Surface treatment of automotive components

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Surface treatment of automotive components

  1. 1. Surface Treatment for Automotive ComponentsMaterials and Manufacturing Processes for Automobiles (AME 2513) Module Leader Dr. Srikari S Department Dept. of AAE Santosh S BBB0912001 Pruthvi VJ BBB0912004 Bharath IG BBB0912005 Raj Bharath M BYB0912007 Submitted by : Rajbharath.M(BYB0912007) M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 1
  2. 2. Introduction Manufacturing Surface Treatment Finished ProductFigure 1: Different stages of product development [Author] Need for surface treatment Benefits of surface treatment M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 2
  3. 3. Types of Surface Treatment Surface Treatment Surface Surface  Surface hardening - Top surface layer Hardening Coating infused with dopants.  Surface coating - New layer is coatedCase hardening, Chemical vapour on the surface.Mechanical deposition,surface treatment. Plating. Figure 2: Types of Surface Treatment [Author] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 3
  4. 4. Case Hardening Chemical structure manipulation by diffusing the atoms of alternate elements. Different types includes: Figure 3: Different case hardening techniques [1] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 4
  5. 5. Nitriding Nitrogen is diffused into the surface of the component being treated. Nitriding Temperature: 500-600°C [2] 2NH3 ▲ 2N + 3H2 [2] Figure 4: Schematic diagram of nitriding apparatus [2] Figure 5: Microstructure of nitrided component [3] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 5
  6. 6. Figure 6: Effect of case depth on hardness [4] Figure 7: Effect of nitriding time on case depth [2] Process Capabilities [5] Nitriding was adopted to increase the strength of the crank shaft. Figure 8: Nitrided crank shaft [5] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 6
  7. 7. CarburizingM.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 7
  8. 8.  Carburization produces a hard, wear resistant layer on the surface. Typically, case hardens low carbon steel. Figure 9: Carburizing process [6] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 8
  9. 9. Quenched microstructure [6]Carbon Ferrite Etching: Carburized gear Figure 10: carbon diffusion [6] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 9
  10. 10. Applications Fig 11: Carburized Steering Pinion [7] Hydraulic power steeringFig 12: Carburized spur gear [13] Transmission M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 10
  11. 11. Induction hardeningFig 14: Process overview [8] Eddy current Fig 15: Quenching[12] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 11
  12. 12. Applications Fig16:Simultaneous dual frequency Fig 17: Sprocket – under induction hardening [10] (SDF) – Green Hardening (for gears). [9] Induction hardening is characterized by precise energy metering. Ultra low power consumption. Short process times. Targets surface layer alone. Save energy and reduce rework effort. SDF M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 12
  13. 13. Mechanical Surface Treatment M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 13
  14. 14. Shot Peening Overlapping indentations are produced on the surface. The surface of the component is plastically deformed, which induces the compressive stress on the surface. Fatigue strength increases by 25% - 50%. Figure 18 Shot peening Process [14] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 14
  15. 15. Case StudyGear tooth Bending fatigue on a AXOD of Ford Taurus (1981) Figure 19 Weibull analysis of Life v/s Failure [15] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 15
  16. 16. Laser Peening The surface of the work piece is subjected to laser shocks. As a result of which compressive stress is induced in the component, thus improving the fatigue life. Specifications: Laser intensity - 100-300 J/cm2 Pulse duration - 30 seconds Figure 20 Laser Peening Working [16] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 16
  17. 17. Case StudyLaser Peening emerging applications for Engine Components Reduce material cross-section and improve fuel efficiency. Retard erosion inside fuel injector tip and reduce emissions. Fuel injector tip Figure 21 Comparison of Laser peening [17] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 17
  18. 18. Surface Coating M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 18
  19. 19. Electroplating Electroplating is carried out to impart properties such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance and other similar properties. Chromium, nickel, cadmium, copper, zinc and tin are commonly plated materials. Anodizing, galvanizing, chrome plating. Figure 22 : Chrome plating [18] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 19
  20. 20. Galvanization process Figure 23: Galvanization process [19]  Cathodic protection Figure 24: Cathodic protection [20] M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 20
  21. 21. Figure 25: Anti-corrosion treatment for BIW [21] Anti-corrosion treatment for BIW M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 21
  22. 22. Benefits / EnhancementPossible enhancements in the components manufactured: Improved fatigue endurance limit. Better wear resistance. Higher strength. Ability to withstand bending loads for a longer time. Better corrosion resistance. Better surface finish delays crack propagation. M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 22
  23. 23. QueriesM.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 23
  24. 24. References[1] Anon., Surface Treatment, Coating and Cleaning, http://www.ielm.ust.hk/dfaculty/ajay/courses/ieem215/lecs/9_surfacetreatment.pdf, retrieved on 29.12.2012.[2] Kenneth G. Budinski and Michael K. Budinski., (2009) Engineering Materials: Properties and Selection, 9th edition, Prentice Hall Publishers.[3] Mumin Sahin, Ceyhun Sevil., (2011) "Investigation of properties of ion-nitrided AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steel", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 63 Iss: 5, pp.359 – 366.[4] Anon., Heat Treatment Properties, http://www.tohokusteel.com/en/pages/kirin1.htm, retrieved on 29.12.2012.[5] Anon., Double the Strength, http://www.nitriding.co.uk/double-strength-please!, retrieved on 29.12.2012.[6] Hiroshi Yamagatta – “Science and technology of materials” [pg 180 onwards].[7] “Hardness and case depth analysis through optimization techniques” http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/1259/12/12_chapter%203.pdf[8] Induction hardening - http://www.ustudy.in/node/4157[9] Mark davis – “Gear hardening goes green” http://www.eldec.de/fileadmin/00_Dateien/PDF/Veroeffentlichungen/0909_GearSolutions.p df M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 24
  25. 25. [10] Daewei hating machine co., ltd - http://www.dw-inductionheating.com/hardening- induction-heating-applications.html/hardening-induction-heating, retrieved on 29.12.2012[12] Industrial heating - http://directories.industrialheating.com/Articles/Cover_Story/d08079c356cb7010Vgn VCM100000f932a8c0, retrieved on 29.12.2012[13] Thermex metal treating ltd - http://www.thermexmetal.com/carburizing- carbonitriding, retrieved on 29.12.2012[14] Mordern Mechanical Surface treatment.,(2006) Volker Schulze, Wiley-VCH[15] Adam J. Vahratian, Robert P. Garibay., Application of Statistically capable Shot Peening Automotive Components Design,http://www.shotpeener.com/library/pdf/1993146.pdf, retrieved on 29.12.2012.[16] Laser-assisted materials processing lab https://engineering.purdue.edu/LAMPL/research_peening.html, retrived on 29.12.2012[17] H.L.Chen, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , “Laser Peening - A Means to Strengthen Metals”[18] Anon., Chrome plating alternatives, http://www.rowantechnology.com/Tech-Info.htm, retrieved on 30.12.2012 M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 25
  26. 26. [19] Anon., Zinc coatings and thin organic coatings, Coating process, http://www.arcelormittal.com/automotive/saturnus/sheets/catalogue.pl?id_sheet=N&language=EN, retrieved on 30.12.2012[20] Anon., Zinc coatings protecting steels, Cathodic protection [pg. 7], http://www.galvanizingasia.com/pdfs/ZincCoatingProtectingSteel.pdf, retrieved on 30.12.2012[21] Anon., “The inside story of how BMWs are made...” , http://www.usautoparts.net/bmw/bmw/assembly/painting.htm, retrieved on 30.12.2012 M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 26
  27. 27. Thank YouM.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 27

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