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Rise New Leaders & Ideas - Europe 1930s
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Rise New Leaders & Ideas - Europe 1930s


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  • 1. Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s
  • 2. Who Would You Vote For? Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy
  • 3. Contestant #3 Contestant #2 Who Did You Vote For? Contestant #1
  • 4. Treaty of Versailles Black Tuesday 1929 - stock market crashes Great Depression during 1930s Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control - For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator Totalitarianism
  • 5.
    • What is it?
    • Describe its characteristics…
  • 6.
    • Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)
    • Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)
    • Strict controls and laws
    • Military state (secret police, army, military)
    • Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)
    • Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)
    • One leader (dictator); charismatic
    • Total conformity of people to ideas and leader
    • Terror and Fear
  • 7. *These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism Nazism Fascism Communism
  • 8.  
  • 9. Communism
    • I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953.
    • What is Communism?
    • based on theory by Karl Marx
    • revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”
    • state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)
    • Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism
  • 10. Fascism
    • I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.
    • What is Fascism?
    • intense nationalism and elitism
    • totalitarian control
    • interests of the state more important than individual rights
    • maintain class system and private ownership
    Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an axe.
  • 11. Nazism
    • I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
    • What is Nazism?
    • extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian
    • based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party
    • belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”
    • belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe
    • Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them
  • 12. Nazi Controls
  • 13.
    • GESTAPO : the Secret State Police
    • SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA
    • SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties
    • Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east
    • Wehrmacht : German army
    • HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth
    • Einstazgruppen : Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units
    • Volk: all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying the superiority of German culture and race; led to policy of Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies and programs)
    Nazi Military State
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. “ The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.
  • 19.  
  • 20. Policy of Appeasement
    • Appeasement
    • willingness to surrender to an aggressors’ demands to avoid war
    • How was it used prior to World War II?
    • Acceptance that Hitler could not be stopped and needed to be negotiated with [even at the expense of the smaller independent countries]
    • Accepted because of sympathy and guilt felt by Britain and USA of unjust Treaty of Versailles
    • Reality
    • Blindness to true nature of Hitler’s agenda program for Eastern Europe
    • Irony= policy used to avoid war but empowered Hitler to continue his aggressive campaign . The only way to stop Hitler was to declare war.
  • 21. How did World War II begin? How did appeasement contribute to World War II? STEPS TO WAR
  • 22.  
  • 23. Reflect
    • Was the Treaty of Versailles truly the cause of World War II? Or appeasement?
    • What do we have to remember about hindsight when examining history?
    • Could Hitler have been ‘stopped’ at any time prior to 1939?
    • What was Canada’s view of appeasement and another potential war? What was “isolationism?”