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  • 1. PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION Dr. M. Fahmy Raiyah
  • 2. I. Translation from Arabic to English
  • 3. 1.‫النجاح‬ ‫مفتح‬ ‫العمل‬ - 2.‫اليخير‬ ‫الدرس‬ ‫المدرس‬ ‫شرح‬ - 3.‫هنديا‬ ‫وطنيا‬ ‫قائدا‬ ‫غاندي‬ ‫كان‬ -
  • 4. 4.‫الماضي‬ ‫البسبوع‬ ‫جديدا‬ ‫كتابا‬ ‫الشاب‬ ‫المؤلف‬ ‫-نشر‬ 5‫والبارود‬ ‫الورق‬ ‫القدماء‬ ‫الصينيون‬ ‫ايخترع‬ - .‫والبوصلة‬ 6.‫المتحدة‬ ‫للوليات‬ ‫رئيس‬ ‫أول‬ ‫واشنطن‬ ‫جورج‬ ‫كان‬ -
  • 5. 7‫الطبيعة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫رائعة‬ ‫لوحة‬ ‫الصغير‬ ‫الفنان‬ ‫ربسم‬ - .‫جيزان‬ ‫في‬ ‫الجميلة‬ 8‫السؤال‬ ‫على‬ ‫النافذة‬ ‫بجوار‬ ‫الجالس‬ ‫الطالب‬ ‫أجاب‬ - .‫اليخير‬ 9.‫الولي‬ ‫الجائزة‬ ‫كسبت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الطالبة‬ ‫هي‬ ‫هذه‬ -
  • 6. 10‫العلماء‬ ‫نجح‬ -‫لهنهم‬.‫بجهد‬ ‫وعملوا‬ ‫جيدا‬ ‫يخططوا‬ (because vs. because of ) 11‫المشروع‬ ‫نجح‬ -‫بسبب‬.‫الجيد‬ ‫التخطيط‬ 12-‫أنه‬ ‫رغم‬‫نفسه‬ ‫علم‬ ‫أنه‬ ‫إل‬ ،‫المدربسة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫يذهب‬ ‫لم‬ .‫الكثير‬
  • 7. 13‫الكتاب‬ ‫قرأت‬ -‫الذي‬‫الماضي‬ ‫البسبوع‬ ‫ابستعرته‬‫من‬ ‫المكتبة‬. 14.‫عشر‬ ‫الخامس‬ ‫القرن‬ ‫في‬ ‫أمريكا‬ ‫اكتشفت‬ -
  • 8. 15.‫الماضي‬ ‫العام‬ ‫أبيها‬ ‫مع‬ ‫فرنسا‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ليلى‬ ‫بسافرت‬ - 16-‫بعد‬‫و‬ ‫متاحة‬ ‫الكتب‬ ‫صارت‬ ,‫الطباعة‬ ‫ماكينة‬ ‫ايختراع‬ .‫للجميع‬ ‫ريخيصة‬ ‫الطباعة‬ ‫ماكينة‬printing press-‫متاحة‬available (‫متناول‬ ‫)فى‬ ‫ريخيصة‬affordable
  • 9. 17.‫التقدم‬ ‫عماد‬ ‫هما‬ ‫اليمان‬ ‫و‬ ‫العلم‬ - 18‫محدودة‬ ‫غير‬ ‫أبوابا‬ ‫للنسان‬ ‫يفتح‬ ‫الجنبيه‬ ‫اللغات‬ ‫تعلم‬ - .‫للمعرفة‬ ‫محدودة‬ ‫غير‬endless
  • 10. 19.‫أن‬ ‫رغم‬.‫الجائزة‬ ‫تكسب‬ ‫لم‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫إل‬ ‫الجميع‬ ‫أعجبت‬ ‫اللوحة‬ 20‫و‬ ‫جيدا‬ ‫لعبنا‬ ‫لقد‬ .‫لكننا‬.‫المباراة‬ ‫نكسب‬ ‫لم‬
  • 11. 21‫بعناية‬ ‫التعليمات‬ ‫اقرأ‬ .‫قبل‬.‫الجهاز‬ ‫تستخدم‬ ‫أن‬ Read the instructions before you use the device. Read the instructions before using the device. 22.‫لنفسه‬ ‫يحب‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ليخيه‬ ‫يحب‬ ‫حتى‬ ‫أحدكم‬ ‫يؤمن‬ ‫ل‬ . None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.
  • 12. 23‫في‬ ‫رأيتها‬ ‫التي‬ ‫اللوحة‬ ‫أعجبتني‬ .‫المتحف‬.‫الوطني‬ 24‫مصدر‬ ‫أيضا‬ ‫القراءة‬ ,‫تثقيف‬ ‫وبسيلة‬ ‫أنها‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫بالضافة‬ . .‫للمتعة‬ (Use besides)
  • 13. 25.‫رغم‬‫أفضل‬ ‫من‬ ‫حسين‬ ‫طه‬ ‫صار‬ ,‫للبصر‬ ‫فاقدا‬ ‫كان‬ ‫أنه‬ .‫الحديث‬ ‫العصر‬ ‫في‬ ‫الكتاب‬ (Use of despite and in spite of vs. although )
  • 14. 26.‫علاجا‬ ‫الرمريكية‬ ‫الجارمعات‬ ‫بإحدى‬ ‫العلماء‬ ‫اكتشف‬ .‫للسرطان‬ ‫اجديدا‬ ‫فعال‬ ‫علج‬cure‫السرطان‬ -cancer‫فعال‬ -effective 27.‫القلب‬ ‫رمن‬ ‫تنبع‬ ‫السعادة‬ . ‫تنبع‬spring
  • 15. 28.‫الهام‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫تقرأ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫يجب‬ . 29.‫للمستقبل‬ ‫هنخطط‬ ‫كيف‬ ‫يعلمنا‬ ‫التاريخ‬ .
  • 16. 30.‫عام‬ ‫المتحدة‬ ‫الرمم‬ ‫رمنظمة‬ ‫تأسست‬1945. ‫يؤبسس‬found ‫المتحدة‬ ‫المم‬ ‫منظمة‬The United Nations Organization 31..‫أرمس‬ ‫رمساء‬ ‫رموعدها‬ ‫في‬ ‫الطائرة‬ ‫وصلت‬
  • 17. 32.‫القادم‬ ‫السبوع‬ ‫تبدأ‬ ‫التختبارات‬ ‫لن‬ ‫بجد‬ ‫التلرميذ‬ ‫يذاكر‬ . 33‫رمن‬ ‫الرياضة‬ ‫رممارسة‬ ‫و‬ ‫الكافي‬ ‫والنوم‬ ‫الصحي‬ ‫الغذاء‬ . .‫الجيدة‬ ‫للصحة‬ ‫اللمزرمة‬ ‫الرمور‬
  • 18. 34‫سيارته‬ ‫باع‬ ‫لقد‬‫هنظرا‬.‫لصغرها‬ 35,‫بلهفه‬ ‫الطعام‬ ‫تناول‬ ‫لقد‬‫حيث‬‫رمن‬ ‫شىء‬ ‫أي‬ ‫تناول‬ ‫قد‬ ‫يكن‬ ‫لم‬ .‫الفجر‬ ‫رمنذ‬ ‫الطعام‬
  • 19. 36‫رمن‬ ‫رمتسع‬ ‫فلدينا‬ ,‫الخارمسة‬ ‫في‬ ‫إل‬ ‫يصل‬ ‫لن‬ ‫القطار‬ ‫أن‬ ‫حيث‬ .‫الوقت‬ 37.‫للرمزق‬ ‫كسبا‬ ‫يعمل‬ ‫إهنه‬
  • 20. 38.‫بغضب‬ ‫إليه‬ ‫هنظر‬ 39.‫شديد‬ ‫بإهمال‬ ‫يكتب‬ ‫اهنه‬
  • 21. 40.‫تكرارا‬ ‫و‬ ‫رمرارا‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫قلت‬ ‫لقد‬ 41.‫اجيدا‬ ‫الهنجليزية‬ ‫يتحدث‬
  • 22. 42.‫بالرقبة‬ ‫تخطيرة‬ ‫اصابة‬ ‫اصابتها‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫بالمستشفى‬ ‫اهنها‬ 43.‫الكثيف‬ ‫الضباب‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫بالغ‬ ‫بحرص‬ ‫أقود‬
  • 23. 44.‫شيئا‬ ‫يعرف‬ ‫ل‬ ‫يكاد‬ 45‫ٳ‬.‫بلده‬ ‫تاريخ‬ ‫عن‬ ‫شيئا‬ ‫يعلم‬ ‫ل‬ ‫هنه‬
  • 24. 46‫صباحا‬ ‫الثارمنة‬ ‫الساعة‬ ‫رمن‬ ‫يوم‬ ‫كل‬ ‫الجارمعة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫سلوي‬ ‫تذهب‬ .‫الظهر‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫الثاهنية‬ ‫الساعة‬ ‫الى‬ 47‫حرارة‬ ‫دراجة‬ ‫عند‬ ‫الماء‬ ‫يغلى‬100.‫م‬
  • 25. 48.‫بالحديقة‬ ‫ال ن‬ ‫يلعبو ن‬ ‫اللول د‬ 49.‫يعمل‬ ‫لهنه‬ ‫تزعجه‬ ‫ل‬ 50.‫مدينتنا‬ ‫في‬ ‫جديدة‬ ‫جامعة‬ ‫يبنو ن‬ ‫إهنهم‬
  • 26. 51.‫الحا دثة‬ ‫لوقعت‬ ‫عندما‬ ‫بالمنزل‬ ‫كنت‬ 52.‫الطريق‬ ‫يعبر‬ ‫كا ن‬ ‫عندما‬ ‫رأيتة‬
  • 27. 53‫مع‬ ‫يلعب‬ ‫هو‬ ‫كا ن‬ ,‫المنزلية‬ ‫لواجباتها‬ ‫تعمل‬ ‫أخته‬ ‫كاهنت‬ ‫بينما‬ .‫أصدقائه‬ 54.‫أقربائها‬ ‫كل‬ ‫قابلت‬ ,‫هناك‬ ‫كاهنت‬ ‫عندما‬ 55.‫زارتهم‬ ‫عندما‬ ‫هدية‬ ‫معها‬ ‫أخذت‬
  • 28. 56.‫على‬ ‫مع‬ ‫جالسا‬ ‫كنت‬ .‫بالحديقة‬ ‫بالمس‬ ‫رأيتك‬
  • 29. 57‫عام‬ ‫الشركة‬ ‫تأسست‬ .1433. ‫يؤسس‬found / establish 58..‫الصباح‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫القديمة‬ ‫صديقتى‬ ‫قابلت‬ 59.‫التليفزيو ن‬ ‫يشاهد‬ ‫أخوها‬ ‫كا ن‬ ‫بينما‬ ‫تذاكر‬ ‫كاهنت‬
  • 30. 60.‫هنا‬ ‫لوصلت‬ ‫منذ‬ ‫المنزل‬ ‫بهذا‬ ‫أقيم‬ ‫أهنا‬ 61.‫التقدم‬ ‫سبيل‬ ‫العلم‬ . 62.‫قريتنا‬ ‫في‬ ‫مدارس‬ ‫ثل ث‬ ‫يوجد‬ .
  • 31. 63.‫القدم‬ ‫كرة‬ ‫مشاهدة‬ ‫أحب‬ . 64.‫العلماء‬ ‫الدلولة‬ ‫ترعى‬ . ‫يرعي‬sponsor
  • 32. Choose the right translation: 1-.‫المين‬ ‫العامل‬ ‫ دائما‬ ‫يعجبنى‬ a. I always like the worker honest. b. I always like a honest worker. c. I always like the honest worker. 2-‫بسرعة‬ ‫المعلومات‬ ‫مع‬ ‫يتعامل‬ ‫جهاز‬ ‫الكمبيوتر‬. a. A computer is a machine that handles information rapidly. b. A computer is a machine that handle information rapidly. c. A computer is a machine that handles informations rapidly.
  • 33. 3-‫للحياة‬ ‫ضرلوري‬ ‫الماء‬. a. The water is necessary for life. b. Water is necessary for the life. c. Water is necessary for life. 4-‫الكثير‬ ‫هنفسه‬ ‫علم‬ ‫أهنه‬ ‫إل‬ ,‫الجامعة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫يذهب‬ ‫لم‬ ‫أهنه‬ ‫رغم‬. a. Although he did not go to university. He taught himself a lot of things. b. He taught himself a lot of things. Although he did not go to school. c. Although he did not go to university, he taught himself a lot of things.
  • 34. 5.‫الماضي‬ ‫السبوع‬ ‫المكتبة‬ ‫من‬ ‫استعرته‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫قرأت‬. 1.I read the book that I borrowed from the library last week. 2.Last week, I read the book that I borrowed from the library. 3.I read book that I borrowed from the library last week.
  • 35. 6..‫النقا د‬ ‫من‬ ‫كبير‬ ‫بترحيب‬ ‫رلوايته‬ ‫قوبلت‬ 1.His novel was well received by the critics. 2.His novel well received by the critics. 3.His novel is well received by the critics.
  • 36. 7‫أقل‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫جاذبية‬ ‫ل ن‬ ‫بالفضاء‬ ‫الجاذبية‬ ‫باهنعدام‬ ‫هنشعر‬ . .‫علينا‬ ‫تأثيرا‬ a. In space, we feel weightlessness because of the earth's gravity has less effect on us. b. In space, we feel weightlessness because the earth's gravity has less effect on us. c. In space, we feel weightlessness due to the earth's gravity has less effect on us.
  • 37. 8.‫يقلد‬ ‫أ ن‬ ,‫الطيور‬ ‫أذكي‬ ‫من‬ ‫يعتبر‬ ‫الذي‬ ,‫الببغاء‬ ‫يستطيع‬ ‫الهنسا ن‬ ‫صوت‬. a. Parrots considered the most intelligent of birds can mimic human speech. b. The Parrots, considered the most intelligent of the birds, can mimic human speech. c. Parrots, considered the most intelligent of birds, can mimic human speech.
  • 38. 9‫ال دب‬ ‫تحب‬ ‫لهنها‬ ‫الهنجليزية‬ ‫اللغة‬ ‫بقسم‬ ‫ماجدة‬ ‫التحقت‬ . .‫الهنجليزي‬ a. Majdah likes English literature, and she joined the English department. b. Because Majdah likes English literature, she joined the English department. c. Majdah likes English literature, therefore she joined the English department.
  • 39. 10.‫عمره‬ ‫طول‬ ‫لند ن‬ ‫في‬ ‫ ديكنز‬ ‫تشارلز‬ ‫عاش‬ . a. Lived Charles Dickens all his life in London. b. Charles Dickens lived all his life in London. c. Charles Dickens has been living all his life in London. 11‫عام‬ ‫القمر‬ ‫على‬ ‫الهنسا ن‬ ‫هبط‬ .1968. a. Man landed on the moon in 1968. b. The man landed on the moon in 1968. c. Man was landed on the moon in 1968. 12. ‫صعوبته‬ ‫رغم‬ ‫لي‬ ‫أعطيته‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫أعجبني‬ . a. I liked the book that you gave to me. In spite of its difficulty. b. In spite of its difficulty, I liked the book that you gave to me. c. I liked book that you gave to me in spite of its difficulty.
  • 40. 13.‫صديقتها‬ ‫لو‬ ‫هي‬ ‫التجاري‬ ‫بالسوق‬ ‫أهنها‬ . 1.She and her friend are at the mall. 2.She and her friend is at the mall. 14.‫يوم‬ ‫كل‬ ‫أخوه‬ ‫ألو‬ ‫الولد‬ ‫يحضر‬ . 1.The boy or his brother come every day. 2.The boy or his brother comes every day.
  • 41. •15..‫جدا‬ ‫ممل‬ ‫اللول‬ ‫القسم‬ ‫أبواب‬ ‫بكافة‬ ‫الكتاب‬ ‫هذا‬ 1.This book, including all the chapters in the first section, is boring. 2.This book, including all the chapters in the first section, are boring. 16.‫منهكو ن‬ ‫اللعبين‬ ‫جميع‬ ‫لو‬ ‫الفريق‬ ‫مدرب‬ . 1. The team captain, as well as all the players, is tired. 2. The team captain and all the players are tired. 3. The team captain, as well as his players, are tired.
  • 42. 17.‫مفتوحا‬ ‫الصنا ديق‬ ‫أحد‬ ‫كا ن‬ . 1. One of the boxes was open. 2. One of the boxes were open. 3. One of the boxes is open. 18.‫تماما‬ ‫ها دئا‬ ‫أحمد‬ ‫كا ن‬ . 1. Ahmad was total quietly. 2. Ahmad was total quiet. 3. Ahmad was totally quiet.
  • 43. 19‫عام‬ ‫حوالي‬ ‫البارلو د‬ ‫اخترع‬ ‫ربما‬ .900.‫الميل د‬ ‫بعد‬ a. Gunpowder probably invented around the year 900 AD. b. Gunpowder is probably inventing around the year 900 AD. c. Gunpowder was probably invented around the year 900 AD.
  • 44. 20. ‫الكثيف‬ ‫الضباب‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫شديد‬ ‫بحرص‬ ‫أقو د‬ ‫.كنت‬ a. I drove extremely carefully because the thick fog. b. Because of the thick fog I drove extremely carefully. c. Because of the thick fog I drove extremely careful.
  • 45. 21.‫صغيرة‬ ‫زرقاء‬ ‫كرة‬ ‫القمر‬ ‫من‬ ‫الرض‬ ‫تبدلو‬ . a. The earth, seen from the moon, looks like a small blue sphere. b. The earth is seen from the moon looks like a small sphere. c. The earth, seen from the moon, is looks like a small sphere.
  • 46. 22‫عام‬ ‫فى‬ .2012.‫ثاهنية‬ ‫لفترة‬ ‫ألوباما‬ ‫باراك‬ ‫اهنتخاب‬ ‫أعيد‬ , a. In 2012, Barack Obama was re-elected to a second term. b. In 2012, Barack Obama re-elected to a second term. c. In 2012, Barack Obama has been re-elected to a second term.
  • 47. 23.‫وإنتاجهم‬ ‫الجتماعية‬ ‫عاداتهم‬ ‫و‬ ‫للناس‬ ‫الثقافية‬ ‫النجازات‬ ‫الثقافة‬ ‫تشمل‬ . ‫المادي‬ a. Culture includes people's intellectual achievements, their social customs and their material production. b. The Culture includes people's intellectual achievements, their social customs and their material production. c. Culture includes peoples' intellectual achievements and their social customs and their material production. 24.‫التفاقية‬ ‫الزعيمان‬ ‫وقع‬ . a. The treaty were signed by the two leaders. b. The treaty signed by the two leaders. c. The treaty was signed by the two leaders.
  • 48. 25.‫حولها‬ ‫تدور‬ ‫التى‬ ‫الكواكب‬ ‫و‬ ‫الشمس‬ ‫من‬ ‫تتكون‬ ‫الشمسية‬ ‫المجموعة‬ . a. The solar system consist of the sun and the planets that revolves around it. b. The solar system consists of the sun and the planets that revolves around it. c. Solar system consists of Sun and the planets that revolve it. 26) ‫ديكنسون‬ ‫أميلى‬ ‫عاشت‬ .1830-1886.‫المنزل‬ ‫نفس‬ ‫في‬ ‫حياتها‬ ‫كل‬ ( a. Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) lived all her life in the same house. b. Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) has lived all her life in the same house. c. Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) was living all her life in the same house.
  • 49. 27.‫الدراسي‬ ‫الفصل‬ ‫بدء‬ ‫منذ‬ ‫مشغول‬ ‫إنني‬ . a. I've been very busy. Since the new term started. b. I've been very busy. Since the new term has started. c. I've been very busy since the new term started. 28.‫السىء‬ ‫الجو‬ ‫بسبب‬ ‫فرنسا‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫رحلته‬ ‫والدي‬ ‫ألغى‬ . a. My father canceled him trip to France because of the bad weather. b. My father canceled his trip to France because the bad weather. c. My father canceled his trip to the France because of the bad weather.
  • 50. 29.‫المرتفع‬ ‫سعرها‬ ‫رغم‬ ‫السيارة‬ ‫شراء‬ ‫قرر‬ . a. He decided to buy the car although of its high price. b. He decided to buy the car in spite of its high price. c. He decided to buy the car despite of its high price. 30.‫تماما‬ ‫صحيحة‬ ‫إجابة‬ ‫السؤال‬ ‫أجاب‬ . a. He answered the question absolutely correct. b. He answered the question absolutely correctly. c. He answered the question absolute correctly.
  • 51. Examples of fragments She didn’t tell us anything. Although she saw us every morning. While on a tour of Italy. They sneaked away from the group. There are three types of dog here. All having the same colour.
  • 52. To give them the proper care and attention. We divided them into small groups. I told him that he has to come early. And that he must respect his boss. Or he will lose the job.
  • 53. II. Translation from English to Arabic
  • 54. 1. The Solar System is made up of all the planets that orbit our Sun. The Sun is the center of our solar system. The Sun contains around 98% of all the material in the Solar System. The larger an object is, the more gravity it has. Because the Sun is so large, its powerful gravity attracts all the other objects in the Solar System towards it. It is Earth’s ultimate energy source. More than 99% of the total mass of the solar system is contained in the Sun. The Earth is one of the planets that travel through space around the sun. The Sun shines on half the Earth at any one time. When the Sun shines on one half of the Earth, it is day. When it is day on one half, it is night on the other half. The moon travels around the Earth. It reflects the Sun’s light. The moon takes more than 27 days to travel around the Earth. The Solar System ‫الشمسية‬ ‫المجموعة‬ - orbit ‫حول‬ ‫تدور‬ gravity ‫الجاذبيه‬ - mass ‫كتله‬ reflect ‫يعكس‬ - planet ‫كوكب‬
  • 55. 2- Alfred Nobel made his fortune from the invention of dynamite. When he died, he left most of his fortune to fund five annual prizes to the men and women who had made the greatest contribution to humanity in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. In 1969, an award in the field of economics was added. The useful work of these men and women helps to make the world a better place.
  • 56. 3. Many animals move from one area to another at different times during the year for different reasons. Some animals migrate to warmer places in winter. Some migrate for food, water, and protection. Other animals, like penguins, choose the coldest time of year and the coldest place on earth – Antarctica – to raise their young. They migrate away from the sea, so they are far away from predators when their eggs hatch. It’s amazing that so many animals are able to find their way back to the same places in the world year after year.
  • 57. 4. Through hard work, Ellen Ochoa became the first Hispanic American female astronaut. Ochoa’s role model was her mother, who worked hard to get her first college degree. When Ochoa was young, she was interested in music and physics. Ochoa always liked the idea of going into space. However, she never thought of becoming an astronaut until 1978, when NASA chose six women for the space program. Ochoa began her training in 1990. After three years of preparation, she went on her first mission. Back on Earth, she has become a role model for thousands of girls. Ochoa’s life shows them that if women work hard, they can accomplish whatever they want. role model ‫أعلى‬ ‫مثل‬-‫نموذج‬ Hispanic American ‫أسبانى‬ ‫أصل‬ ‫من‬ ‫أمريكية‬ -NASA ‫المريكية‬‫الفضاء‬ ‫وكالة‬ astronaut ‫فضاء‬ ‫رائدة‬ -accomplish ‫تنجز‬-
  • 58. 5. History is the study of the past. It is taught in schools and universities, and hundreds of history books are published every year. The study of history is considered essential for many reasons. History helps us understand people and societies. The most important benefit from studying history is discovering the origin of things. We cannot understand the modern world without knowledge of the past. We can say that history to a nation is like the memory to the individual.
  • 59. 6. History or Biography History and biography have several similarities, but they are not synonymous. Both the biographer and the historian search for evidence. They evaluate the information they find to decide if it is factual and relevant. History, however, is the recorded past of human societies; it tells the story of nations, wars, and movements – the whole range of past human activity. Biography deals with a single life story.
  • 60. The historian is interested in facts and events that affect many lives; the biographer seeks information that reveals the subject’s character. If the subject of a biography is a well-known public figure such as a president of the United States, his life story becomes a historical narrative. The life of George Washington, for instance , is a significant segment of American history.
  • 61. 7. Many modern European buildings are tourist sites. The Eiffel Tower is the fifth tallest building in France. When it was built in 1889, it was the world’s tallest building. More than 200 million people have visited the Eiffel Tower since it was built. It was named after Gustave Eiffel, who designed it. It is now a symbol of France. The year 2011 was the 152nd birthday of another famous tourist site in Europe: Big Ben. Big Ben is located atop the Westminster Palace in London, England. Big Ben is the largest chiming clock in the world. Chiming clocks are clocks that use bells to make their sound. Big Ben is a symbol of the United Kingdom. Eiffel Tower ‫ايفل‬ ‫برج‬ tourist ‫سياحى‬ named after ‫اسم‬ ‫على‬ ‫مسمى‬ atop ‫قمة‬ ‫على‬ Westminster Palace‫ويستمنستر‬ ‫قصر‬ symbol ‫رمز‬ chiming clock ‫ساعة‬ ‫دقاقة‬ Big Ben ‫بن‬ ‫بيج‬
  • 62. 8. Animal migration is one of the great wonders of the natural world. This fascinating phenomenon takes many forms. Many animals move from one area to another at different times during the year for different reasons. Some animals migrate to escape from the cold in winter. Many birds, for example, fly south to warmer climates. Some migrate for food, water, and protection. It’s amazing that so many animals are able to find their way back to the same places in the world year after year. Phenomenon ‫ظاهرة‬ migration ‫هجرة‬ Fascinating ‫مدهش‬
  • 63. 9. Science is different from technology. Science is the study of the natural world. Scientists try to understand the laws that govern all objects in the universe. They use a group of procedures that are called the scientific method. Technology, on the other hand, is the use of science to make the tools and machines that help make the life of people easier and better. Advancement in science continually leads to the development of new technologies. procedure ‫اجراء‬ tools ‫أدوات‬ advancement ‫تقدم‬
  • 64. 10. To me, books are the most interesting things in the world. I can choose a book and be in another place or another time without leaving my room. Books make us know about other peoples and other places. They can teach us a lot of things about life. Books can change people’s lives and even the human history. I can spend all my life reading books.
  • 65. 11. Education is preparation for life. Learning facts is not the primary aim of teaching at schools. Schools should focus on teaching childrern how to cope with the problems of life and how to find solutions that help make their lives easier and better. In other words, good education does not give the answers to all our questions; it gives the tools that we can use to search for the answers and the keys that help us open new doors.
  • 66. 12. On April 1912, the Titanic – at that time the world’s largest and most luxurious ocean liner – disappeared into the icy depths of the North Atlantic. Some 1500 people died – more casualties than in any other disaster in peacetime history. After striking a huge iceberg, the 46,5000 ton vessel sank in less than three hours. Lioyd’s of London, the firm that had insured the Titanic, had reasoned that the probability of such an event was one in a million. At 11:40 pm on the evening of the disaster, the lookout on the Titanic’s bridge saw an ominous shape ahead.
  • 67. “Ice, Dead ahead!” he shouted. The helm was turned hard over and the engines were reversed, but it was too late. A 300-foot gash was ripped along the side of the Titanic’s hull as though it were made of tin. If the lookout had not sighted the iceberg and the helmsman not turned the wheel, the Titanic would probably have struck the iceberg head-on. It is then likely that only the bow sections of the ship would have been flooded and, though seriously crippled, she would have remained afloat.
  • 68. 13. Albert Einstein was one of the greatest scientists of all time. He is best known for his theory of relativity, which he first developed when he was only 26. He also made many other contributions to science. Einstein’s theory revolutionized scientific thought with new conceptions of time, space, mass, motion, and gravitation. In so doing, he laid the basis for controlling the release of energy from the atom.
  • 69. 14. With more than 30 novels and many short stories to his credit, Naguib Mahfouz has transformed Arabic literature, introducing Western literary forms to Arab culture. His Cairo Trilogy is considered a masterpiece of cultural cross-section, presenting one of the greatest depictions of Cairo ever recorded. Like Dickens’ London or Balzac’s Paris, Mahfouz’s Cairo comes to life through meticulous attention to detail. The Trilogy follows three generations of a single family through Egypt’s transition into modernity, from World War I through the 1950s.
  • 70. In the 1960s, Mahfouz turned away from Realism and began incorporating interior monologue. Allegory and symbolism have also entered his work, serving as a mask for political discontent.
  • 71. 15. A Language is a system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other. It is the vehicle of transmitting knowledge from one generation to another. Besides being a means of communication that enables humans to cooperate, language is also a source of entertainment that can convey a sense of beauty through a work of literature. Most languages were spoken first then written down later. Languages evolve, change, and may die. Now, there are probably more than 6,000 languages in the world. Vehicle ‫وسيلة‬ cooperate ‫يتعاون‬ Transmit ‫يوصل‬/‫ينقل‬ evolve ‫يتطور‬ Covey ‫يوصل‬/‫ينقل‬
  • 72. 16. Culture is not only about complex philosophical systems, classical music, plastic arts, or modern sophisticated forms of social interaction. Any group of human beings, sharing a piece of land at a certain historical period is said to have its particular culture, no matter how simple or advanced. Culture is a characteristic of all human groups, and of all individuals within those groups. According to the anthropological definition of the word, culture is the sum total of all the intellectual achievements of people, their practical skills, their ways of living, their social customs and habits, and their behavioral patterns. As such, culture includes literary production, arts, folkloric dancing, scientific inventions and technical innovations. It also comprises religions and value systems.
  • 73. 17. Culture is a human characteristic. Only human societies are capable of cultural exchange and transmission of knowledge, skills, and patterns of behavior among individuals and groups, and through generations. Animal behavior seems to be primarily genetically determined with only few exceptions that some scientists use as proof of the existence of animal cultures. It is true that some primates, for instance, pass some learned skills to other generations of the same group. But these exceptions do not support the case of animal cultures. Even the most flagrant cases of animal development of cultural patterns stop short of the most primitive human cultures.
  • 74. 18. Changes in the political scene, the rising of new economic powers, and the introduction of new communication technologies are some factors that are gradually affecting existing languages. If China's role in the international arena continues to develop in a way that matches its rapidly growing economic prowess, Chinese might become the new global language, instead of English, probably challenged by the Indian variety of English, given the equally rapid rise of India. Children in schools all over the world in the coming decades will then be taught Chinese or Indian English as a second language.
  • 75. 19. The Western image of Islam can be traced back to the seventh century, with the stepping of the new faith onto the stage of history and its rapid expansion beyond the Arabian peninsula. Few decades after the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE, the making of an image started in response to the impact of Islam on the world arena. The present Western image of Islam is as much the outcome of those early days as the product of the subsequent periods of confrontation and those of comparative peace and coexistence.
  • 76. 20. Many animals are capable of communicating with each other and sometimes with humans through sounds and body movements. To what extent do those signs constitute language? Scientists who study animal and bird communication have recorded the cases of parrots, chimpanzees, dolphins and other animals who can express a variety of meanings through gestures or sounds, or who can recognize a large number of words in human languages. They have also illustrated that some animals are capable of not only learning new signs but also passing them to other animals and to other generations of their species. But animal language cannot be compared with human languages in terms of complexity. Human languages are the vehicle of great religious and philosophical ideas, the medium of expressing deep thoughts and feelings, the reservoir of scientific theories and insights. It is not just a means of transferring information, but a conveyer of beauty through great works of literature. Human languages are definitely the most complicated systems of signs.
  • 77. 21. Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) Amelia Earhart was an American aviation pioneer and author. Amelia was born in her grandparents’ house in Kansas. Her parents didn’t have any money, but her grandparents were rich and sent her to the best schools. At 20, she decided to study nursing and worked in a hospital in World War I. When she was 23, she visited an air show and went up in a plane. At that moment, she knew that she wanted to be a pilot. In 1920, flying was dangerous, and people didn’t think it was suitable for women. But Amelia had flying lessons, and a year later, she broke her first record – she flew up to 14,000 feet.
  • 78. She married at 34, but she never had children. The next year, she became the first woman – and the second person – to fly alone across the Atlantic. She was now famous, and she travelled around the world to talk about her experiences. In 1935, when she was 38, she became the first person to fly alone across the Pacific. When she was nearly 40, Amelia wanted to be the first woman to fly around the world. She began the 29,000 mile flight in Milan on 1 June 1937. On 2 July, she was nearly at the end of her journey, when her plane disappeared near Howland Island in the Pacific Ocean.
  • 79. Earhart was a successful writer who served as aviation editor for Cosmopolitan magazine from 1928 to 1930. She wrote magazine articles, newspaper columns, essays and published two books based upon her experiences as a flyer during her lifetime. Earhart's accomplishments in aviation inspired generations of female aviators. She was a widely known international celebrity during her lifetime. Fascination with Amelia’s life, career and disappearance continues to this day.
  • 80. 22. Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American writer. She is best known for her book Uncle Tom's Cabin, which gave a picture of the inhuman face of slavery. This book had a very powerful effect on public opinion in the period before the American civil war. Stowe was born in 1811 to a religious family. She was educated at a girls' school. When she was 21, she moved to Ohio, where she became concerned with social problems. She always hated slavery and felt it her duty to write about the injustice of slavery. Stowe's book made many Americans more sympathetic with the idea of ending slavery. Although best remembered for her successful book, Harriet also published 20 novels and wrote on a variety of social issues. Slavery ‫العبودية‬ – ‫الرق‬ Uncle Tom‘s Cabin‫توم‬ ‫العم‬ ‫كوخ‬ - civil war ‫أهلية‬ ‫حرب‬ sympathetic with ‫مع‬ ‫متعاطف‬ -
  • 81. 23. The Alligator is the largest reptile that lives in North America and China. It has a large, dark body and thick limbs. The alligator uses its powerful tail to push itself through water. The tail is almost half the alligator's length. While alligators move very quickly in water, they are generally slow-moving on land. They can, however, move quickly for short distances. Alligators live in rivers, and large male alligators are solitary animals. The American Alligator was once an endangered animal but thanks to protection laws, it has been saved. Over a million Alligators exist in the USA today. alligator ‫المريكي‬ ‫التمساح‬ - endangered ‫بالقنقراض‬ ‫مهدد‬ Reptiles ‫الزواحف‬ - limbs ‫أطراف‬
  • 82. 24. The novel and the short story are two forms of fiction. The novel is older than the short story. While the modern novel appeared in England in the eighteenth century, the short story appeared in the United States and France in the nineteenth century. There are many differences between the two. The first difference is that of length. Unlike novels that can be really long, short stories are brief works of literature, usually less than 20,000 words. Short stories have fewer characters than novels. While short stories may focus on only one major character; in novels, the writer has space to explore the lives of several major characters. The plot of a short story is also less complicated than in a novel, usually focusing on a single conflict.
  • 83. 25. Marie Curie was born in 1867 in Poland. She was brought up in a poor but well educated family. Marie was excellent in her studies and won many prizes. She was interested in Chemistry and Biology, and she went to Paris to study at the Sorbonne. She got a degree in Physics and another in Math. In Paris, she met Pierre Curie, the renowned Chemist, and they got married. Marie's studies in radioactivity led to the discovery of two new elements. For this discovery and others that followed, Marie and her husband were awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903. In 1911, she was awarded a second Nobel prize in Chemistry. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first person to win twice.
  • 84. 26. Medicine is the use of science to cure disease and maintain health. It includes prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. Doctors use medicine to treat illnesses. Most people visit doctors only when they are sick. But doctors also try to keep people from becoming ill in the first place. They do so by increasing health awareness. They help people know about cleanliness, good food, and immunization. This is called preventive medicine. Surgery is a type of medical treatment in which a doctor cuts into someone's body in order to repair or remove diseased parts.
  • 85. 27. Sally Ride was an American astronaut. She was born in Los Angeles in 1951. She joined NASA in 1978. At the age of 32, she became the first American woman in space as a crew member on space shuttle Challenger. After flying twice on the space shuttle, she left NASA in 1987. She worked for two years at Stanford University, then the University of California as a professor of physics. Sally Ride is the youngest American astronaut to travel to space. On July 23, 2012, Sally Ride died at the age of 61, following a 17- month battle with cancer. She will always be remembered as a pioneering astronaut who went
  • 86. Translating Sentences that have Verbal Phrases • The dog eating the flowers belongs to my neighbor. • Peering at the map, I tried to find the street name.
  • 87. • The novels written by Thomas Hardy are classics of English literature. • This novel, written by Thomas hardy, is a classic of English literature. • Trees blown down by the wind blocked the road.
  • 88. • My aunt lives in a stone cottage built by my grandfather. • I traced this cousin through an address found on the Internet.
  • 89. • Hidden by the trees, Jerry waited to scare Mark. • Jerry, hidden by the trees, waited to scare Mark. • The children, waiting for the play to begin, grew bored.
  • 90. • We saw an old woman walking up the path. • The cookies, baked this morning, were all gone by five o'clock. • The woman wearing the long, red, silk dress won Best New Artist of the Year.
  • 91. • Parrots, considered the most intelligent of birds, can mimic human speech. • The car sliding out of control toward building will likely hit the window. • Lions, known to be the most social of the big cats, spend twenty hours each day resting and sleeping.
  • 92. ‫الجنجليزية‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫العربية‬ ‫من‬ ‫الترجمة‬
  • 93. 1.‫كتابها‬ ‫من‬ ‫بداية‬I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings‫مايا‬ ‫استخدمت‬ ,‫اليخيرة‬ ‫الذاتية‬ ‫بسيرتها‬ ‫اقنتهاء‬ ‫و‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الناشئ‬ ‫السر‬ ‫يمثل‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫و‬ ,‫الطائر‬ ‫رمز‬ ‫أقنجلو‬ ‫من‬ ‫التخلص‬ ‫أجل‬ ‫من‬ ‫النضال‬ ‫و‬ ,‫القهر‬ ‫و‬ ‫العنصرية‬ .‫القفص‬ ‫الحتجاج‬ ‫أدب‬ ‫تقليد‬ ‫ضمن‬ ‫أقنجلو‬ ‫أعمال‬ ‫تندرج‬ ‫و‬ ‫فى‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫تؤكد‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الرئيسي‬ ‫أقنجلو‬ ‫موضوع‬ ‫و‬ .‫السياسي‬ .‫مكافحته‬ ‫كيفية‬ ‫و‬ ‫العنصرية‬ ‫ظلم‬ ‫هو‬ ‫كتبها‬ ‫كل‬
  • 94. 2‫ما‬ ‫يخلل‬ ‫أأأو‬ ،‫الميلدي‬ ‫عشأأر‬ ‫الثامأأن‬ ‫القرن‬ ‫يخلل‬ . ‫وعلماء‬ ‫الفلسفة‬ ‫بيأن‬ ‫الليبراليأة‬ ‫شاعأت‬ ،‫التنويأر‬ ‫بعصأر‬ ‫يعرف‬ُ .‫مستقلة‬ ‫سأياسية‬ ‫كحركأة‬ ‫الغربأي‬ ‫العالأم‬ ‫فأي‬ ‫التقتصأاد‬‫اعترض‬ ‫أقنصأار‬‫كالمزايا‬ ‫الزمان‬ ‫ذاك‬ ‫فأي‬ ‫شائعأة‬ ‫أفكار‬ ‫علأى‬ ‫الليبراليأة‬ ‫المؤسس‬ ‫لوك‬ ‫جون‬ ‫القنجليزي‬ ‫المفكأأر‬ ‫يعتأأبر‬ُ .‫الموروثة‬ ‫فلسأفته‬ ‫كاقنأت‬ ‫فقأد‬ ,‫لليبراليأة‬‫تقول‬‫في‬ ‫طأبيعي‬ ‫حأق‬ ‫للفرد‬ ‫بأأن‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫أة‬‫أ‬‫لنظري‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫ووفق‬ .‫أة‬‫أ‬‫الخاص‬ ‫أة‬‫أ‬‫والملكي‬ ،‫أة‬‫أ‬‫الحياة،والحري‬ ‫من‬ ‫ا‬ً ‫أي‬ ‫تضطهد‬ ‫أل‬ ‫حكومة‬ ‫أي‬ ‫على‬ ‫يتوجب‬ ‫فإقنه‬ ،‫الجتماعي‬ .‫للفرد‬ ‫الطبيعية‬ ‫الحقوق‬ ‫هذه‬ advocate/ proponent/supporter Disapprove of / dislike/

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