 11, 13-14<br />Additional Information on Peg-Type Method:<br /><br />
  9. 9. Sensory Memory <br />Can hold an unlimited amount of information for a very short time<br />
  10. 10. What do we tend to pay attention to?<br />Size<br />Intensity<br />Novelty<br />Incongruity<br />Emotion<br />Personal Significance<br />What do students tend to pay attention to?<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Story Time<br />
  13. 13. Working Memory<br />Holds information about 30 seconds <br />Rehearsal <br />Why is it hard for slow readers to understand what they are reading?<br />
  14. 14. Miller’s Magic Seven<br />9 5 2 8 4 9 0 3 6 5 8 3<br />5 7 1 2 1 9 3 1 5 0 8 1<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1<br />
  15. 15. Maintenance and Elaborative Rehearsal <br />
  16. 16. Student Presentation<br />
  17. 17. Serial-Position Effect<br />We are more likely to remember things at the first and last. <br />Acrostic—Every Good Boy Does Fine<br />
  18. 18. Long Term Memory<br />Retains unlimited amounts of memory for an indefinite amount of time. <br />
  19. 19. Types of Knowledge<br />Explicit <br />Implicit (Tacit)<br />Why is Michel Jordan a terrible basketball coach?<br />
  20. 20. Types of Knowledge<br />Episodic <br />Declarative<br />Procedural<br />Conceptual<br /><ul><li>What
  21. 21. What
  22. 22. How
  23. 23. When and why</li></li></ul><li>Retrieval: Recall vs. Recognition <br />Knife<br />Hole punch<br />Pill bottle <br />Tape<br />Big Ben <br />Mount Rushmore<br />New Moon Movie<br />Notebook<br />Address Book<br />Phonebook<br />Microphone <br />Staples <br />The Book Thief<br />Binder<br />BYU Arts brochure <br />Spoon <br />Lincoln Memorial<br />Jefferson Monument <br />Roster <br />Headphones <br />Happy Birthday Sign<br />Post-it notes<br />Staple Remover<br />Staples <br />Alarm clock <br />Bowl<br />Washington Monument<br />
  24. 24. Recognition<br />Knife<br />Hole punch<br />Pill bottle <br />Tape<br />Big Ben<br />Mount Rushmore<br />New Moon Movie<br />Notebook<br />Address Book<br />Phonebook<br />Microphone<br />Staples <br />The Book Thief<br />Binder<br />BYU Arts brochure <br />Spoon <br />Lincoln Memorial<br />Jefferson Monument <br />Roster <br />Headphones <br />Happy Birthday Sign<br />Post-it notes<br />Staple Remover<br />Staples <br />Alarm clock <br />Bowl<br />Washington Monument<br />
  25. 25. Transfer<br />Automaticity is important for Low-road<br />Mindful abstraction is for high-road<br />
  26. 26. Obstacles to Transfer <br />Functional Fixedness<br />Response (Mental) Set <br />Belief Perseverance<br />
  27. 27. Problem based learning (PBL), and functional fixedness ill or well defined problems?<br />
  28. 28. How should you study?<br />Mass practice vs. Distributed practice <br />Semantics<br /><br />
  29. 29. How should we teach? Anyone…<br />