Winnipeg General Strike - 1919 relationship between Canadian workers & employers becoming explosive unions had grown stronger during the war Winnipeg Trades & Labour Union wanted better wages, working conditions, and recognition of their collective bargaining rights Bloody Saturday - June 21, 1929; violence erupted
Political Change after WWI Borden resigned due to poor health after WWI Arthur Meighen became the leader of the Conservatives and Canada’s 9th Prime Minister Mackenzie King and Meighen dominated politics in the 1920s They disliked each other A LOT.
A New Look at GovernmentWilliam Lyon Mackenzie King Arthur Meighen Liberal ConservativeReformer, conciliatory, always looking Believed in principles overfor the middle path that would offend compromise, didnt care who might be the least number of people offended by his stand on issues
Arthur Meighen - Conservative Helped draft Military Service Act - conscription Authored War Measures Act which allowed Cabinet to govern by decree 1919, Meighen crushed the Winnipeg General Strike by 1920, the recession hit and Meighen was now pitted against a wide range of groups (workers, farmers, immigrants, and Quebecers)
Mackenzie King - Liberal Mackenzie King gets elected in 1921 Liberals won 118 seats Conservatives won 48 seats Progressives won 59 seats Mackenize King wins 1925 election with a slim minority government > coalition with Progressives Mackenize King would remain Prime Minister for 22 of the next 27 years
King-Byng Affair 1926 – Conservatives accuse Liberals & Mackenzie King of taking bribes from rum- runners who were smuggling alcohol into the U.S. Liberal party looses support and coalition government fails King asks Governor General Byng (British appointed) to dissolve parliament and call an election
King-Byng Affair (continued) Byng refuses, and makes Meighen’s Conservatives the government. Within days Meighen’s government is defeated and an election is called. King resigns – protesting against a British appointed Governor General rejecting the request of a Prime Minister 1926 King wins the election – King promises to loosen ties with Britain – never again will a British appointed Governor General over-ride a Canadian democratically elected Prime Minister
King-Byng Affair (continued) Lord Byng William Lyon Mackenzie King Governor General Prime Minister
New Challenges to Federalism Regionalism – the concern of the various regions of the country with their own local problems The Maritime provinces faced declining influence in national politics. Newly developed energy resources, such as oil & hydroelectricity, destroyed the market for Maritime coal. Businesses and banks relocated to Ontario and Quebec
New Challenges to Federalism Western farmers were frustrated with National policy Farmers felt alienated by economic policies that benefitted manufacturers in central Canada They were forced to buy more expensive Canadian-made machinery, without any similar protection for their products that were sold on the open world market
Changing Social Attitudes 1920’s : Years of contrast, conflict and change After the post-war recession Canada’s economy seemed to boom New inventions, new forms or entertainment – challenged old values and led to often defiant and bold attitudes and outlooks
Changing Social Attitudes 1920’s fashion 1900-1919 fashion
Social Problems Gap between rich and poor remained large Immigration increased creating a backlash of intolerance and a challenge to national identity Women earned the right to vote and hold office although they had to go to Britain to ask permission to do so Canada’s Native Peoples forced into a program of assimilation
Prohibition 1915-1917 all provinces except Quebec had prohibition – as part of our War Effort. Prohibition ended in most provinces by the early 1920’s In the U.S. – Prohibition – 1920-1933 Prohibition reduced alcohol by 80% Illegal distilling, sales & consumption of alcohol took off! Created tension between Canada and the U.S. as prohibition laws are hard to enforce
Jazz U.S. Radio – broadcast up-to-date music, fashion and cultural trends up to Canada Jazz – African American music from Louisiana Jazz night-clubs popped up in all major cities (Montreal)
Jazz (continued) New dance crazes – Charleston, Fox Trot, Lindy Flapper – fashionable young women who defied the old conventions of proper “feminine” behaviour. They scandalized the public by abandoning Victorian era clothing Flappers wore beaded dresses to their knees, cut their hair short and smoked, drank and danced in public
Immigration: Backlash andNecessity 1919, 20% population were immigrants during post-war recession, jobs were scarce – backlash against immigrants (perceived as taking jobs)
Immigration: Backlash andNecessity (continued) Immigration Act 1919 – preferred list. Those who had “peculiar” customs, language and habits were undesirable – seen as difficult to assimilate1. White, English speaking Britons and Americans2. Northern Europeans3. Central and Eastern Europeans4. Asians, Blacks, Gypsies and Jews Those that benefited from cheap labour protested the Act (president of CPR)
Residential School and NativeResistance Government policy: To protect / to assimilate Aboriginal self-government not recognized banned cultural expression: Potlatch 1884-1951, cultural dress, dance
Residential School and NativeResistance Residential School: Prepare Native children for assimilation - far from children’s communities - students forbidden from speaking their native language - severely punished for defiance - hair cut, uniforms (no individuality) - Christian, white value, curriculum - Taught menial skills, maximum grade 5 level
Residential School and NativeResistance Schools under funded: quality of diet, health care, sanitation Horrendous abuses went unchecked Outcome: Students graduated not belonging to their native or white communities – displaced
Residential School and NativeResistanceResistance Frederick Ogilvie Loft – Mohawk chief and WW1 veteran. Attempted to get government to do something about conditions faced by First Nation’s Peoples Helped establish League of Indians in 1920 – pushed for the right of Native peoples to vote, without losing their Indian status
Can. Gov. Apology – June 2008Residential SchoolPrime Minister Stephen Harper:"Today, we recognize that thispolicy of assimilation was wrong,has caused great harm, and hasno place in our country,“"The government now recognizesthat the consequences of theIndian residential schools policywere profoundly negative and thatthis policy has had a lasting anddamaging impact on aboriginalculture, heritage and language,"Harper said.
Getting the Vote and WinningOfficeFederalEnfranchisement inCanada: Spearheaded in 1917 with the War- Time Elections act. By May 24, 1918 all women in Canada would have the federal vote.
The Person’s Case 1928-1929 1928, Despite being able to vote, women are still unable to hold public office (appointed positions) 1916, Emily Murphy is appointed Alberta Police Magistrate (judge). Male lawyers challenge this position. As a woman, they asserted, Murphy was not a “person” under British Law. Murphy joins with Louis McKinney to fight this law
Person’s Case (continued)Federal Government fails toappoint even one femalesenator during the 1920’s.Angered by this, HenriettaMuir Edwards, Irene Parlbyand Nelly McClung join EmilyMurphy and Louis McKinneyto form the Famous Five.Together they push the“Person’s Case” all the wayto the Supreme Court ofCanada.
Person’s Case (continued)1928, The SupremeCourt of Canadaagrees unanimouslythat under the BNAAct women were notconsidered persons.
Person’s Case(continued)1929, The Famous Fivetake the “Person’s Case” tothe British Privy Council –the highest court ofappeal. The Privy Councilagreed with Murphy andruled that “not only werewomen persons under theConstitution, but toexclude women fromappointed public office wasa relic of days morebarbarous than ours.”
Person’s Case(continued)Feb 20, 1930:Prime MinisterMackenzie Kingappoints CairineWilson, a Liberalsupporter, asCanada’s firstfemale Senator. Cairine Wilson 1885-1962
Prosperity in the 1920s During the war, Canada’s resource industries and manufacturing operated at full capacity Wartime boom meant that Canadian cities grew Canadian farmers prospered, providing food for countries whose own agricultural industries suffered during the war
From the farms to the cities Three factors helped shape Canada and its economy in the 1920s: tariffs and freight rates increasing mechanization tariff protectionism - had serious consequences in Canada and around the world government increased freight rates under pressure from railroad companies
Consumerism – Shop! With the good times in the 1920s came a lot of new consumer products. mass media turned into mass advertising > Canadians bombarded with messages in flyers and catalogues, newspapers and magazines, and on the radio to SHOP and buy products. consumerism – disposable income
Canadian Culture The Group of Seven – Canadian wilderness landscape artists: J. E. H. MacDonald; Frank Johnston; Franklin Carmichael; A. Y. Jackson; Arthur Lismer; Fred Varley; Lawren Harris Determined to paint Canada in a new and distinctive manner, the Group despite their fears met with critical acclaim and much public acceptance. influenced Emily Carr
Humour and Heartbreak Stephen Leacock was perhaps the major figure in Canadian arts and letters in 1920s. Leacock was born in England in 1869, but raised on a farm in Ontario. His masterpiece, Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town, is a satire set in the fictional rural Ontario town of Mariposa.
Golden Age of Sports sports dominated by amateurs Bluenose was a Canadian fishing and racing schooner from Nova Scotia built in 1921; won the International Fishermans Trophy in 1921 Growth of hockey as the new national pastime, which influenced cities and towns across the nation; Americans contributed 3 teams to the National Hockey League – NHL founded in 1917 The Edmonton Grads dominated womens basketball from 1915-1940; the team played 522 games and lost only 20. They represented Canada at four Olympics (1924-1936) and won 27 consecutive games.
1928 Olympics Sprinter Percy Williams won gold medals in 100- and 200-metre races; Olympic superstar greeted back in Canada by parades and celebrations across the country Women were allowed to compete in track & field for the first time; Canadian women did very well Ethel Catherwood (nicknamed the "Saskatoon Lily") won the Olympic gold medal for high jump. Bobbie Rosenfeld (Canadas top female athlete for the 1st half of the 20th century) won a silver medal in the 100-metre race and gold medal in the womens 400- metre relay.
Fears of U.S. Cultural Domination Between 1919-1929, Canadian culture flourished, but Canada also experienced ever-increasing influence from its southern neighbour, the U.S. With the mass popularity of radio and motion pictures, Canada was flooded with US radio programs and films. Canada had pioneered the radio; first radio programs in North America were broadcast in 1919 from station XWA in Montreal. Growth of radio broadcasts in Canada meant that in 1929 there were approximately 400000 homes with radios, compared to only 10000 in 1922.