Great Awakening• A period of history that saw: An increase in religious tolerance• An increase in religious practice An increase in ideas of equality
The Declaration of Independence• Said that people were endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights. This means rights that cannot be taken away.• It went on the say that if government tried to take rights away from people, the people could establish a new government.
The Articles of Confederation• First government of the United States Gave more power to the states instead of the national government.• Did not give the government the power to tax.
Shays’ Rebellion• Rebellion caused by high taxes on farmers.• Showed the need for a strong national government
The Constitution• The fundamental laws of the United States. Changes are called amendments• Has a system of checks and balances so that one branch of government does not get too strong.
First AmendmentProtects the rights of freedom ofspeech, press, assembly, religion, andpetition.
Three-Fifths CompromiseCounted slaves as three-fifths of aperson for the purposes of taxation andrepresentation
FederalismThe practice of sharing power betweenthe states and federal government
Jefferson vs. Hamilton• The result of the dispute between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton was the creation of political parties. Hamilton wanted the economy to be based on manufacturing.• Jefferson wanted the economy to be based on agriculture.• Hamilton represented the Federalist Party.• Jefferson represented the Democratic- Republican Party.
Powers of Congress• Declare war Create money• Collect taxes
Washington’s Farewell AddressWashington warned against thecreation of political parties andalliances with other nations.
Judicial ReviewThe power of the Supreme Court tooverturn laws that they feel areunconstitutional
James Fennimore Cooper• Author of Last of the Mohicans• Best remembered for his story of frontier life
Women’s Suffrage MovementThe Women’s Suffrage Movementwanted women to have as many rightsas men.
What is the belief that said that theUnited States was meant to spread across the continent? Manifest destiny
What was the main cause of the War of 1812?mpressment of American sailors
What was the spoilssystem and who used it?• In the spoils system, President Jackson appointed his political supporters to government jobs.
What was the main purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition?• To explore the Louisiana Territory
What did the Monroe Doctrine state?That the United States would not allow any European interference in the western hemisphere
Which area on the map was gained by the U.S. in 1848 as a result of the Mexican-America War?
Missouri Compromise• The North and South had kept the balance of free and slave states. This was threatened when Missouri was going to join the Union as a slave state. To keep the balance, Maine was brought into the Union at the same time. The Missouri Compromise maintained the balance between slave and free states
Compromise of 1850• In 1850, there was another problem with free and slave states. All of the territory won in the war with Mexico would become states soon. The issue was solved by allowing California into the Union as a free state, and having the territories of New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah decide the issue of slavery themselves. California was admitted to the Union as a free state.
The Dred Scott Case• Dred Scott was a slave. His owner took him to a free state in the North.• Scott sued for his freedom because he was in a free state.• The case went all the way to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was a slave and therefore property, so he could not sue. The court also said that Congress could not ban slavery in the territories.
Who was Frederick Douglass?• A runaway slave An abolitionist• Writer of an abolitionist newspaper called The North Star
Who was Harriet Tubman?An abolitionistand leader of theUndergroundRailroad
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?• An abolitionist leader and editor of the influential abolitionist newspaper The Liberator
What do Harriet Tubman,William Lloyd Garrison, andFrederick Douglass have in common?They were all abolitionists.
How did Henry Clay’s American System try to improve thetransportation system in the U.S.?By creating more canals and roads
What right did women lose between 1777 and 1851?
The cotton gin was invented in 1793.Look at the chart below. What was the long term effect of this invention?
The Emancipation ProclamationThe Emancipation Proclamationdeclared that slaves in the Confederatestates would be free.
NullificationThe idea that states have the right toreject laws made by Congress is callednullification.
54th Massachusetts RegimentMade up one of the first African-American regiments in the Civil War.
Battle of Gettysburg• Was the turning point of the war Confederate army never invaded the North again• Lee lost nearly 1/3 of his army.
14th and 15th amendments• The goal of the 14th and 15th amendments was to give rights to formerly enslaved persons
Freedmen’s Bureau• Helped resolve disputes between whites and blacks Set up schools for newly freed slaves• Provided relief for those people displaced by the war.
New technology in the Civil War• deadlier cannons and bullets ironclad warships• more accurate rifles
Reconstruction• The immediate goal of Reconstruction was to bring the Southern states back into the Union.• The goal of the 14th and 15th amendments was to give rights to formerly enslaved persons.
Reconstruction• The Freedmen’s Bureau helped resolve conflicts between blacks and whites.• They set up schools for newly freed slaves.• Provided relief for those people hurt by the war.• Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses were designed by Southern lawmakers prevent African-Americans from voting.