THE ART OF
TRANSLATIONPrepaired by
Dr. M. Fahmy Raiyah
CONTENTS
• The Process of Translation
Catford’s Definition of Translation
Eugene Nida’s Model
• Tools of the Translator
Di...
THE TRANSLATION
PROCESS
Catford’s Definition of Translation
Translation is the act of replacing text
in the source language (SL) by an
equivalent ...
Eugene Nida’s Model
Source Language Target (Receptor)
(SL) Language (TL)
Analysis Synthesis
Transfer
• Analysis (Decoding)
• Transfer
• Synthesis (Encoding or Re-structuring)
• Equivalence
• Translation Losses
TOOLS OF THE TRANSLATOR
The translator must in good command of
both the source and target languages. I
addition, he needs the following tools of t...
1. Dictionaries
Unabridged Abridged Monolingual Bilingual
paper
electronic
General
vocabulary
Usage and
Idioms, etc
• Monolingual dictionaries
Unabridged:
o Oxford English Dictionary (OED)
o Random House Dictionary of the English Language...
• Bilingual Dictionaries
(English – Arabic & Arabic –English):
o–
o–
o
o
o
o
o
Two of the best
recommended English
dictionaries for advanced
students
• Dictionaries of Usage and Idioms
ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES
ONLINE COMPUTER-BASED SOFWARE HANDHELD
• Online Dictionaries
o Cambridge: dictionary.cambridge.org
o Dictionary.com: dictionary.reference.com
o Macmillan: www.ma...
2. REFERENCE WORKS
o Dictionaries of Specialized Terminology
o Encyclopedias
o Dictionaries of Biography (Who’s Who)
Specialized Dictionaries
Encyclopedias
3. RELEVANT MATERIAL
If the translator is not familiar with the topic
of the text he is translating, he needs to learn
abo...
LEVELS OF
TRANSLATION
1. THE LEXICAL LEVEL
Factors that affect the meaning and choice
of a word:
• The Context
• Degrees of Formality
• Date of ...
Abstract Nouns
• Synonyms
Example: happiness, gladness, joy, enjoyment,
delight, rapture, ecstasy, felicity, contentment
p...
Concrete Nouns
Some concrete nouns specific of certain cultures
are difficult to translate.
Food: sushi, pizza,
Dress: kim...
Proper Nouns
• Proper nous are not translatable.
Example: Mr. John Smith does not become
• Notice the historical distortio...
2. THE SENTENCE LEVEL
• Differences between the English and Arabic
sentences need to be attended to.
• Study carefully the...
Introduction to Translation
Introduction to Translation
Introduction to Translation
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Introduction to Translation

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Introduction to Translation

  1. 1. THE ART OF TRANSLATIONPrepaired by Dr. M. Fahmy Raiyah
  2. 2. CONTENTS • The Process of Translation Catford’s Definition of Translation Eugene Nida’s Model • Tools of the Translator Dictionaries Reference Works Relevant Material • Translation Levels The Lexical Level The Syntactic Level
  3. 3. THE TRANSLATION PROCESS
  4. 4. Catford’s Definition of Translation Translation is the act of replacing text in the source language (SL) by an equivalent text in the target language (TL), where not only superficial semantic equivalents are sought but also a maximum of implied meanings and emotional effects are transferred.
  5. 5. Eugene Nida’s Model Source Language Target (Receptor) (SL) Language (TL) Analysis Synthesis Transfer
  6. 6. • Analysis (Decoding) • Transfer • Synthesis (Encoding or Re-structuring)
  7. 7. • Equivalence • Translation Losses
  8. 8. TOOLS OF THE TRANSLATOR
  9. 9. The translator must in good command of both the source and target languages. I addition, he needs the following tools of the trade: 1. DICTIONARIES 2. REFERENCE WORKS 3. OTHER WORKS IN THE FIELD OF THE SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXT TOOLS OF THE TRANSLATOR
  10. 10. 1. Dictionaries Unabridged Abridged Monolingual Bilingual paper electronic General vocabulary Usage and Idioms, etc
  11. 11. • Monolingual dictionaries Unabridged: o Oxford English Dictionary (OED) o Random House Dictionary of the English Language o American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language o Webster’s New International Dictionary Abridged: o Shorter Oxford English Dictionary o Oxford Concise Dictionary of English (COED) o Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English o Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
  12. 12. • Bilingual Dictionaries (English – Arabic & Arabic –English): o– o– o o o o o
  13. 13. Two of the best recommended English dictionaries for advanced students
  14. 14. • Dictionaries of Usage and Idioms
  15. 15. ELECTRONIC DICTIONARIES ONLINE COMPUTER-BASED SOFWARE HANDHELD
  16. 16. • Online Dictionaries o Cambridge: dictionary.cambridge.org o Dictionary.com: dictionary.reference.com o Macmillan: www.macmillandictionary.com o Merriam Webster: www.m-w.com o Oxford Dictionaries: oxforddictionaries.com - Dictionary o Collins: http://www.collinsdictionary.com/ o Longman: http://www.ldoceonline.com/ o Chambers: http://www.chambersharrap.co.uk/ o The Free Dictionary: www.thefreedictionary.com
  17. 17. 2. REFERENCE WORKS o Dictionaries of Specialized Terminology o Encyclopedias o Dictionaries of Biography (Who’s Who)
  18. 18. Specialized Dictionaries
  19. 19. Encyclopedias
  20. 20. 3. RELEVANT MATERIAL If the translator is not familiar with the topic of the text he is translating, he needs to learn about it from any relevant sources. He can search the internet or the library for anything that would help him understand that material.
  21. 21. LEVELS OF TRANSLATION
  22. 22. 1. THE LEXICAL LEVEL Factors that affect the meaning and choice of a word: • The Context • Degrees of Formality • Date of the Text • Varieties of English
  23. 23. Abstract Nouns • Synonyms Example: happiness, gladness, joy, enjoyment, delight, rapture, ecstasy, felicity, contentment pleasure • Culturally-based words Examples: romanticism, socialism, democracy
  24. 24. Concrete Nouns Some concrete nouns specific of certain cultures are difficult to translate. Food: sushi, pizza, Dress: kimono, sari, Houses: igloo, tipi Transportation: Ricksha, canoe igloo Tipi or teepee
  25. 25. Proper Nouns • Proper nous are not translatable. Example: Mr. John Smith does not become • Notice the historical distortions of many proper nouns
  26. 26. 2. THE SENTENCE LEVEL • Differences between the English and Arabic sentences need to be attended to. • Study carefully the basic sentence patterns and sentence types to be able to write correct English sentences.
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