CHANGEMANAGEMENT                 Prepared by :-                Mehul Rasadiya    (K.K.Parekh Institute of Management Studi...
MODULE 1SETTING THE CONTEXT                       Mehul Rasadiya
MODULE 1                PART 1The Change / Learning Process                                Mehul Rasadiya
Mehul Rasadiya
HOW DOES LEARNING / CHANGEBEGIN?•   Disconfirmation – information that things are not working, expectations are    not bei...
BASIC PROPOSITION ABOUTLEARNING•   Survival anxiety must be > learning anxiety.•   Learning method 1: Escalate survival an...
HOW TO REDUCE LEARNINGANXIETY AND CREATE“PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY”•   Involve the “change targets” in all the steps of the lea...
WHAT IS CHANGE MANAGEMENT?•   Gaining a mutual understanding of what we think    Change Management is…                    ...
DISCUSSION OF THE KEYCONCEPTS•   Conscious / unconscious•   Primary / secondary process•   Strategic Improvisation•   Dial...
MODULE 1               PART 2The Change Consultant                         Mehul Rasadiya
WHAT IS A CHANGE CONSULTANT?•   What characteristics underpin the role that we have    to perform?•   What function do we ...
THE DIFFERENT HELPING ROLES:1.   The Expert (Information Power)2.   The Doctor (Diagnostic Power)3.   The Process Consulta...
THE STRATEGIC GOALS OF PROCESSCONSULTATION1.   Provide help i.e. create a situation where the client will get     help.2. ...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION1.   Always try to be helpful.Obviously if I have no intention of being helpful and w...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION2. Always stay in touch with the current reality.I cannot be helpful if I cannot deci...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION3. Access your ignoranceThe only way I can discover my own inner reality is to learn ...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION4. Everything you do is an intervention.Just as every intervention reveals diagnostic...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION5.    The client owns the problem and the solution.My job is to create a relationship...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION6.    Go with the flow.In as much as I do not know the client’s reality, I must respe...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION7.    Timing is crucial.Over and over I have learned that the introduction of mypersp...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION8.  Be constructively opportunistic with confrontiveinterventions.When the client sig...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION9. Everything is a source of data; errors are inevitable– learn from them.No matter h...
TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION10.  When in doubt, share the problem.Inevitably there will be times in the relations...
MODULE 1                   PART 3The Facilitator                             Mehul Rasadiya
THE FACILITATOR FUNCTIONS•   Preparing•   Determining the group’s focus•   Fostering trust•   Assessing group process & pr...
THE METASKILLS OF THEFACILITATOR•   Compassion•   Mindfulness•   Neutrality / Following the Process•   Detachment / Dual A...
FACILITATION TECHNIQUES•   Using the flipchart effectively•   Sorting the field•   Noticing silent participants•   Climate...
MODULE 1                PART 4The Solution Finder                          Mehul Rasadiya
PROBLEM SOLVING - EDWARD DEBONO’S SIX THINKING HATS      White Hat               Yellow Hat   Facts, Information       Ben...
PROBLEM SOLVING - LEVELS OFTHINKING7 Creative Wisdom            Knowledge, Experience, Know - how, Ultimate               ...
THE CONCEPT OF MENTALMODELS“Mental models are deeply held internal images of howthe world works, images that limit us to f...
THE CONCEPT OF SYSTEMSTHINKINGSystems thinking is a discipline for seeing problemsholistically and for understanding how s...
THE ADVOCACY / INQUIRY MATRIX     High            Explaining              Mutual Learning             Imposing            ...
TYPES OF ACTIVE / INQUIRYQUESTIONSPure Exploratory InquiryPrompt the story and listen carefully and neutrally.•   Use sile...
TYPES OF ACTIVE / INQUIRYQUESTIONSExploratory Diagnostic InquiryStart to identify the issues i.e. diagnosing.Exploring emo...
TYPES OF ACTIVE / INQUIRYQUESTIONSConfrontive InquiryShare own ideas and “force” the client to think about the  situation ...
MODULE 1                PART 5Organisational and Business Context of Change                                     Mehul Rasa...
DECIPHERING THEORGANISATIONAL AND BUSINESSCONTEXTS OF CHANGE•   World-wide demographics•   Workforce demographics•   Techn...
DISCUSSION REGARDINGORGANISATIONAL AND BUSINESSCONTEXTS OF CHANGE•   What have been some major change initiatives that    ...
MODULE 2GENERICCHANGE TOOLS & TACTICS                         Mehul Rasadiya
MODULE 2               PART 1Change Management Methodology                                Mehul Rasadiya
I n business im provem ent proj ect s …   ChangeManagem entis about ……                                       Mehul Rasadiya
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
MODULE 2                PART 2GenericChange Tools & Tactics
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
OverviewLEADING CHANGEWhy bother?•   Strong committed leadership is critical to accelerating    change•   Leadership impac...
Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGETools and tactics include :•    Sponsorship strategy                              Mehul Ras...
Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGESponsorship strategy :•   What is a sponsor?          A person with the influence or respo...
Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGESponsorship strategy :•   Sponsor responsibilities might include the following:          D...
Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGESponsorship strategy :•   Sponsor action plan might include the following:                 ...
AssessmentLEADING CHANGETo what extent do our change leaders :•   Create a personal role for themselves in leading the cha...
PitfallsLEADING CHANGEChange efforts can potentially derail when :•   They fail to establish and clarify the key change ro...
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
OverviewCREATING A SHARED NEEDWhy bother?•   Forces any resistance or apathy to be addressed head-on.•   Validates why the...
Tools and TacticsCREATING A SHARED NEEDTools and tactics include :•   The Change implementation process and the change    ...
THE PROCESS OF CHANGEIMPLEMENTATION                            CHANGE OBJECTIVESInformation Gathering                     ...
CHANGE OBJECTIVES                                                          CHANGE OVERVIEW                                ...
CHANGE OBJECTIVES                                                                                              Y          ...
CHANGE OBJECTIVES                                                        CHANGE OVERVIEW                                  ...
CHANGE OBJECTIVES                                                                                                         ...
CHANGE OBJECTIVES                                                                CHANGE OVERVIEW                          ...
CHANGE OBJECTIVES                                                                        Y                                ...
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN AND                                                                      CHANGE OBJECTIVES            ...
AssessmentCREATING A SHARED NEED1.   Are all members of the project team aligned in terms of     the need to change?2.   H...
PitfallsCREATING A SHARED NEEDChange efforts can potentially derail when they :•   Fail to check for alignment and build t...
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
OverviewSHAPING A VISIONWhy bother?•   Visions paint a picture that appeals to both the “head” and    the “heart” and answ...
Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONTools and tactics include :•   Facilitating a visioning session                          ...
Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONFacilitating a visioning session :•   Prior to session – interview key stakeholders.     ...
Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONFacilitating a visioning session :•   Facilitating the session (2 days).          Start ...
Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONFacilitating a visioning session :•   Facilitating the session (2 days).          Engage...
AssessmentSHAPING A VISIONTo what extent :•   has a vision be clearly articulated for the project?•   is the vision simple...
PitfallsSHAPING A VISIONChange efforts can potentially derail when :•   Everyone has their own vision, and no effort is ma...
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
OverviewMOBILISING COMMITMENTWhy bother?•   Helps deliver a culture of individual accountability and    daily problem solv...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTTools and tactics include :•   Stakeholder analysis•   Change readiness•   Communica...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :•   A stakeholder is anyone who is impacted by or who impacts ...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :•   Stakeholder analysis is a starting point for understanding...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :•   Stakeholder analyses are best conducted by way of a 2 hour...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :•   Stakeholder analysis template    Stakeholder Group        ...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :•   Change readiness is the capacity of key stakeholders to    sup...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :•   The change readiness tool examines change readiness for    key...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – stages of concern :Stages of Concern                        Focus...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – stages of concern :•   Awareness Stage. Tactics are mainly around...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – stages of concern :•   Determining stage of concern is best condu...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – preparedness to support :•   Gauging support is best conducted by...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – ability to support :•   Refer to elements of a training & support...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :•     Change readiness plan template    Stakeholder   Stage of   P...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :•   The purpose of a communication strategy is to:         Define th...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy could include:Communication obje...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy (cont.):Guiding principles for e...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :Elements of a communications strategy (cont.):Communications planT...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy (cont.):Feedback mechanisms•   F...
Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy (cont.):Barriers to effective co...
AssessmentMOBILISING COMMITMENTHow well have you :•   Understood the needs and concerns of the people impacting    or impa...
PitfallsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange efforts can derail when :•   Too little information is shared with key stakeholders.• ...
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
OverviewMAKING CHANGE LASTWhy bother?•   Experience shows that successful, sustained change is difficult    to achieve wit...
Tools and TacticsMAKING CHANGE LASTTools and tactics include :•   Forcefield analysis•   Systems and Structures worksheet ...
Tools and TacticsMAKING CHANGE LASTForcefield analysis :             ENABLERS   RESTRAINERS                               ...
Tools and TacticsMAKING CHANGE LASTSystems and Structures worksheet :     Measurement        Reward        Staffing      D...
AssessmentMAKING CHANGE LASTTo what extent have we accurately estimated :•   The magnitude of the total change effort?•   ...
PitfallsMAKING CHANGE LASTChange efforts can potentially derail because  of ten classic implementation pitfalls :•   Under...
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
OverviewMONITORING PROGRESSWhy bother?•    An accurate measure of the project provides focus, direction and   momentum•   ...
Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSTools and tactics include :•   Characteristics of a good measurement system•   Robot s...
Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSCharacteristics of a good measurement system:1.   Completeness: The extent to which a ...
Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSUsing the ROBOT system to measure: One of the easy techniques to use for the tracking ...
Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report :•   Status reports track progress in:         Completing deliverables ...
Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report – effort and time:•       The GANNT chart is a well-known Project Manage...
Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report - risk:                                                 Area of Impact  ...
Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report - issues:    Issue                         Action to be                 ...
AssessmentMONITORING PROGRESS1.   Have we stated our objectives in concrete terms?2.   Have we translated these objectives...
PitfallsMONITORING PROGRESSChange efforts can potentially derail when they :•   Want results too soon and fail to look for...
CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL                          Leading Change          Creating a Shared Need              Sh...
OverviewCHANGING SYSTEMS ANDSTRUCTURESWhy bother?•   When the way we organise, train, develop, reward, compensate,    prom...
Six AspectsCHANGING SYSTEMS ANDSTRUCTURESChanging Systems & Structures involves  modifying:     (How we acquire / place ta...
Mehul Rasadiya
EXTRA DATAChange Implementation Process Model                                      Mehul Rasadiya
TWELVE “GOLDEN RULES” OFIMPLEMENTATION   Manage employee and customer expectations   Project manage and measure the proc...
THE IMPACT OF CHANGE (ITS CALLEDRESISTANCE)                                UNCERTAINTY       LACK OF     CONFIDENCE       ...
READINESS FOR CHANGE Readiness = D (Dissatisfaction) x V (Vision) x F (First steps) > R (Resistance)        Is there enoug...
THE CHANGE CURVE                                                                              INTERNALISATION             ...
RESPONSES  Awareness                                                            Full communication and explanation        ...
RESPONSES  Positive Perception   Reinforcement of the positive perception  Learning              Full training in the new ...
EFFECTS OF CHANGE   In most organisations, it requires a change in    management perspective and skill base as well as a ...
ACCORDING TO HAMMER AND CO:   Only 20-30% of all reengineering projects succeed   Only 23% of all mergers and acquisitio...
A model for organisational change(Kurt Lewin)                               Re-freezing    Unfreezing                 Chan...
UNFREEZING Creating motivation and readiness to changeTechniques to reinforce unfreezing . . .• Acknowledge feelings and e...
CHANGE & MOVEMENTGuiding through the transitionTechniques to reinforce   movement . . .• Provide focus and direction• Stre...
RE-FREEZINGIntegrating the new point of viewTechniques to reinforce re-freezing:• (before reverting to the old point of vi...
Why Do People Resist Change?•   The phrase, “overcoming resistance,” indicates an adversarial    relationship … since resi...
Why Resistance Occurs . . .• Resistance can occur because  people fear:                                                   ...
Three Steps to Dealing with Resistance • Step 1: Identify the form the resistance is taking:   –   Trust what you see more...
Dealing With Resistance: What Not To Do•   Fight the resistance           •   Expect approval, encouragement,             ...
Tactics to Minimise Resistance•   Explain why                                •   Provide appropriate training in new skill...
Summary: Dealing With Resistance• Resistance is inherent to change• To deal with resistance, you should be able to:   – Id...
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Change management

  1. 1. CHANGEMANAGEMENT Prepared by :- Mehul Rasadiya (K.K.Parekh Institute of Management Studies) (Amreli) Mehul Rasadiya
  2. 2. MODULE 1SETTING THE CONTEXT Mehul Rasadiya
  3. 3. MODULE 1 PART 1The Change / Learning Process Mehul Rasadiya
  4. 4. Mehul Rasadiya
  5. 5. HOW DOES LEARNING / CHANGEBEGIN?• Disconfirmation – information that things are not working, expectations are not being met creates…• Survival anxiety or guilt. The fear, shame or guilt associated with not learning something new. But the prospect of learning something new creates…• Learning anxiety. The feelings associated with an inability or unwillingness to learn something new because (1) it requires unlearning and temporary incompetence, (2) loss of power or status, (3) loss of group membership, (4) loss of identity.• Hence resistance to change. Mehul Rasadiya
  6. 6. BASIC PROPOSITION ABOUTLEARNING• Survival anxiety must be > learning anxiety.• Learning method 1: Escalate survival anxiety until it is greater than learning anxiety.• Learning method 2: Reduce learning anxiety until it is less than survival anxiety – create “psychological safety”. Mehul Rasadiya
  7. 7. HOW TO REDUCE LEARNINGANXIETY AND CREATE“PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY”• Involve the “change targets” in all the steps of the learning process.• Provide a vision of a path.• Provide a safe environment for learning (practice field).• Provide the time and resources necessary for learning.• Provide first steps and a direction.• Work in groups.• Provide coaching and help.• Reward small steps in the right direction.• Work in a supportive climate (norms that support error embracing). CHANGE MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS AIM TO CREATE PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY Mehul Rasadiya
  8. 8. WHAT IS CHANGE MANAGEMENT?• Gaining a mutual understanding of what we think Change Management is… Mehul Rasadiya
  9. 9. DISCUSSION OF THE KEYCONCEPTS• Conscious / unconscious• Primary / secondary process• Strategic Improvisation• Dialogue Mehul Rasadiya
  10. 10. MODULE 1 PART 2The Change Consultant Mehul Rasadiya
  11. 11. WHAT IS A CHANGE CONSULTANT?• What characteristics underpin the role that we have to perform?• What function do we perform in organisations?• What is our strategic relevance in organisations? Mehul Rasadiya
  12. 12. THE DIFFERENT HELPING ROLES:1. The Expert (Information Power)2. The Doctor (Diagnostic Power)3. The Process Consultant (Process Power) Mehul Rasadiya
  13. 13. THE STRATEGIC GOALS OF PROCESSCONSULTATION1. Provide help i.e. create a situation where the client will get help.2. Create a situation in which information will surface that will permit both consultant and client to understand better what may be going on – “diagnostic intervention.”3. Create a situation in which the client will at all times feel ownership of the problem. Client and consultant become an intervention team. Mehul Rasadiya
  14. 14. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION1. Always try to be helpful.Obviously if I have no intention of being helpful and working atit, it is unlikely to lead to a helping relationship. In general, Ihave found in all human relationships that the intention to behelpful is the best guarantee of a relationship that is rewardingand leads to mutual learning. Mehul Rasadiya
  15. 15. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION2. Always stay in touch with the current reality.I cannot be helpful if I cannot decipher what is going on in me,the situation and in the client. Mehul Rasadiya
  16. 16. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION3. Access your ignoranceThe only way I can discover my own inner reality is to learn todistinguish what I know, from what I assume I know, fromwhat I truly do not know. It is generally most helpful to workon those areas where I truly do not know. Accessing is the key,and I must make an effort to locate within myself what I reallydo not know by scanning my own inner database and gainingaccess to empty compartments. If I truly do not know theanswer, I am more likely to sound congruent and sincere when Italk about it. Mehul Rasadiya
  17. 17. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION4. Everything you do is an intervention.Just as every intervention reveals diagnostic information, sodoes every interaction have consequences for both the client andfor me. I therefore have to own everything I do and assess theconsequences to be sure that they fit my goals of creating ahelping relationship. Mehul Rasadiya
  18. 18. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION5.    The client owns the problem and the solution.My job is to create a relationship in which the client can gethelp. It is not my job to take the client’s problems onto my ownshoulders, nor is it my job to offer advice and solutions in asituation that I do not live in myself. Mehul Rasadiya
  19. 19. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION6.    Go with the flow.In as much as I do not know the client’s reality, I must respectas much as possible the natural flow in that reality and notimpose my sense of flow on an unknown situation. Once therelationship reaches a certain level of trust, and once the clientand helper have a shared set of insights into what is going on,flow becomes itself a shared process. Mehul Rasadiya
  20. 20. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION7.    Timing is crucial.Over and over I have learned that the introduction of myperspective, the asking of a clarifying question, the suggestion ofalternatives, or whatever else I want to introduce from my ownpoint of view has to be timed to those moments when the client’sattention is available. The same remark uttered at two differenttimes can have completely different results. Mehul Rasadiya
  21. 21. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION8.  Be constructively opportunistic with confrontiveinterventions.When the client signals a moment of openness, a moment when hisor her attention to a new input appears to be available, I find Iseize those moments and try to make the most of them. Thosemoments occur when the client has revealed some data signifyingreadiness to pay attention to a new point of view. Mehul Rasadiya
  22. 22. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION9. Everything is a source of data; errors are inevitable– learn from them.No matter how well I observe the above principles, I will say anddo things that produce unexpected and undesirable reactions inthe client. I must learn from them and at all costs avoiddefensiveness, shame or guilt. I can never know enough of theclient’s reality to avoid errors, but each error produces reactionsfrom which I can learn a great deal about my own and theclient’s reality. Mehul Rasadiya
  23. 23. TEN PRINCIPLES OF PROCESSCONSULTATION10.  When in doubt, share the problem.Inevitably there will be times in the relationship when I run outof steam, don’t know what to do next, feel frustrated, and inother ways get paralyzed. In situations like this, I find that themost helpful thing I can do is to share my “problem” with theclient. Why should I assume that I always know what to donext? In as much as it is the client’s problem and reality we aredealing with, it is entirely appropriate for me to involve theclient in my own efforts to be helpful. Mehul Rasadiya
  24. 24. MODULE 1 PART 3The Facilitator Mehul Rasadiya
  25. 25. THE FACILITATOR FUNCTIONS• Preparing• Determining the group’s focus• Fostering trust• Assessing group process & providing feedback• Keeping communication channels open & exposing tension• Managing conflict• Concluding Mehul Rasadiya
  26. 26. THE METASKILLS OF THEFACILITATOR• Compassion• Mindfulness• Neutrality / Following the Process• Detachment / Dual Awareness• Playfulness• Beginners Mind / Humility• Patience Mehul Rasadiya
  27. 27. FACILITATION TECHNIQUES• Using the flipchart effectively• Sorting the field• Noticing silent participants• Climate report• Checking in• Reflective listening Mehul Rasadiya
  28. 28. MODULE 1 PART 4The Solution Finder Mehul Rasadiya
  29. 29. PROBLEM SOLVING - EDWARD DEBONO’S SIX THINKING HATS White Hat Yellow Hat Facts, Information Benefits, Values Data Positives Red Hat Green Hat Feelings, Hunches Ideas, Alternatives Intuition Possibilities Black Hat Blue Hat Cautions, Problems Process Control Difficulties Thinking about Thinking Mehul Rasadiya
  30. 30. PROBLEM SOLVING - LEVELS OFTHINKING7 Creative Wisdom Knowledge, Experience, Know - how, Ultimate Perspective, Open - minded, Awakens joy in others, Understand levels of thinking6 Joy / Passion Enjoys life, Enjoys environment, Enjoys people interaction, Seeks enjoyment, Avoids passion killers5 Perspective Stand back, Contemplates, Sees bigger picture Rationalises, Blames others, situation, Happens to all of4 OK with negative stress us, We all go of the rails at times, We are all alike Unhappy, Habit forming, Finds fault, Critical, Negative conversation, Complaining, Revue minor3 Negativity / Unhappiness perspective,Not action orientated, Problem centered, Lacks trying, Does not smile, Stereotypes Lethargic, Mind does not get body going, Do things2 Paralyses slowly, Can’t cope with situation/life, Leaves things to other people, Puts life on hold, Lazy, Procrastinates, Moves into tormented state1 Tormented Thinker Extremely negative, Very critical, Disbelief, Anxious, Neurotic, Life is unbearable, Aggressive, Withdrawn, No way out, Warped idea of reality Mehul Rasadiya
  31. 31. THE CONCEPT OF MENTALMODELS“Mental models are deeply held internal images of howthe world works, images that limit us to familiar ways ofthinking and acting.Very often we are not aware of our mental models or theeffects they have on our behaviour.” (Peter Senge) Mehul Rasadiya
  32. 32. THE CONCEPT OF SYSTEMSTHINKINGSystems thinking is a discipline for seeing problemsholistically and for understanding how systems createpatters and events we see around us. Mehul Rasadiya
  33. 33. THE ADVOCACY / INQUIRY MATRIX High Explaining Mutual Learning Imposing Over EngagingAdvocacy Observing Interviewing Withdrawing Interrogating Low High Inquiry Mehul Rasadiya
  34. 34. TYPES OF ACTIVE / INQUIRYQUESTIONSPure Exploratory InquiryPrompt the story and listen carefully and neutrally.• Use silence and encouraging body language• Tell me what is going on.• What is happening?• Describe the situation.• Tell me more.• Go on.• Can you give me some examples of that?• Can you give me some of the details of what went on?• When did this last happen? Mehul Rasadiya
  35. 35. TYPES OF ACTIVE / INQUIRYQUESTIONSExploratory Diagnostic InquiryStart to identify the issues i.e. diagnosing.Exploring emotional responses: •    How did you feel about that? •    What was your reaction? •    How did others feel and react? Exploring reasons for actions and events: •    Why do you think you did that? •    Why do you think that happened? •    Why do you think the other person did that? Exploring actions, past, present and future: •     What did you (others) do about that? •     What are you going to do? Mehul Rasadiya
  36. 36. TYPES OF ACTIVE / INQUIRYQUESTIONSConfrontive InquiryShare own ideas and “force” the client to think about the situation from a new perspective.• Did you confront him / her about that?• Could you have done the following…?• Have you thought about doing…?• Did it occur to you that he / she did that because they were anxious?• Have you considered these other options?• Have you considered the possibility that you overreacted?• Did that not make you feel angry / anxious / elated etc? Mehul Rasadiya
  37. 37. MODULE 1 PART 5Organisational and Business Context of Change Mehul Rasadiya
  38. 38. DECIPHERING THEORGANISATIONAL AND BUSINESSCONTEXTS OF CHANGE• World-wide demographics• Workforce demographics• Technological advances• Social trends• Changes in ownership• Natural shocks• Political ramifications• Competition• Internal changes Mehul Rasadiya
  39. 39. DISCUSSION REGARDINGORGANISATIONAL AND BUSINESSCONTEXTS OF CHANGE• What have been some major change initiatives that you have seen implemented in organisations?• How successful would you gauge them to have been?• Have you ever been a change consultant / on an organisational change team?• What were the changes you were implementing and how successful were you? Mehul Rasadiya
  40. 40. MODULE 2GENERICCHANGE TOOLS & TACTICS Mehul Rasadiya
  41. 41. MODULE 2 PART 1Change Management Methodology Mehul Rasadiya
  42. 42. I n business im provem ent proj ect s … ChangeManagem entis about …… Mehul Rasadiya
  43. 43. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  44. 44. MODULE 2 PART 2GenericChange Tools & Tactics
  45. 45. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  46. 46. OverviewLEADING CHANGEWhy bother?• Strong committed leadership is critical to accelerating change• Leadership impacts all other change processes• Leaders must play varied roles Mehul Rasadiya
  47. 47. Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGETools and tactics include :•    Sponsorship strategy Mehul Rasadiya
  48. 48. Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGESponsorship strategy :• What is a sponsor?  A person with the influence or responsibility to ensure that the change outcomes are delivered.  A sponsor has responsibility for initiating and sustaining change.• The purpose of a sponsorship strategy is to:  Identify the sponsors  Establish sponsor responsibilities  Build commitment of sponsors regarding the change process.  Highlight barriers to successful sponsorship. Mehul Rasadiya
  49. 49. Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGESponsorship strategy :• Sponsor responsibilities might include the following:  DEMONSTRATE SUPPORT FOR THE CHANGE through words, actions and decisions.  SET A CHALLENGING PACE for the change program.  BE RESPONSIVE – to employees, customers and peers.  MEET REGULARLY WITH YOUR PEOPLE in order to show support, gain understanding and listen.  RAISE CONCERNS AND ASK QUESTIONS early in the transition process.  COMMUNICATE UPDATES on a regular basis.  IDENTIFY AND RESOLVE POTENTIAL “HOT SPOTS”. Mehul Rasadiya
  50. 50. Tools and TacticsLEADING CHANGESponsorship strategy :• Sponsor action plan might include the following: Developed Delivered Primary Sponsor Event Duration Timing Message By By Objectives Dept Head Sponsor 1 hour Change Dept Head, To co-incide • Project • Identify hot Session Consultant Change with changes spots Consultant beginning of • Obtain new project commitment phase Etc… Mehul Rasadiya
  51. 51. AssessmentLEADING CHANGETo what extent do our change leaders :• Create a personal role for themselves in leading the change process?• Identify the key priorities and a critical path for the change?• Create a clear picture of “where we want to get to”.• Create a culture that will promote the desired behaviours?• Refine rewards, measures and feedback systems to reinforce behaviours?• Mobilise a network of committed change sponsors and agents?• Coach and counsel key stakeholders throughout the change process?• Identify and remove barriers that impede the change process? Mehul Rasadiya
  52. 52. PitfallsLEADING CHANGEChange efforts can potentially derail when :• They fail to establish and clarify the key change roles of Sponsor.• Leaders fail to engage in behaviours necessary for change.• They lack quantifiable measures for establishing Sponsor accountability.• There are competing demands for sponsor time and resources.• Short term issues take priority over long term focus of “big picture” goals.• Sponsors object to change initiatives, Not all sponsor will 100% support the change process. Mehul Rasadiya
  53. 53. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  54. 54. OverviewCREATING A SHARED NEEDWhy bother?• Forces any resistance or apathy to be addressed head-on.• Validates why the project is important and critical to do.• Builds momentum needed to get the change initiative launched. Mehul Rasadiya
  55. 55. Tools and TacticsCREATING A SHARED NEEDTools and tactics include :• The Change implementation process and the change blueprint Mehul Rasadiya
  56. 56. THE PROCESS OF CHANGEIMPLEMENTATION CHANGE OBJECTIVESInformation Gathering CHANGE OVERVIEWInformation Assessment CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLANInformation Dissemination CHANGE IMPLEMENTATIONInformation Monitoring, Stabilisation and Feedback Mehul Rasadiya
  57. 57. CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLANCHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION• Requires considerable evaluation of the organisations current position.• What you are hoping to achieve by the change process: a clear understanding of the change objectives• Are the changes compatible with the organisation’s current systems and processes? Mehul Rasadiya
  58. 58. CHANGE OBJECTIVES Y GATHER CHANGE OVERVIEW ASSESS CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TELLINFORMATION GATHERING CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION Internal information Key Areas: gathering Industry Benchmarkin Personal  Cultural fit Experience g  Strategic fit Information  Synergy Potential Sources Info teams Media  Management fit and style  Corporate Previous Market demographics change Knowledge attempts  Structural fit Mehul Rasadiya
  59. 59. CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLANCHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION• Takes generic change objectives and applies them to the situation• Clarifies how the change objectives are going to be met• Serves as a practical reminder of what the organisation is attempting to achieve• Acts as a bridge between the objectives and the operational blueprint. Mehul Rasadiya
  60. 60. CHANGE OBJECTIVES Y GATHER CHANGE OVERVIEW ASSESS CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TELL KEY OPERATIONAL DECISIONS CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION Immediate Approach Delayed Approach Speed of Resource  Less uncertainty  Greater knowledge of the changes imple- necessary Decisions  Quicker process mentation  Greater clarity and certainty of  Opportunity to motivate and involve action affected employees “One off” financial costs e.g.  Implementation costs  May make wrong decisions  Prolongs uncertainty  Redundancy expenses  No affected employee  Longer and slower process  System harmonisation participation  Longer for results to show  Capital expenditure Assessing  Requires detailed, thorough Continual financial costs the change planning Human resources costs situation Manifest in differences in: Addressing Employee  Work legislation cultural participation  Attitudes/ behaviours issues  Working practicesImposed decisions Employee Input  Management style  Less uncertainty  Affected employees know more about their company/function  Company procedures  Decision makers are a known quantity  Opportunity to motivate  No arguments or politics  Most successful if well done  Employees must live with decisions  May make wrong decisions  Prolongs uncertainty  Can seriously demotivate  Longer and slower process  Requires detailed, thorough planning  Affected parties may not trust the change agent  Carnage if done poorly
  61. 61. CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLANCHANGE BLUE PRINT CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION• Reduces overview into task specific actions• Serves as the basis for the post-change implementation plan by determining:  What – action to be taken  When – the timescale for change  Who – is to be affected and who is to be responsible for leading the changes  How – the actual blueprint  Why – the logic behind the actions taken Mehul Rasadiya
  62. 62. CHANGE OBJECTIVES Y GATHER CHANGE OVERVIEW ASSESS CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TELLCOMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION Ti el m nn in g ha C Strategy Content (style, coverage, source) Mehul Rasadiya
  63. 63. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN AND CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEWTECHNIQUES CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION• Implementation is reliant on:  Prior employee knowledge of change  Employees being comfortable with their role in the change via communication  The enactment of the change process  The alignment in systems and processes of the ultimate changes• Techniques include:  Change co-ordinator or manager  Change team  Steering committee  Information gathering teams  Working committees  External specialists / facilitators Mehul Rasadiya
  64. 64. AssessmentCREATING A SHARED NEED1. Are all members of the project team aligned in terms of the need to change?2. Have we framed the need for change in such a way to reflect the concerns of customers and key suppliers?3. Would each team member deliver essentially the same “message” regarding the need for change if asked by someone outside of the team?4. Who are the key constituencies affected by this initiative, and how much importance does each give to the initiative?5. How can we help others increase their sense of the need for change? Mehul Rasadiya
  65. 65. PitfallsCREATING A SHARED NEEDChange efforts can potentially derail when they :• Fail to check for alignment and build true consensus.• Assume the need for change in obvious.• Fail to frame the need for change in a meaningful way• Assume that when others fail to appreciate the need for change, its “their” problem.• Fail to search beneath the surface for root causes.• Underestimate the resistance to change. Mehul Rasadiya
  66. 66. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  67. 67. OverviewSHAPING A VISIONWhy bother?• Visions paint a picture that appeals to both the “head” and the “heart” and answer the question “Why change?”• Visions help create shared meaning and thereby help gain genuine commitment from all. Mehul Rasadiya
  68. 68. Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONTools and tactics include :• Facilitating a visioning session Mehul Rasadiya
  69. 69. Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONFacilitating a visioning session :• Prior to session – interview key stakeholders.  What is working?  What is not working?  Look at what our competitors are doing and ask ourselves, “What can be learned from this?” Mehul Rasadiya
  70. 70. Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONFacilitating a visioning session :• Facilitating the session (2 days).  Start with the end – brainstorm loosely what the future state looks like in as much detail as possible – blue sky thinking.  Use visualisation techniques to envision daily life scenarios once change is achieved.  Design a dream using the language of: o What we do o What we sell o Who we are  Discuss feedback from key stakeholder interviews. Mehul Rasadiya
  71. 71. Tools and TacticsSHAPING A VISIONFacilitating a visioning session :• Facilitating the session (2 days).  Engage in rigorous self examination. Look at the relevance / effectiveness / efficiency of: o Our purpose o Our people o Our processes  Develop a mission i.e. saying in a given time frame, what do we want to be?  Identify and explore values and philosophies which will change the way people think and feel and which will guide our interactions through the change process.  Identify first steps – processes, forums etc. to instigate the change process. Mehul Rasadiya
  72. 72. AssessmentSHAPING A VISIONTo what extent :• has a vision be clearly articulated for the project?• is the vision simple and straightforward?• is the vision motivating and energising?• is the vision shared and understood across the business?• is the vision actionable? and finally,• How aligned is the team around the vision? Mehul Rasadiya
  73. 73. PitfallsSHAPING A VISIONChange efforts can potentially derail when :• Everyone has their own vision, and no effort is made to gain alignment.• Vision statements remain at such a “lofty” level that one one pushes back.• The vision changes too often, or conversely, is so rigid that others feel excluded.• The vision fails to reflect the interests and needs of customers &/suppliers.• The vision is too complex to be easily understood or translated into day-to-day behaviours. Mehul Rasadiya
  74. 74. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  75. 75. OverviewMOBILISING COMMITMENTWhy bother?• Helps deliver a culture of individual accountability and daily problem solving.• Helps create an organisation that is fundamentally more flexible and able to implement change programs quickly and efficiently.• Helps speed up the pace of change and ensures that performance is maximised during the transition state. Mehul Rasadiya
  76. 76. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTTools and tactics include :• Stakeholder analysis• Change readiness• Communication strategy Mehul Rasadiya
  77. 77. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :• A stakeholder is anyone who is impacted by or who impacts the change.• Can be an individual or a group of individuals with similar stakes in the change. Mehul Rasadiya
  78. 78. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :• Stakeholder analysis is a starting point for understanding the change readiness of key stakeholder groups.• By understanding the requirements, and readiness gaps of key stakeholder groups, we are better equipped to plan and implement appropriate change interventions. Mehul Rasadiya
  79. 79. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :• Stakeholder analyses are best conducted by way of a 2 hour brainstorming session.• Steps to be followed include:  Explain your role.  Explain the purpose of the session.  Explain outcomes i.e. next steps for assessing appropriate change interventions.  Ask: What is the end-to-end nature of the change? This helps to identify who is impacted by it.  Complete stakeholder analysis tool. Draw the table on a whiteboard. Work your way across the table as directed. Mehul Rasadiya
  80. 80. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTStakeholder analysis :• Stakeholder analysis template Stakeholder Group Nature of Stakeholding Rate Rank Stakeholder Group 1 • What is their relationship to the How important is How would you • What is the complete list of change? the stakeholder prioritise stakeholders that impact or are - Are they a customer / supplier? group to the stakeholder impacted by the change? - Are they a part of the process? delivery of the groups relative • Does the stakeholder group - Are they affected by the change? to one another? need to be broken down into outcomes only? • Critical 1 = most critical subgroups at this point? - What would be their concerns • Important - Do they have different and what would the impact of • Marginal stakes in the change? their concerns have on others? - Is there a likelihood that - What type of involvement would they will be at varying they require? degrees of readiness? Wins Losses Neutral Mehul Rasadiya
  81. 81. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :• Change readiness is the capacity of key stakeholders to support change in a manner that ensures that change is sustainable.• Sustainability is achieved by facilitating the uptake along three key dimensions:  Stages of concern, based on their degree of understanding of the change.  Preparedness to support i.e. willingness to change.  Ability to support, based on the development of the skills and knowledge required. Mehul Rasadiya
  82. 82. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :• The change readiness tool examines change readiness for key stakeholder groups and…• Identifies what change interventions will be necessary to successfully guide the change. Mehul Rasadiya
  83. 83. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – stages of concern :Stages of Concern Focus of Concern Expression of ConcernAwareness Stage (0) Little concern or involvement. “I’m not concerned about it.”Information Stage (1) General awareness & an interest in learning more about “I would like to know more about it. it.”Personal Stage (2) Uncertainty about demands of change. “How will using it affect me? Uncertainty about decision making, potential conflicts.Management Stage (3) Issues relating to efficiency, organisation, scheduling, “I seem to be spending all my time etc. time in paperwork.”Impact / Consequence Stage (4) Focus is on impact of change for individuals in “How is it affecting my team?” immediate sphere of contact.Collaboration Stage (5) Focus is on coordination and cooperation with others. “I am concerned about relating what I am doing with others.”Refocusing Stage (6) Focus is one of exploration of more universal benefits. “I have some ideas about something that will work even better.” Mehul Rasadiya
  84. 84. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – stages of concern :• Awareness Stage. Tactics are mainly around…  Informing.• Information Stage. Tactics are mainly around…  Further information and motivating.• Personal Stage. Tactics are mainly around…  Allaying personal concerns and providing a level of support.• Management Stage. Tactics are mainly around…  Coaching, training and development.• Impact / Consequence Stage. Tactics are mainly around…  Involving people in shaping the change.• Collaboration Stage. Tactics are mainly around…  Creating opportunities to use them to influence others.• Refocusing Stage. Tactics are mainly around…  Creating opportunities for them to innovate. Mehul Rasadiya
  85. 85. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – stages of concern :• Determining stage of concern is best conducted by way of a 2 hour small group session.• Steps to follow include:  Familiarise yourself with the Stages of Concern.  Spend time in open discussion about what their concerns are.  Sythesise concerns on a flipchart, looking for themes.  Refer to Stages of Concern and, together with participants, plot their stage of concern.  Jointly discuss tactics to help overcome their concerns, using the interventions previously discussed as guidelines for suggestions. Mehul Rasadiya
  86. 86. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – preparedness to support :• Gauging support is best conducted by way of a half day facilitated small group session.• Steps to follow include:  Explain the purpose of the session.  Get people to talk about the current change. Facilitate discussion on: o What are the critical / core changes? o What do you feel you are losing in the process? o How do you feel about it?  Facilitate discussion about object vs state loss – What can you control?  Facilitate discussion on, “What do you need?”: o All boils down to support – “Where can you get support from?” o List of actions / commitments.  Put all unresolved issues into further process. Mehul Rasadiya
  87. 87. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness – ability to support :• Refer to elements of a training & support strategy in section on IT Change. Mehul Rasadiya
  88. 88. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :• Change readiness plan template Stakeholder Stage of Preparedness Tracking Ability Change Tactic Resp Group Concern to Support OutcomesAs detailed in • Identify the • Not initiatedStakeholder appropriate • Initiated andAnalysis individuals to the working tactic. • Initiated and not • Individuals can be working selected because of functional expertise, organisational influence, relationship to stakeholder etc. Mehul Rasadiya
  89. 89. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :• The purpose of a communication strategy is to:  Define the objectives of the communication effort.  Develop guiding principles for communication.  Provide a framework for developing and implementing the communications.  Troubleshoot possible barriers to communication and determine the appropriate solutions. Mehul Rasadiya
  90. 90. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy could include:Communication objectives• e.g. Enroll people in the change through involvement at all levels in the organisation.Critical success factors• e.g. Availability of resources to produce communications materials.• e.g. Maximising the use of respected and influential people to deliver messages.• e.g. Maximising the use of face-to-face communication. Mehul Rasadiya
  91. 91. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy (cont.):Guiding principles for effective communication• e.g. Employees should hear information from the appropriate source.• e.g. Communication should be two-way and face-to-face to the extent possible.Key messages• Key messages are the themes that will underpin all communication. Mehul Rasadiya
  92. 92. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange readiness :Elements of a communications strategy (cont.):Communications planTarget Audience Communication Activity Message Sender TimingName of Description of: Description of: key Specific person / role Date forstakeholder group. • Meeting points to be required to deliver the communication • Presentation highlighted: message. activity to • Roadshow • Issues & concerns commence. • Workshop • Project timeframes • Teleconference • Vision & direction • Briefing • Feedback • Demo • Q&A • Project status • Job changes • Etc. Mehul Rasadiya
  93. 93. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy (cont.):Feedback mechanisms• Feedback mechanisms are important for ensuring that communication objectives are being met and messages are conveyed in the most effective way possible.• They provide a facility for target audience groups to communicate their concerns, thereby ensuring a two-way communication.• Examples include:  Departmental representative  Open dialogue forums  Survey / questionnaire  Communications log (This would be a mechanism to track any communications issues that are being identified.) Mehul Rasadiya
  94. 94. Tools and TacticsMOBILISING COMMITMENTCommunication :Elements of a communication strategy (cont.):Barriers to effective communication• Examples include:  Desire to keep information secret.  Diversity of different audiences requiring different types of information.  Lack of clear and consistent information due to the perception of the “evolving” nature of the project.  Conflicting information from different sources. Mehul Rasadiya
  95. 95. AssessmentMOBILISING COMMITMENTHow well have you :• Understood the needs and concerns of the people impacting or impacted by the change?• Analysed sources of resistance?• Developed problem solving process to resolve resistance?• Developed tactics to help prepare the stakeholders for and support them through the change? Mehul Rasadiya
  96. 96. PitfallsMOBILISING COMMITMENTChange efforts can derail when :• Too little information is shared with key stakeholders.• Too much information is shared with key stakeholders.• They assume technical solution is sufficient.• They don’t involve others due to time constraints.• They underestimate human resistance to change. Mehul Rasadiya
  97. 97. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  98. 98. OverviewMAKING CHANGE LASTWhy bother?• Experience shows that successful, sustained change is difficult to achieve without attention from the entire team• Every change initiative will compete for time, resources and attention.• We often spend most available time on the launch of an initiative rather than its institutionalisation. Mehul Rasadiya
  99. 99. Tools and TacticsMAKING CHANGE LASTTools and tactics include :• Forcefield analysis• Systems and Structures worksheet Mehul Rasadiya
  100. 100. Tools and TacticsMAKING CHANGE LASTForcefield analysis : ENABLERS RESTRAINERS Mehul Rasadiya
  101. 101. Tools and TacticsMAKING CHANGE LASTSystems and Structures worksheet : Measurement Reward Staffing Development Organisational Design Identify specific opportunities to use or modify various systems and structures to make change last Mehul Rasadiya
  102. 102. AssessmentMAKING CHANGE LASTTo what extent have we accurately estimated :• The magnitude of the total change effort?• The level of resistance this initiative will face?• The amount of time required to implement the change?• The level of clarity and alignment regarding the kind of implementation process required?And also…• How has the change effort been integrated into other business initiatives?• To what extent are needed resources made available?• To what extent have we altered (or used) existing systems and structures as “levers for change”? Mehul Rasadiya
  103. 103. PitfallsMAKING CHANGE LASTChange efforts can potentially derail because of ten classic implementation pitfalls :• Underestimating the time.• Unexpected problems.• Poorly co-ordinated activities.• Competing distractions.• Inadequate capabilities / skills of employees.• Lack of support for the initiative.• Unclear goals and objectives.• Lack of involvement of Change Targets.• Dismissing complaints outright.• Uncontrollable externalities (life happens). Mehul Rasadiya
  104. 104. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  105. 105. OverviewMONITORING PROGRESSWhy bother?•    An accurate measure of the project provides focus, direction and momentum•    Corrective action can only occur if you know you are off track•    Monitoring Progress enhances you ability to reward key events and milestones, building momentum and commitment. Mehul Rasadiya
  106. 106. Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSTools and tactics include :• Characteristics of a good measurement system• Robot system• Status report Mehul Rasadiya
  107. 107. Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSCharacteristics of a good measurement system:1. Completeness: The extent to which a measure adequately measures the phenomenon rather than only some aspect of the phenomenon.2. Timeliness: The extent to which a measurement can be taken soon after the need to measure, rather than being held to an arbitrary date.3. Visibility: The extent to which a measure can be openly tracked by those being measured.4. Controllability: The extent to which a measure can be directly influenced by those being measured.5. Cost: Whether the measure is inexpensive, making use of the data easily obtained or already being collected for some other purposes.6. Interpretability:The degree to which a measure is easy to understand and produces data that is readily comparable to other organisations and/or time periods.7. Importance: Whether the measure is connected to important business objectives rather than being measured because it is easy to measure. Mehul Rasadiya
  108. 108. Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSUsing the ROBOT system to measure: One of the easy techniques to use for the tracking of change progress is to use the robot system – or even the colours of the robot. RED – Change not implemented at all / little progress on this objective. YELLOW – Change has been partially implemented / some resistance occurring / installation not complete or signed off. GREEN – Sound progress has been made on change objective and / or has been signed off as complete. The robot system is a good, colourful, eye-catching technique that makes you The robot system is a good, colourful, eye-catching technique that makes you focus on your problem areas and decide on where you have encountered focus on your problem areas and decide on where you have encountered implementation pitfalls and instigate corrective strategies. implementation pitfalls and instigate corrective strategies. Mehul Rasadiya
  109. 109. Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report :• Status reports track progress in:  Completing deliverables  Achieving specifications – functional, technical, operational Mehul Rasadiya
  110. 110. Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report – effort and time:• The GANNT chart is a well-known Project Management tool for monitoring progress against objectives. If used to its fullest potential, is regularly updated and visibly displayed, it can show true progress against implementation objectives. 01 Sep 03 01 Sep 10 ID Task Name Duration T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S 1 Formalise Project Charter/ Pres. GB 1 day Mark 2 Team Review ? 0 days 09/04 3 Formalise Proposal LetterGB 1 day Harry,Steve 4 Review proposal w ith JG / CC 1 day Mark 5 Presentation to GB 0 days 09/13 6 Define Financial model requmts 1 day Harry 7 Design and Configure Fin. Model 5 days Harry 8 Formalise BSC Plan GB 1 day Steve 9 Develop BSC Proposal for JM 1 day Michael Mehul Rasadiya
  111. 111. Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report - risk: Area of Impact Alternative ResponseCategory Description of Risk Level of Impact Comments Responses Taken 0 = negligible Who does it Description of Description of impact impact? the different the alternative 5 = very high alternatives to chosen. impact be taken to mitigate the risk. Mehul Rasadiya
  112. 112. Tools and TacticsMONITORING PROGRESSStatus report - issues: Issue Action to be Date Issue Description Resolution Responsibility Status No. Taken Resolved# Description of the Description of Description of Name of Name of In process issue. identified action to bewhen and how individual individual Complete taken. issue was finally responsible for responsible for resolved. resolution of resolution of issue. issue. Mehul Rasadiya
  113. 113. AssessmentMONITORING PROGRESS1. Have we stated our objectives in concrete terms?2. Have we translated these objectives to observable behaviours?3. Have we set milestones that all understand and agree to?4. Are expected results tied to external and internal goals and have we ensured that outcomes will be evident to stakeholders?5. Are individuals and teams accountable for results?6. Do we know which existing data will pick up progress toward our goal?7. Have we established new ways to gather data?8. Do we have accurate and timely baseline data to work from? Mehul Rasadiya
  114. 114. PitfallsMONITORING PROGRESSChange efforts can potentially derail when they :• Want results too soon and fail to look for long-term indicators of progress.• Assume all stakeholders know how things are going and fail to keep them informed.• Measure only against internal issues or goals, forgetting that customers are often impacted by the change initiative.• Don’t see how the change project is connected to other initiatives and fail to measure impact.• Think some things are too “soft” to measure, only looking at “hard” indicators of progress.• Simply get too busy to track progress. Mehul Rasadiya
  115. 115. CHANGE MANAGEMENTMETHODOLOGY MODEL Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision R Mobilising Commitment E S Current Transition Improved U State State State L T Making Change Last S Monitoring Progress Changing Systems and Structures Mehul Rasadiya
  116. 116. OverviewCHANGING SYSTEMS ANDSTRUCTURESWhy bother?• When the way we organise, train, develop, reward, compensate, promote etc is changed, we are likely to see individual behaviour change• Successful changes usually involve significant re-alignment of “organisational infrastructure”.• Need to develop the capacity to change, not just the ability to change – “Can we build this change into our ongoing systems?” Mehul Rasadiya
  117. 117. Six AspectsCHANGING SYSTEMS ANDSTRUCTURESChanging Systems & Structures involves modifying: (How we acquire / place talent)1. STAFFING (How we build competence / capability)2. DEVELOPMENT (How we track performance)3. MEASURES (How we recognise / reward desired behaviour)4. REWARDS (How we use information to build and sustain momentum)5. COMMUNICATION (How we organise to support the change initiative?6. DESIGNING ORGANISATIONS Mehul Rasadiya
  118. 118. Mehul Rasadiya
  119. 119. EXTRA DATAChange Implementation Process Model Mehul Rasadiya
  120. 120. TWELVE “GOLDEN RULES” OFIMPLEMENTATION Manage employee and customer expectations Project manage and measure the process Be seen to add value Build on some “quick wins” Use the line managers Be realistic about what you can achieve personally and corporately Manage conflict Repeat key messages and communicate even when you think you have nothing to say Expect strange behaviour and be ready for it Realise everything you say and do will be scrutinised and exaggerated Remain visible and “out of the bunker” Keep your eye on the ball and don’t forget about Mehul Rasadiya your customers
  121. 121. THE IMPACT OF CHANGE (ITS CALLEDRESISTANCE) UNCERTAINTY LACK OF CONFIDENCE FEAR FAILURE (Portrayed overtly and subtly) IMMOBILITY TO MEET/TRY OUT CHALLENGES BEYOND PERSONAL COMFORT ZONES FEAR FRUSTRATION CONSEQUENCES (By seniors) OF NON- DELIVERY UPWARD ABDICATION (Wait for direction, Claim lack of direction) Mehul Rasadiya
  122. 122. READINESS FOR CHANGE Readiness = D (Dissatisfaction) x V (Vision) x F (First steps) > R (Resistance) Is there enough dissatisfaction with the current state? D What is the gap between the current reality and the envisioned future? Is there a sense of compelling vision of a highly desirable future state? V To what degree is it shared? To what degree are individuals committed to the vision? F Are the first steps for making the change doable? Mehul Rasadiya
  123. 123. THE CHANGE CURVE INTERNALISATION “This is the way we work here” ADOPTION “We have to do it this way” LEARNING AWARENESS “Let me test it” “I’m being told something I don’t like” POSITIVE PERCEPTION “This is good” DENIAL “NO WAY!” UNDERSTANDING “I can see why they want to do this” FEAR “What will happen EXPLORATION to me?” “”Let me take a look anyway” Mehul Rasadiya
  124. 124. RESPONSES Awareness                                                            Full communication and explanation Reassurance (where possible)  Denial Full communication and explanation Understanding of the consequences of non-conformance “Word picture” of the process of the change  Fear  Reassurance where possible Understanding of all possible outcomes for the individual  Exploration  Full training in the new behaviours and/or systems Full understanding of the benefits  Understanding  Full training in the new behaviour and/or systems Full understanding of the benefits  Mehul Rasadiya
  125. 125. RESPONSES Positive Perception Reinforcement of the positive perception Learning Full training in the new behaviour and/or systems Reinforcement of benefits Adoption Reinforcement of benefits Recognition of efforts Use as champion to those further down the change curve Internalisation Recognition of efforts Awareness of the change process the individual has gone through Mehul Rasadiya
  126. 126. EFFECTS OF CHANGE In most organisations, it requires a change in management perspective and skill base as well as a new alignment of systems and processes If handled well, change can increase organisational flexibility and responsiveness If handled poorly, the organisation can experience:  Lower management credibility  Higher employee turnover  Lower employee productivity  Lower employee satisfaction and trust MOST CHANGE PROGRAMMES FAIL Mehul Rasadiya
  127. 127. ACCORDING TO HAMMER AND CO: Only 20-30% of all reengineering projects succeed Only 23% of all mergers and acquisitions make back their costs Just 43% of quality-improvement efforts make satisfactory progress Only 9% of all major software development applications in large organisations are worth the cost 31% of software implementation projects get cancelled before completion  Irrespective of success or failure, 53% of software implementations will result in cost overruns by up to 189%!The Reason: According to Fortune 500 executives resistance/people not accepting changes was the primary reason changes failed Source: Maurer and Co. Mehul Rasadiya
  128. 128. A model for organisational change(Kurt Lewin) Re-freezing Unfreezing Change & movement Mehul Rasadiya
  129. 129. UNFREEZING Creating motivation and readiness to changeTechniques to reinforce unfreezing . . .• Acknowledge feelings and empathise• Give people as much information about the change as possible• Say what will not change• Treat the past with respect• Help others to see the gap Mehul Rasadiya
  130. 130. CHANGE & MOVEMENTGuiding through the transitionTechniques to reinforce movement . . .• Provide focus and direction• Strengthen peoples connections to one another• Open up two way communications• Provide the individual with a specific role in the change process• Provide leadership and tenacity Mehul Rasadiya
  131. 131. RE-FREEZINGIntegrating the new point of viewTechniques to reinforce re-freezing:• (before reverting to the old point of view)• Ensure that individuals and leaders are reinforced for new behaviour• Implement quick results and highlight successes• Build feedback mechanisms• Celebrate! Mehul Rasadiya
  132. 132. Why Do People Resist Change?• The phrase, “overcoming resistance,” indicates an adversarial relationship … since resistance is an emotional process, the key is understanding it: – People resist change because the change is: • Perceived by them to be negative, and • They do not want to deal with the reasons for it – Resistance is a way of expressing feelings of concern about making a change – These concerns tend to be: • Concerns over loss of control • Concerns over vulnerability – Your task is to help the person who is resisting change to express these concerns directly Resistance is nature’s way of telling you something important is going on and Resistance is nature’s way of telling you something important is going on and that you are on target that you are on target Mehul Rasadiya
  133. 133. Why Resistance Occurs . . .• Resistance can occur because people fear: Indirect Expressions of Concerns/ – Loss of credibility or reputation Visible Resistance – Lack of career or financial advancement Real/ – Possible damage to relationships with boss Underlying – Loss of employment Concerns – Interpersonal rejection – Change in job role – Embarrassment/loss of self-esteem – Job transfer or demotion Your task is to encourage the full expression of the real/underlying concerns. Your task is to encourage the full expression of the real/underlying concerns. Mehul Rasadiya
  134. 134. Three Steps to Dealing with Resistance • Step 1: Identify the form the resistance is taking: – Trust what you see more than what you hear – Pick up cues – Listen to yourself — use your own feelings as a barometer • Uneasy, bored, irritated – Listen for repetition/telltale phrases – Make two good-faith responses • Step 2: Acknowledge, name the resistance: – Tell person your perception of the resistance – Do it in a “win/win” manner; neutral, non-aggressive - “What I think I hear you saying is . . .” – Tell the person how the resistance is making you feel – Be specific, clear, authentic • Step 3: Be quiet, listen, let the person respond: – Get him/her talking – Encourage full expression of the concerns – Gradually uncover underlying resistance/issue - be aware of other forms of resistance surfacing Mehul Rasadiya
  135. 135. Dealing With Resistance: What Not To Do• Fight the resistance • Expect approval, encouragement, support and/or affection• Go into more data collection • Lose your confidence• Reengineer in the attempt to get a better intervention • Expect to have all the answers• Avoid the individual • Collude with the individual• Work more with your “allies” • Avoid giving “bad news”• Give lots of reasons • Use aggressive language• Get hooked into the details – “You Dummy” Rule • Delay/wait one more day Mehul Rasadiya
  136. 136. Tactics to Minimise Resistance• Explain why • Provide appropriate training in new skills and coaching in new values and• Identify the benefits behaviors• Invite and answer questions • Encourage self-management • Give more feedback than usual to ensure• Solicit participation, and, if possible, people always know where they stand early involvement • Allow for resistance. Help people let go • (“first-draft/strawmodel” reviews, of the “old” membership in planning/implementation teams, • Measure results, step back and take a etc.) look at what is going on. Keep asking “Is the change working the way we want it• Avoid surprises to?” • Encourage people to think and act• Set standards and clear targets creatively • Look for any “opportunity” created by the• Inform/involve informal leaders change• Recognize and reward efforts • Allow for withdrawal and return of people• Over communicate who are temporarily resistant Mehul Rasadiya
  137. 137. Summary: Dealing With Resistance• Resistance is inherent to change• To deal with resistance, you should be able to: – Identify when resistance is taking place – View resistance as a natural process and a sign that you are on target – Support the client in expressing the resistance directly – Not take the expression of the resistance personally or as an attack on you or your competence• Some common forms of resistance are: – Attack – Moralizing – “Give me more detail” – Avoiding responsibility – They flood you with detail – Compliance – No time – Pressing for solutions – It’s impractical – “We’re unique” – “I’m not surprised” – Methodology – Confusion – Nit-picking – Silence – Flight into health – Intellectualizing – Changing the subject – One word answers – Low energy, inattention Mehul Rasadiya

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