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Sci Methodshortened
 

Sci Methodshortened

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    Sci Methodshortened Sci Methodshortened Presentation Transcript

    • Scientific Method
    • Beginnings
      • Aristotle (384 BCE-322 BCE or BC)
      • ancient Greek philosopher
      • Aristotle was so famous that his work influenced thinking in the Western world from his time to the present.
      • This was fine when he was right. But he was so influential that his mistakes were never noticed.
      • Aristotle and his contemporaries believed that all problems could be solved by thinking about them.
      • Sometimes this worked, other times it did not.
      • For example, Aristotle thought that heavy objects would fall faster than lighter ones.
      • Now that does seem reasonable at first. And this is how “science” was done in ancient times.
      • But what did Aristotle not do?
      • He never tested his ideas!
      • The world would have to wait almost 2000 years for that to happen.
    • Galileo Galilei
      • 1564-1642 AD or CE
      • Lived in what is today Italy
      • Is considered to be the first true scientist.
      • Why????
      • Because he actually did the experiment.
      • Aristotle said that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones.
      • So Galileo asked, “How much faster?”
      • So he sent students up to the top of a building and had them drop a heavy ball and a lighter one off at the same time. He had other students waiting below to measure the difference in time between the two hitting the ground.
      • Today of course we know what happened. Much to everyone’s surprise both balls hit the ground at about the same time!
      • This shows that it is much preferred to test your ideas rather than merely think about them.
      • One test is worth a thousand expert opinions. Bill Nye
    • Key Idea
      • When conducting an experiment, change one factor and keep everything else exactly the same.
      • The one thing you change is called the variable.
      • All the things you keep the same are called controls.
    • Galileo’s Experiment
      • What was the variable in Galileo’s experiment?
      • The weight of the balls.
      • What were some controls?
      • Dropped from same height.
      • Dropped at same time.
      • Balls had same shape/size.
    • Review
    • Scientific Method Steps
      • State the problem.
      • Make a hypothesis.
      • Conduct the experiment.
      • Record/analyze data.
      • Make a conclusion.
      • Report findings to others so they can repeat the experiment.
    • Hypothesis
      • a prediction
      • Use “If”, “then” format
      • We predict that if we drop a ball from a higher height, then it will bounce higher.
      • “ If” is the manipulated variable.
      • “ Then” is the responding variable.
    • Observations
      • Observations: We use our senses to gather information about the world around us. There are two types of observations.
    • Qualitative
      • Qualitative observation: (quality) Usually made with our senses.
      • Color, shape, feel, taste, sound.
      • Olivia is wearing a blue sweater.
      • The lab tabletop is smooth.
      • The dog’s fur is shiny.
    • Quantitative
          • Quantitative observation: (quantity) How many. Will always have a number.
          • Based on exact measurement.
          • The room is 8 meters across.
          • Sarah is 141-cm tall.
          • Sam weighs 450 Newtons.
    • Identify the Variables
            • Independent Variable - (the thing you changed)
              • Goes on the X axis (horizontal)
              • Should be on the left side of a data table.
            • Dependent Variable - (changes with the independent variable)
              • Goes on the Y axis (vertical)
              • Should be on the right side of a data table.