Rise New Leaders & Ideas - Europe 1930sPresentation Transcript
Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s
Who Would You Vote For? Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy
Contestant #3 Contestant #2 Who Did You Vote For? Contestant #1
Treaty of Versailles Black Tuesday 1929 - stock market crashes Great Depression during 1930s Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control - For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator Totalitarianism
What is it?
Describe its characteristics…
Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)
*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism Nazism Fascism Communism
I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953.
What is Communism?
based on theory by Karl Marx
revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”
state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)
Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism
I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.
What is Fascism?
intense nationalism and elitism
interests of the state more important than individual rights
maintain class system and private ownership
Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an axe.
I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
What is Nazism?
extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian
based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party
belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”
belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe
Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them
GESTAPO : the Secret State Police
SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA
SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties
Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east
Wehrmacht : German army
HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth
Einstazgruppen : Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units
Volk: all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying the superiority of German culture and race; led to policy of Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies and programs)
Nazi Military State
This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. “ The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.
Policy of Appeasement
willingness to surrender to an aggressors’ demands to avoid war
How was it used prior to World War II?
Acceptance that Hitler could not be stopped and needed to be negotiated with [even at the expense of the smaller independent countries]
Accepted because of sympathy and guilt felt by Britain and USA of unjust Treaty of Versailles
Blindness to true nature of Hitler’s agenda program for Eastern Europe
Irony= policy used to avoid war but empowered Hitler to continue his aggressive campaign . The only way to stop Hitler was to declare war.
How did World War II begin? How did appeasement contribute to World War II? STEPS TO WAR
Was the Treaty of Versailles truly the cause of World War II? Or appeasement?
What do we have to remember about hindsight when examining history?
Could Hitler have been ‘stopped’ at any time prior to 1939?
What was Canada’s view of appeasement and another potential war? What was “isolationism?”