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Patrick Briggs - Culturally Relevant Teaching
 

Patrick Briggs - Culturally Relevant Teaching

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  • Introduce ourselves: Name Experience in Education Experience with AVID Why me, why here, why now?
  • Jinan We can’t keep doing the same things and expect different results. Change is usually the result of discomfort. We continue to be uncomfortable with the GAP, as we should be. But does this discomfort move us to change? And if so, are we intentional about the change? If we truly believe that the education of the citizens is necessary for the preservation of democracy, and that this is a moral imperative, then the question becomes, not who do we educate, but how do we educate, and how do we educate all students well? The reality is we do not educate all students well! The data on AAM academic achievement shouts this fact loudly. This is not a comfortable topic nor should it be. My desire is not to comfort you, but to put words to the discomfort and methods to the actions. To pose a series of questions because it is in the search for the answers that we find our way. Our intent is a Socratic Self-Dialogue which prepares us to engage others in the conversation about AAM Achievement. It can not stop here! Discussion, understanding and learning must lead to deliberate action. How do we do schooling? Change
  • Patrick
  • Patrick
  • Jinan One of our goals is for AAM to achieve access and equity in education. We know that access is gaining entry, but what is Equity? Equity is… Let’s start with defining some terms.
  • Jinan Equity is Not Equal. Moving students from a different place to a common place will require different levels of support and interventions for various students. Use Example of glass of water on an island. Moving students from a different place to a common place takes deliberate action. Culturally Responsive Teaching is such an action.
  • Patrick
  • Patrick
  • Jinan
  • Image Brainstorm . Project an image on the LCD projector or smartboard and ask students to tell you everything they can about the picture. Choose images that make sense to them and also allow you to connect to the new content and/or concepts students will be learning. I often would use an image of famous artwork to launch our discussion on tone and mood in a particular poem or short story. K-W-L Chart . Tried and true, yes, though I have to say, it doesn’t work with all subjects and can be an overused activity for assessing prior knowledge. Use sparingly and dynamically. Picture Books . No matter the age, they work like magic. If there’s a concept or skill you are about to introduce, find a children's book that's related in some way and that your students may be familiar with. Read it aloud and watch the bells go off. ABC Brainstorming . I love this one. On one sheet of paper students make a box for every letter of the alphabet and then (they can do it in pairs) brainstorm a word or phrase that starts with each letter. For example, if kids are about to study the history of slavery in the U.S., they may write things like: "Africans" for a , "boat" for b , "chains" for c , etc. Class Brainstorm Web . Free-for-all, classroom fun I like to call it. After writing a word or phrase in a circle (whiteboard, poster paper) have students write as many words connected to it that they can think of around it. For example, you might write "photosynthesis" in the center and kids write things like, plants, green, sun, water , and light . I like to use a timer with this activity to create a sense of urgency (which adds to the fun). Keep the web visible throughout upcoming lessons and refer to it as you explore photosynthesis in-depth, even asking them to add words and facts to it.
  • Jinan
  • Patrick
  • Patrick – 1 st 2 Bullets Jinan – Bottom half of slide
  • Patrick Refer to Reading List provided as a handout.
  • Patrick Refer to Reading List provided as a handout.
  • Jinan Two words: Relational Capacity The capacity within a relationship to withstand the struggles and issues of life. Research tells us that the most significant impact on a students academic achievement is a positive relation-ship between a student and their teacher.
  • Jinan Can and do your students say this about you?
  • Patrick
  • Thank you! Questions
  • Patrick In order for AAM to achieve at the highest levels, we must recognize that Achievement Gaps equal opportunity Gaps. These gaps can be impacted through “Changes” in policy, procedure and practice . Teacher Gaps: How are the highly qualified teachers assigned? Who gets the best teacher? Standards Gaps: Do opportunities exist for advanced classes? Curriculum Gaps: Increased rigor, college readiness, EPAS? Funding Gaps: Where do we spend our money? Where you put your time and money tells what you value.
  • Patrick What do we really believe about AAMs? What do you know about AAMs? What do we really believe about who can and should be educated? Do we hold all students to the highest standards? Are high expectations maintained for AAM? We see this cycle of Low Expectations played out by some teachers, students and administrators. Let’s make it personal. What part of this cycle to you help perpetuate? Or Where are you actively engaged in reform? “ A child cannot be taught by anyone who despises him, and a child cannot afford to be fooled. “ James Baldwin
  • Patrick These slides should establish the urgency of action needed. If are intentional about closing the Opportunity Gaps, then the Achievement Gap will close also.
  • Jinan Want data? Realize the Dream, National Report Card on Education and Equal Opportunity. October 3, 2005. Black Students occupy the lowest column.
  • Patrick Refer to Reading List provided as a handout.
  • Patrick
  • Patrick So now, so what? Change means making different choices! Where do we spend our money and on whom? We know that there is only one pie, but how do we slice it? Do we slice it equally or equitably? How do we determine our expectations? Do we expect certain students to be the academicians and others to be athletes and some to be entertainers? Use the assembly example: Pep rally in mid day during instructional time while Honors breakfast/recognitions held at crack of dawn or under the cover of night? What message are we giving our AAMs and other students?
  • Patrick In order for AAM to achieve at the highest levels, we must recognize that Achievement Gaps equal opportunity Gaps. These gaps can be impacted through “Changes” in policy, procedure and practice . Teacher Gaps: How are the highly qualified teachers assigned? Who gets the best teacher? Standards Gaps: Do opportunities exist for advanced classes? Curriculum Gaps: Increased rigor, college readiness, EPAS? Funding Gaps: Where do we spend our money? Where you put your time and money tells what you value.
  • Jinan AVID provides the opportunity to bring deliberate change in policy, procedure and practice. This is where we stopped for Q & A.
  • Jinan Support structures surround the AVID student that foster “Relational Capacity”.
  • Patrick Relationships, rigor and relevance are only some of the components of CRT. AVID embeds the “Three R’s”: Relationships Rigor Relevance
  • NOTES:
  • Jinan AVID is an ideal vehicle for CRT. College readiness, College Preparation How to do school? Collective, community Moves from teacher centered to student centered
  • Patrick
  • Patrick Refer to Reading List provided as a handout.
  • Quick-write (3 min.) What are some of the roadblocks to parental involvement at your school/in your classroom? Individual participants will take 2 minutes to write their own opinions as to why parental involvement at their school/in their classroom is not as active as they would like. Emphasize keeping this as local and immediate as possible: What they as teachers in the classroom can impact Examine their role in keeping parents out of schools as well as the outside variables that play into the roadblocks   Table share
  • Thinking Bubble Map: Roadblocks to Parent Involvement As table groups, participants will first fill in the center bubble with “Roadblocks.” Once tables have completed the Bubble Thinking Map, quick share out as a whole group. Solicit a voice from each of the tables. (Time permitting) Facilitator charts the responses Look for common comments and threads.
  • Jinan
  • Jinan
  • Jinan What are you going to do?
  • Jinan What systems, policies, procedures and practices are in place or need to be addressed?
  • Patrick Are all the faces in your school represented?
  • Patrick
  • Patrick
  • Thank you! Questions

Patrick Briggs - Culturally Relevant Teaching Patrick Briggs - Culturally Relevant Teaching Presentation Transcript

  • AVID The Road to College Readiness and Culturally Relevant Teaching Patrick Briggs Assistant Director Texas AVID State Office [email_address]
  • The Power of Change
  • Session Outcomes
    • Cultural Relevant Teaching
    • Minority Male Achievement
    • Infusing Methodologies into the Classroom
    • Issues facing Males of Color
    • Solutions to closing the Achievement Gap
    • Educational Access and Equity
    • Rigorous Curriculum as a vehicle for change
    • Accessing the Curriculum for College Readiness
  • Session Outcomes
    • What is College Readiness?
    • Teaching strategies and methodologies to:
      • Raise the Rigor of ALL classes for ALL students
      • Engage all students to take ownership of their own learning
  • What Does “College Ready” Mean?
    • “ College readiness can be defined operationally as the level of preparation a student needs in order to enroll and succeed – without remediation – in a credit-bearing general education course at a post-secondary institution that offers a baccalaureate degree or transfer to a baccalaureate program.”
      • David Conley, “Redefining College Readiness”
  • College Preparedness Completing a High School degree plan Turning in your college application Figuring out finances College Readiness How to navigate the college system How to take notes and study at a college level How to write at a college level; How to organize your materials and time How to set personal and academic goals; How to self-advocate Prepared versus Ready
  • Why Does College Readiness Matter?
    • “ We are experiencing our biggest post-secondary education boom in our history”
    • “ Out of 100 college freshmen enrolling in the state of Texas, 56 will graduate with a degree within six years”
      • Raymund Paredes, TX Commissioner of Higher Ed.
  • Our Mission
    • AVID's mission is to close the achievement gap by preparing all students for college readiness and success in a global society.
    • Think about your district’s mission
      • What is your role in achieving your mission?
  • Plano ISD – Vision & Mission Statement
    • Vision Statement
      • Participating in Plano ISD schools empowers students to be able to adapt to new learning opportunities throughout their lives, collaborate with, and contribute to, the global community and to be creative and disciplined in their thinking.
    • Plano ISD graduates will be empowered to:
      • Proactively adapt to new learning opportunities throughout their lives;
      • Collaborate with and contribute to the global community;
      • Be both creative and disciplined in their thinking.
    • Mission Statement
      • The mission of the Plano Independent School District is to provide an excellent education for all students.
  • Equity is….
    • Raising the achievement of all students
    • Narrowing the gaps between the highest and lowest performing students
    • Eliminating the predictability and disproportionality of which student groups occupy the highest and lowest achievement categories
    • Pacific Educational Group January 2006
    • Equity is defined in terms of outcome. No two students come to us at the same place. Our job is to ensure that ALL students leave us at a level of competence that gives them a high predictability of success in their next phase of life
            • Mike Neece – AVID Director of Systemic Initiatives
  • Equity is moving students from a different place to a common place Equity IS NOT Equal
  • Quick Write
    • Who or What encouraged you to go to college?
    • How would your life be different had you not obtained your Bachelor’s Degree?
    • What do our students not know about college that you could tell them?
    • What is a skill I needed in college that I did not get from middle or high school?
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • Learning environments that are authentic, culturally responsive and that build upon the language, experiences, learning styles, and strengths of the students.
  • KWL
    • Get 2 Post It Notes
    • K – What do you KNOW about CRT
    • W – What do you WANT to know about CRT
    • K – Know O - Observation
    • W – Want to know W - Wander
    • L – Learned L – Learned ( Like to Learn)
    • A - Apply
  • Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond
    • “ (Some) children come to school everyday and have their culture validated and (other) children have theirs invalidated, even berated, daily.”
  • Let’s hear from another student
    • Think about what beliefs, structures, and processes might have been in place that allowed him to reach his potential
    • Pick one that you would insist be mandated at your child’s school
  • Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
    • These strategies are good for ALL Learners
    • As a good teacher , you are already doing CRT and addressing ALL learners
    • This is meant to enhance your toolbox
    • We will speak in general terms but no subgroup is monolithic (No two students come to us at the same place)
    • Thanks for keeping an open mind and being accepting of ideas and open to the information
    • Part of this is designed to get an emotional reaction from you
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • CRT is not changing what you are doing but changing how you are doing it – change the delivery… and provide scaffolding … tools to get there
    • Create lesson plans to allow for inclusion of all learning styles …left-brain and right-brain instruction
    • Include movement, interaction with peers, and collaboration to make connections to the curriculum
  • Address both in: Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
    • Left Brain Right Brain
    • Logical Random
    • Sequential Intuitive
    • Rational Holistic
    • Analytical Synthesizing
    • Objective Subjective
    • Looks at parts Looks at wholes
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • Overcome value judgments based on appearance and speech
    • Activate prior background knowledge to increase long term memory
    • Teach time management
    • Identify & develop talents
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • Activate prior background knowledge to increase long term memory
      • Image Brainstorm
      • KWL
      • Picture Books
      • ABC Brainstorm
      • Class Brainstorm Web
  • Image Brainstorm
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • Teacher’s role is to convert potential energy to kinetic energy
    • Teacher has high expectations of ALL learners
    • Invite male role models into classrooms
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • Show connections between classroom and real world – relevancy, why?
    • Equip learners with racial & cultural pride
    • Offer advice based on the present reality (not traditional advice). Be honest, sensitive to the reality, and assertive in our views
    • Do not give a choice on attending activities such as: music lessons, academic clubs, cultural groups, etc…
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • Provide positive reinforcement for things other than sports, music, entertainment
    • Limit TV/video games – the 2 nd most influential thing after peers
    • Price-Williams and Ramirez (1971) and Hillard (1992)
      • Students view environment as a whole rather than parts
      • Prefer intuitive over inductive/deductive reasoning
      • Attend to people stimuli over object stimuli
      • Rely on non-verbal as well as verbal communication
  • Give One – Get One
    • Get 3 Separate Post It Notes
    • One each one, write one thing that you got out of the CRT strategies to engage students and to help ALL students access your curriculum at rigorous levels
  • Jawanza Kunjufu
    • Countering the Conspiracy to Destroy Black Boys
    • Black Students. Middle Class Teachers.
    • To Be Popular or Smart: The Black Peer Group
    • Developing Positive Self-Images and Discipline in Black Children
  • What Is The Most Powerful Influence On Academic Achievement?
    • “ When students, the ultimate consumer of quality teaching, are asked what this means to them, they are unequivocal in their answer; a caring teacher who accepts “no excuses” and who refuses to let them fail!”
    • Closing The Achievement Gap:
    • A Vision For Changing Beliefs And Practices 2006
  • My teachers respect me, for who I am, where I come from, and where I am going .
  • AVID’s 2011 National Conference
    • National Conference
    • December 8-10
    • Orlando, Florida
    • www.avid.org
    • CRT at Summer Institute
  • Ron Edmonds
    • We can whenever, and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need to do that. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far.
  • ` A V I D
  • Challenges and Choices: Raising Achievement, Closing Gaps and Ensuring College Access.
  • Achievement Gap Equals Opportunity Gaps
    • Teacher Gaps:
      • Inequitable Distribution of Qualified Teachers
    • Standards Gaps:
      • Opportunity to Learn at the Highest Level
    • Curriculum Gaps:
      • Opportunity to Access the Most Rigorous Curriculum
    • Funding Gaps:
      • Fewer Dollars Spent on the Students who Need the Most
  • Underlying Everything Is the Cycle of Low Expectations Low Expectations Low Level Assignments/Instruction Poor Test Results Less Challenging Courses
  • Close these Opportunity Gaps and Achievement Gaps will close too.
  • National Rates Race and ethnic graduation rates based on the Urban Institute’s Cumulative Promotion Index. Disability graduation rate is from National Council on Disability, 24 th Annual Report to Congress. Source: Realize the Dream, National Report Card on Education and Equal Opportunity, accessed 10/3/2005: http://realizethedream.civilrights.org/scorecards/national.cfm
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Only 26% of Teachers Believe All Students Should be Held to Same Standard
  • Low Expectations
      • Low Expectations:
      • 71% of students plan to attend college.
      • 32% of teachers expect their students to attend college.
      • 51% of parents believe their children will attend college.
  • The Reality...
    • Nearly 75% of high school graduates enter colleges, but only 12% of these students have completed a significant college-prep curriculum.
    • Consequences:
    • High percentages of students requiring remediation
    • Low bachelor’s degree completion rates
    Source: Kati Haycock, “Closing the Achievement Gap,” Educational Leadership .
  • Students Who Require Remediation Are Less Likely to Earn a Degree Source: Adelman, Cliff in Crosstalk. Vol 6 No.3, Summer 1998.
  • Academic Preparation
    • Transcript Study:
    • “ The single biggest predictor of college success is the quality and intensity of students’ high school curriculum. ”
    Cliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box , U.S. Department of Education, 1999.
  • Academic Preparation Source: Adelman, 1999 American Educator, 2004 Academically well-prepared students are likely to graduate from college regardless of their social background. Unprepared students of all backgrounds are not likely to do so.
  • AP and College Success
    • Students who take AP courses and exams are much more likely than their peers to complete a bachelor’s degree in four years or less.
    Source: Camara, Wayne (2003). College Persistence, Graduation, and Remediation . College Board Research Notes (RN-19). New York, NY: College Board.
  • Chrys Dougherty, Lynn Mellor, and Shuling Jian, The Relationship Between Advanced Placement and College Graduation (National Center for Educational Accountability, 2005) Impact of AP on 5-Year College Graduation Rates
  • A Quick Debrief Stop
    • With Elbow Partners, discuss:
  • Rigor
    • Define Rigor in your own words
  • One Pager
    • Based on your Quick Writes
    • Come up with the following on chart paper
    • 1 Word
    • 1 Phrase
    • 1 Sentence
    • A non-linguistic representation
  • Reducing Variability in our Systems
    • Variability in our systems results in variability in student outcomes
  • Focus on Teachers
    • Good Teachers Matter More Than Anything Else
  • Strategies Matter
    • Students of teachers who
    • participated in:
      • Critical thinking, math - 40% better
      • Lab techniques, science - 40% better
    • If they do “hands on learning”:
      • 70% better in math
      • 40% better in science
  • Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure Rates for All Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low level course, and eighth-grade reading achievement quartiles Source : SREB, “Middle Grades to High School: Mending a Weak Link.” Unpublished Draft, 2002.
  • New Jobs Increasingly Require Higher Level Education Slide adapted from presentation given by Steve Gunderson of the Graystone Group, March 2004 Employment Policy Foundation tabulation of BLS Statistics
  • Some Americans are Much Less Likely to Graduate From College
  • What is the Culprit?
    • Standards for end of high school are not aligned with what is required for college and work. And students are not required to take rigorous core curriculum.
  • Change Sought...
    • To develop an equitable
    • College-Ready Culture
    • in secondary schools
    “ college by design, not by chance”
  • Biggest Challenge of the Year
    • Take 3 minutes to get your thoughts together on paper about your biggest challenge this school year.
  • Findings from The University of Georgia
    • Many Barriers but the 4 Major Areas that AAM suffer disproportionately from:
      • Inadequate academic preparation
      • General lack of awareness and information
      • Parents who do not know the system
      • Low socio-economic status
  • In the End, We Have to Make Different Choices.
    • Achievement and Opportunity Gaps come from choices that educators and policymakers make about:
    • How much to spend on whom
    • What to expect of different schools and students
    • Choices even about who teaches whom
    • Choices about how to organize classrooms and schools
  • Achievement Gap Equals Opportunity Gaps
    • Teacher Gaps:
      • Inequitable Distribution of Qualified Teachers
    • Standards Gaps:
      • Opportunity to Learn at the Highest Level
    • Curriculum Gaps:
      • Opportunity to Access the Most Rigorous Curriculum
    • Funding Gaps:
      • Fewer Dollars Spent on the Students who Need the Most
  • AVID Advancement Via Individual Determination [L. avidus]: eager for knowledge
  • Colleges and Universities Community Parents Administration Counselors Subject Area Teachers Tutors AVID Coordinator (AVID Elective Teacher) AVID Support Staff Student AVID: Collaborative Support for the Success of Students
  • The Three R’s in AVID
    • Relationships
    • Rigor
    • Relevance
  • What is AVID? AVID is an elective class for grades 6-12 that prepares students in the academic middle for colleges and universities. AVID is a schoolwide college-readiness system that works to influence the belief system, culture and instructional strategies of the entire campus.
  • The Mission of AVID
    • “ AVID’s mission is to close the achievement gap by preparing all students for college readiness and success in a global society.”
  • AVID District-wide AVID CLASS Student Success Strategies ELECTIVE 6 TH -12 TH Outside of the AVID Elective Class 6 TH -12 TH SELECTED STUDENTS SCHOOLWIDE STRUCTURED WEEK STRUCTURED LESSONS AND STRATEGIES 30 YEARS IN PRACTICE 15 YEARS IN PRACTICE
  • Why the AVID Class Works
    • Accelerates under-achieving students into more rigorous courses
    • Teaches academic skills not targeted in other classes
    • Provides intensive support with in-class tutors and a strong student/teacher relationship
    • Creates a positive peer group for students
    • Develops a sense of hope for personal achievement gained through hard work and determination
  • AVID’s Impact on Schools
    • Increases enrollment in advanced academic courses (Pre AP/Honors) and increases the rigor of all courses
    • Implements instructional best practices for all students in the school
    • Creates a college-going culture across the school
  • College Preparedness / Readiness College Preparedness Completing a High School degree plan Turning in your college application Figuring out finances College Readiness How to navigate the college system How to take notes and study at a college level How to write at a college level; How to organize your materials and time How to set personal and academic goals; How to self-advocate
  • Let’s Hear from a Student
  • Why AVID Works
    • Places AVID students in rigorous curriculum and gives them the support to achieve;
    • Provides the explicit “hidden curriculum” of schools;
    • Provides a team of students for positive peer identification; and
    • Redefines teacher’s role as that of student advocate.
  • Briggs’ 5 Domains Engagement of African American Males
    • What Do We Celebrate?
    • I See Color
    • Parents Are a Major Part of the Solution
    • Giving AVID Students a Voice and the Tools for Success
    • The Administrator Sets the Tone
  • Parental Involvement
    • Brainstorm Carousel
  • Quickwrite
        • On a sheet of Cornell note paper, describe what parental involvement looks like at your school/in your classroom.
  • Parent Involvement Identifying the Roadblocks to
        • Collaborate with your table to create a graphic organizer . “Roadblocks to Parent Involvement” should be at the center of the map. List identified roadblocks in the surrounding bubbles.
  • What Parents Say
    • Unwelcoming (school/class) environment
    • Feelings of intellectual inferiority
    • School/teacher is racist.
    • “ They” won’t listen to me.
    • Don’t really want my input
    • I trust the school to educate my child.
    • Parents are doing what they know how to do!
    • My personal experiences going to school…
    • Time of meetings
    • Condescending comments from educators
    • I don’t know how to help.
    • They only call when my child is in trouble.
  • Getting Parents to the Table
    • Intentionally reaching out to your parents
    • Empowering and acknowledging their voice
    • Teaching parents how to navigate the school system
  • Solutions
    • Complete the graphic organizer with ideas for how to overcome “Roadblocks” at your site.
    • In the same table group, create a second layer of bubbles above the original and record positive actions that you can take at your own site to overcome the roadblocks.
  • How can Educators Work TOGETHER with Parents to Ensure they are College Bound?
    • “ Name the Elephant”
    • Parent relationships a priority
    • Parents are informed about grades, challenges, etc.
    • Parents are Informed of the Statistics
    • Newsletters
    • Parents are your allies
    • Non-traditional School Nights
    • Accessorize your classrooms, gyms and cafeterias
    • Encourage Academic Success – AP, GT, AVID
    • Make sure you don’t go overboard…I’m the victim mentality…
    Parents and Educators Working TOGETHER to Ensure the Educational Success of African American Males Marsha R. Dodson and Darlene V. Willis, Ph.D
  • How can Educators Work TOGETHER with Parents to Ensure they are College Bound?
    • Present positive AA male role models and share the consequences of negative male behavior
    • Establish AA Male Clubs/Organizations
    • Have confidence that you can have an impact regardless of gender and/or ethnicity
    • Be real with athletic success for AA males
    • College Tours/Visits
    • Monitor the Student’s Grades
    • Career Days, Recognition and Self-Affirmation Pledges
    • Know College Requirements for Yourself and Make it Mandatory for Your AA Male Students
    • Caution: Don’t forget about the AA Females
    Parents and Educators Working TOGETHER to Ensure the Educational Success of African American Males Marsha R. Dodson and Darlene V. Willis, Ph.D
  • Promoting Change
  • How do we create a school culture that captivates children, inspires them to dream, and gives them hope?
  • How do we ensure successful learning for our students?
  • What systems, structures, policies, procedures, processes, and protocols are in place to ensure student success?
  • Hands of AVID, AP, and Honors
    • Rigorous courses should reflect the overall population of your school.
    • Diversity of ethnicity and gender should be represented in higher level classes.
    • What do your classrooms reflect?
  • Meeting the Challenge
  • AVID’s National Conference
    • National Conference
    • December 8-10
    • Orlando, Florida
    • www.avid.org
  •  
  • Ron Edmonds
    • We can whenever, and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need to do that. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far.
  • A V I D