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    • CHARLES DICKENS British novelist Charles Dickens was born February 7, 1812, in Portsmouth, England, the second of eight children. The family’s financial situation had grown dire, as Charles’s father, John Dickens was always living beyond the family’s means. In 1822, the Dickens family moved to Camden Town, a poor neighborhood in London. John was then sent to prison for debt in 1824, when Charles was just 12 years old. All the family, except Charles, went with him.
    •  To help support the family, Charles Dickens was forced to leave school to work at a boot-blacking factory. This early degrading experience had a shattering and lasting experience on him. He felt abandoned and neglected. He was also introduced to the world of the working poor, where child laborers were abused and ill-treated. When his father received a family inheritance and used it to pay off his debts, Dickens was back to school. But in 1827, he had to drop out of school and work as an office boy at an attorneys, while he studied shorthand at night.
    •  From 1830 he worked as a shorthand reporter in the courts and afterwards as a parliamentary and newspaper reporter. In 1833 Dickens began to contribute short stories and essays to periodicals under the pseudonym Boz. Dickenss first book, a collection of stories titled Sketches by Boz, was published in 1836. In 1836, he married Catherine Hogarth, daughter of the editor of the Evening Chronicle. Together they had 10 children before they separated in 1858.
    •  In 1836, Dickens became editor for Bentley’s Miscellany of which Pickwick Papers (1836-1837) was first serialized.
    •  Most of his novels were first serialised in monthly magazines as was a common practice of the time. Oliver Twist between 1837 and 1839 was followed by Nicholas Nickleby (1838- 1839), The Old Curiosity Shop (1840-1841), and Barnaby Rudge (1841) and A Christmas Carol (1843). From 1849 to 1850, Dickens worked on David Copperfield. He then published Bleak House (1852-53), Hard Times (1854), Little Dorrit (1857), A Tale of Two Cities (1859), and Great Expectations (1861).
    •  In the closing years of his life, Dickens worsened his declining health by giving numerous readings. Charles Dickens died at home on June 9, 1870. Dickenss novels were works of social commentary. He was a harsh critic of the poverty and social division of the Victorian society.
    • CHAPTER 1 Oliver Twist is born in a workhouse, and hismother dies immediately after his birth.Oliver’s mother has been found lying in thestreets the night before. The surgeon noticesthat she is not wearing a wedding ring.
    • CHAPTER 2 Authorities at the workhouse send Oliver to abranch run by Mrs. Mann, who receives a sumfor each child she keeps, but she takes most ofthe money and lets the children go hungry, oreven letting them die. On Oliver’s ninth birthday,Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, informs Mrs.Mann that Oliver is too old to stay anymore withher and that he must return to the workhouse.
    • The narrator sarcastically comments on thegenerosity and kindness of the workhouseauthorities, who offer the poor the opportunityto starve slowly instead of starving quickly onthe streets. Oliver and the boys with him sufferthe “tortures of slow starvation.” One night, achild tells the others that if he does not haveanother bowl of gruel, he might eat one ofthem. Terrified, the children cast lots to choosesomeone to ask for more food for the boy.Oliver is selected to ask for more. Mr. Bumble isshocked and runs to transfer the horrific newsto the board. They decide to offer five poundsto anyone who will take Oliver.
    • CHAPTER 3 In the parish, Oliver has been flogged andlocked in a dark room as an example. Mr.Gamfield, a cruel chimneysweep, offers to takeOliver on as an apprentice. Because several boyshave died under his supervision, the boardconsiders five pounds too large a reward, andthey settle on just three pounds. Oliver begs thatthey do not send him with this hideous man.The magistrate refuses to give him to the man.
    • Mr. Gamfield
    • CHAPTER 4 Mr. Sowerberry, the parish undertaker, takesOliver as his apprentice. Mrs. Sowerberryremarks that Oliver is rather small. Mr. Bumbleassures her that he will grow, but she grumblesthat he will only grow by eating their food. Mrs.Sowerberry serves Oliver the leftovers that thedog has declined to eat. Oliver devours the foodas though it were a great feast. After he finishes,Mrs. Sowerberry leads him to his bed, worryingthat his appetite seems so large.
    • CHAPTERS 5-7 In the morning he hears someone kicking at theoutside door. It turns out to be Noah Claypole,Sowerberry’s apprentice, who tells Oliver that he is hissuperior. Noah and Charlotte, the maid, tease Oliver duringbreakfast. Because of Olivers melancholy appearance,Sowerberry makes Oliver serve at childrens funerals as amute. Noah Claypole becomes jealous. One day, he insultsOliver’s dead mother. Oliver attacks him in a fury. Charlotteand Mrs. Sowerberry rush to Noah’s aid, and the three ofthem beat Oliver and lock him in the cellar. Noah rushes tofetch Mr. Bumble. Mr. Bumble says that this is the result offeeding meat to Oliver. When Sowerberry returns home,he beats Oliver, and locks him up again. Early the nextmorning, Oliver runs away.
    • CHAPTER 8 Oliver takes the long trip to London. At theoutskirts of London, he meets a boy namedJack Dawkins, who buys food for Oliver andtells him about a gentleman who will let Oliverstay in his home for free. Jack’s nickname is“the Artful Dodger.” Dawkins takes Oliver to adirty neighborhood and into an old house.There he meets Fagin and a large group ofboys. Oliver is very tired and sleeps.
    • CHAPTER 9 The next morning, Fagin takes out a box full ofjewelry and watches. When he notices that Oliverwas observing him, Fagin grabs a knife and asksOliver if he has seen anything. Oliver says he was not,and Fagin regains his kindly conduct. The ArtfulDodger returns with another boy, named CharleyBates. Fagin asks if they worked hard that morning.The Dodger produces two pocketbooks, and Charleypulls out four handkerchiefs. Dodger and Charleypractice picking Fagin’s pockets. Two young women,Bet and Nancy, drop in. Fagin lets Oliver practicetaking a handkerchief out of his pocket and gives hima shilling for a job well done.
    • CHAPTER 10 Finally, Fagin sends Oliver out with the Dodgerand Charley to “work.” After some time, the Dodgernotices a gentleman absorbed in reading at abookstall. Oliver watches with horror as Charley andthe Dodger sneak up behind the man and steal hishandkerchief. Thinking that Oliver is the thief, thegentleman raises a cry. The Dodger and Charley seeOliver running past them, so they join in, crying,“Stop thief!” A large crowd joins the pursuit. Apolice officer arrives and takes Oliver to the policestation. The gentleman who was robbed asks thepolice officer not to hurt Oliver and follows them tothe police station.
    • CHAPTER 11 Oliver is put in a cell before his appearancebefore Mr. Fang, the judge. Mr. Brownlow, thegentleman, says that he does not want to presscharges. Oliver faints in the courtroom, and Mr.Fang sentences him to three months of hardlabor. The owner of the bookstall comes to thecourt and tells Mr. Fang that he saw two otherboys stealing. So, Oliver is cleared of all charges.Brownlow takes Oliver home with him.
    • Mr. Brownlow
    • CHAPTER 12 Oliver has a fever for days. When he awakes,Mrs. Bedwin, Brownlow’s housekeeper, iswatching over him. because she is so kind to him,Oliver says that he feels as if his mother has cometo sit by him. Oliver’s story makes Mrs. Bedwinweep. Oliver sees a portrait of a young womanwhich affects him greatly. Mr. Brownlow notices with astonishment thatOliver closely resembles the young lady in theportrait.
    • CHAPTER 13 Fagin is enraged when the Dodger and Charleyreturn without Oliver. Bill Sikes, a rough, cruel man,who makes his living by robbing houses, enters. Theyare determined to find Oliver before he tells aboutthem to the authorities. They want Nancy to go tothe police station to find out what happened to him. Nancy goes to the police station, pretending to beOliver’s sister. She knows that Oliver is taken by thegentleman home because the boy had fallen ill duringthe trial. Fagin sends Charley, Jack, and Nancy toPentonville to find Oliver. Fagin prepares to move to another place.
    • Bill Sikes
    • CHAPTER 14 Mr. Brownlow wants to send Oliver tothe bookstall with some returned booksand a payment. Mr. Grimwig, Brownlow’sfriend, hints that Oliver might steal thepayment and the books. To prove Grimwigwrong, Brownlow sends Oliver on theerrand. It grows dark and Oliver does notreturn.
    • Mr. Grimwig
    • CHAPTER 15 Nancy appears in Oliver’s way to thebookstall. She tells everyone on the street thatOliver is her runaway brother who joined aband of thieves, and that she is taking himback home to their parents. Everyone ignoresOliver’s protests. Bill Sikes joins, and he andNancy drag Oliver through the darkbackstreets.
    • CHAPTER 16 Nancy, Sikes, and Oliver arrive at an oldhouse. Oliver calls for help and flees, but Sikesthreatens to set his vicious dog, Bullseye, onhim. Nancy defends Oliver, saying that they haveruined the boy’s life like they did with her’s.Fagin tries to beat Oliver for his escape attempt,and Nancy attacks Fagin in a rage. Sikes catchesNancy by the wrists, and she faints. They takeOliver’s new fine clothes, Brownlow’s money,and the books.
    • Bullseye
    • CHAPTER 17 Mr. Brownlow publishes an advertisementoffering a reward for information about Oliver’splace or his past. Mr. Bumble notices it in thepaper and quickly goes to Brownlow’s home.Mr. Bumble tells about Oliver’s immoralbehaviour and treachery. Although Mr.Brownlow is deeply hurt by Bumblesinformation about Oliver, he believes it and saysthat he never wants to hear Oliver’s namementioned again. Mrs. Bedwin, however,refuses to believe Mr. Bumble.
    • CHAPTER 18 For many days, Oliver is locked in his room.Fagin gradually allows Oliver to spend moretime in the other boys’ company, who try toconvince him of learning to be a thief from Faginand talk about the profits of their type of life.
    • CHAPTERS 19- 21 Sikes plans to rob a house, but he needs asmall boy for the job. Fagin suggests that Oliver beused in this job. Nancy brings Oliver to Sikes’home. Oliver considers calling for help on thestreets, but Nancy warns him that he could getboth of them into deep trouble. They arrive atSikes’s residence, and Sikes shows Oliver a pistol.He warns Oliver that if he causes any trouble, hewill kill him. At five in the morning, they prepare toleave for the job. Sikes takes Oliver on a longjourney to the town of Shepperton. They arriveafter dark.
    • CHAPTER 22 Sikes goes with Oliver and Toby Crackit,Sikes’ partner, to rob the house. Sikes tellsOliver to enter the house through a tinywindow and open the street door to let themin. Oliver plans to go upstairs and warn thefamily. Sikes lowers him through the window.However, the residents of the house awake,and one shoots Oliver’s arm. Sikes pulls Oliverback through the window. He flees with thebleeding Oliver.
    • CHAPTERS 23 - 24 Old Sally, a woman under Mrs. Corney’s care, isclose to death and wishes to tell Mrs. Corney, thematron of the workhouse, something. Sheconfesses that she once robbed a woman in hercare. The woman had been found pregnant on theroad, and Sally had attended the childbirth. Thewoman had given Sally a gold locket, saying itmight lead to people who would care for the child.The child’s name was Oliver. Sally dies, and Mrs.Corney leaves. She tells the nurses who attendedSally that Sally had nothing to say after all.
    • CHAPTER 25 - 26 Crackit arrives at Fagin’s. Fagin has learnedfrom the newspapers that the robbery has failed.Crackit informs Fagin that Oliver has been shot andthat he and Sikes fled, leaving Oliver in a ditch. At Sikes’s residence, Fagin finds Nancy, whotells him that Sikes is hiding. Fagin tells her whathappened to Oliver, and Nancy cries that she hopesOliver is dead, because she believes that living withFagin is worse than death. Monks goes to Fagin. Monks appears to havesome interest in Oliver. He was looking for Oliverand saw him the day Oliver was arrested.
    • CHAPTER 27-28 Mr. Bumble tells Mrs. Corney that he mightbecome master of the workhouse as thecurrent master is dying. He promises to marryMrs. Corney. Oliver manages to reach the gate of thehouse that Sikes took him to rob and knocks atthe door. The servants allow him in and theniece of the house owner orders him upstairs.
    • CHAPTER 29-30 Mrs. Maylie, the mistress of the house atwhich Oliver is shot is a kindly, elderly woman.Miss Rose, her niece, is a beautiful girl ofseventeen. Mr. Losberne, the local surgeon,arrives to see the criminal. When Miss Rose seesOliver, she says that he cannot be a burglar. Shebegs her aunt not to send the child to prison.Oliver tells them his life story. Summoned by theservants, the police officers arrive.
    • CHAPTER 31-32 The servants tell the police that Oliver is notone of the thieves, and the police officers leave.Oliver slowly begins to recover. Oliver wants to tellBrownlow and Mrs. Bedwin what has happened tohim. So, Mr. Losberne takes Oliver to London tosee them, but they discover that Brownlow, Mrs.Bedwin, and Mr. Grimwig have moved to the WestIndies. Mrs. Maylie and Miss Rose then take him tothe countryside, which helps improve Oliver’shealth greatly. Oliver learns to read and write withthe Maylies. He becomes greatly attached to MrsMaylie and Rose during the months they spendthere.
    • CHAPTER 33-36 Rose falls ill, and Harry Maylie, Mrs. Maylie’sson, arrives to see her. Rose loves Harry butcannot marry him because the uncertainty of herbirth. One day Oliver dreams that Fagin and a manare pointing at him and whispering. Fagin says, “Itis he, sure enough!” Oliver awakes to see Faginand a stranger peering through the window. Theydisappear rapidly as Oliver calls for help. Before Harry departs, he asks that Oliversecretly write him a letter every two weeks, tellinghim everything Oliver and the ladies do and say.
    • CHAPTER 37 Mr. Bumble has married Mrs. Corney andbecome master of the workhouse. One day, aman in a dark cape offers Mr. Bumble moneyfor information about Old Sally, the womanwho attended Oliver’s birth. Mr. Bumblementions that he knows a woman who spoketo the old woman on her deathbed. Thestranger asks that Mr. Bumble bring thiswoman to see him the following evening. Hegives his name as Monks.
    • CHAPTER 38 Mr. and Mrs. Bumble meet Monks. Mrs.Bumble wants twenty-five pounds for herinformation. Mrs. Bumble relates how Old Sallyrobbed Oliver’s mother. Mrs. Bumble says shediscovered a pawnbroker’s receipt in Old Sally’sdead hands and that she redeemed it for thegold locket, which she hands to Monks. Inside,he finds a wedding ring and two locks of hair. Thename “Agnes” is engraved on the ring. Monksdrops it into the river.
    • CHAPTER 39-40 Monks arrives to meet Fagin alone. Nancyfollows them and listens in. Nancy goes to meetMiss Maylie. She tells Rose that she overheardMonks tell Fagin that he is Oliver’s brother. Monkswants Oliver’s identity to remain unknown so thatMonks himself can keep their family’s inheritance tohimself. Monks would kill Oliver. He has alsopromised to pay Fagin if he finds Oliver and bringshim back. Rose offers to help Nancy leave her life ofcrime, but Nancy replies that she cannot becauseshe loves Sikes. She refuses Rose’s money. Beforeleaving, Nancy informs Rose that she can be foundon London Bridge between eleven and twelve everySunday night.
    • CHAPTER 41-46 Rose takes Oliver to Mr. Brownlow’s house.She tells Brownlow Nancy’s story. They decide tocontact Nancy the following Sunday on LondonBridge. Fagin is visiting Sikes when Nancy tries toleave for London Bridge at eleven on Sunday.Fagin sends Noah Claypole, who had run awayfrom Sowerberry and joined the gang, behind her.Nancy meets Mr. Brownlow and Rose on LondonBridge. Noah hears Nancy tell them when andwhere they can find Monks. They hope to catchMonks and know about Oliver from him. Nancycries violently and then heads for home. Noahhurries to Fagin’s house.
    • CHAPTER 47-48 Fagin and Noah tell Sikes about the details ofNancy’s trip. In a rage, Sikes rushes home andbeats Nancy to death while she begs for mercy.In the morning, he flees London into thecountryside. He then decides to return. He triesto drown Bull’s-eye because he is afraid that hisdog, will give him away, but it escapes.
    • CHAPTER 49 With the help of two other men, Mr. Brownlowmanages to kidnap Monks and take him to hishome. Brownlow confronts Monks and wrings thetruth about Oliver from him. Monks real name turnsout to be Edward Leeford and that he is Oliver’s halfbrother. Their father, Mr. Leeford, was unhappilymarried to a wealthy woman and had an affair withOliver’s mother, Agnes Fleming. Monks has beenpursuing Oliver all along in the hopes of ensuringthat his half-brother is deprived of his share of thefamily inheritance.
    • CHAPTER 50-53 Mr. Brownlow forces Monks to sign over Oliver’sshare to Oliver. Moreover, it is discovered that Roseis Agnes’s younger sister, hence Oliver’s aunt. Followed by the police and a huge crowd ofpeople, Sikes accidently hangs himself with a ropethat tries to use to escape. Fagin is tied and hungfor his crimes. Harry and Rose get married. Mr. Brownlowadopts Oliver, and they and the Maylies retire to thecountryside.