Basics of the English Sentence

3,881 views

Published on

The basics of English sentences

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,881
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
222
Comments
0
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Basics of the English Sentence

  1. 1. ENGLISHENGLISH SENTENCESSENTENCES _________ Dr. Mohammed F. RaiyahDr. Mohammed F. Raiyah
  2. 2. Sentence Subject Predicate
  3. 3. AA subjectsubject isis something or someone that doessomething or someone that does something:something: Ahmad studied the lesson. The girl is eating an apple. The cat chased the rat. OrOr something or someone that the sentencesomething or someone that the sentence describes or renamesdescribes or renames:: Hasan is a good doctor. Ali is a clever student. This car is very expensive.
  4. 4. The predicate is the partpart of the sentence other than the subject. It must contain a verb. SUBJECTSUBJECT PREDICATEPREDICATE A thief stole the car. His brother is a teacher. The rain has been falling steadily. Ahmed will be coming soon. The train left five minutes ago.
  5. 5. SENTENCE PATTERNS
  6. 6. 1. SUBJECT-VERB (S V) Someone or something (the subject S) does something (the verb) Ali slept. We will be waiting. The train has left. The sun is disappearing. The glass is broken.
  7. 7. 2. SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT S V O Someone or something (S) does something (V) to someone or something else (the direct object Od). Ahmad ate an apple. Ali studied the lesson. A thief stole the car. Dr. Hamid has finished her book. She wrote a poem.
  8. 8. 3. SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECTI -OBJECTD S V OI Od When the verb takes two objects, the first object is called the indirect object (Oi) and the second the direct object (Od). Kamel gave his sister a gift. My uncle sent me a letter. The teacher asked him a question.
  9. 9. 4. SUBJECT-VERB-COMPLEMENT S-LV-C In sentences that tell what someone or something is or looks like. (The complement describes or renames the subject) Amr is my brother. This is our professor. These books look new. The manager seems efficient. My friend became a teacher. This house looks old.
  10. 10. An object or a complement?An object or a complement? MohamedMohamed is a doctor.a doctor. AliAli visited the doctor.the doctor.
  11. 11. 5. SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT- OBJECT COMPLEMENT SVOCO A complement after the object describes or renames it. They painted the house white. She named her cat Lucy. Deena considered the book great. They elected him president.
  12. 12. SUMMARY OF SENTENCE PATTERNSSUMMARY OF SENTENCE PATTERNS 1. S VS V The train left. 2. SVOSVO Samir wrote a poem. 3. SVOOSVOO She sent me a letter. 4. SVCSVC My uncle is a teacher. 5. SVOCSVOCOO He considered the book meaningless.
  13. 13. EXPANDING SENTENCES
  14. 14. Sentences can be expanded toSentences can be expanded to give more information by onegive more information by one of the following:of the following: 1.1. SINGLE WORDSSINGLE WORDS 2. PHRASES.2. PHRASES. 3. COMBINING CLAUSES.3. COMBINING CLAUSES.
  15. 15. 1. Adding single words: The student answered the question. The clever student answered the difficult question. The clever student answered the difficult question quickly. Yesterday, the clever student answered the extremely difficult question very quickly.
  16. 16. 2. Adding phrases: A phrase is a group of words that does not have a finite verb. EXAMPLES OF PHRASES: In the morning - the clever student - On the table Before dinner - To me - Last week - To tell him To study hard - Being a citizen - Arriving early to tell the truth - Respecting your parents - all of a sudden - without delay - for a while once upon a time -
  17. 17. Expanding sentences by phrases: My friend arrives. My best friend arrives tomorrow. (single words) To my surprise, My best friend from Jeddah arrives tomorrow at the airport at 7 o’clock. (single words and phrases)
  18. 18. 3. Combining clauses: A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. EXAMPLES OF CLAUSESEXAMPLES OF CLAUSES The bus arrived. The teacher asked me a question. This car is great. She is working hard. Because he succeeded . . . . . . . When Ahmad saw me . . . . . . . After they left the store . . . . . . . . Since the computer is not working . . . . . .
  19. 19. INDEPENDENT CLAUSESINDEPENDENT CLAUSES: They can stand alone in sentences.  The question is difficult.  Sarah is drawing a picture.  The teacher explained the lesson. DEPENDENT CLAUSES (SUBORDINATEDEPENDENT CLAUSES (SUBORDINATE CLAUSESCLAUSES): They cannot stand alone in sentences because they start with certain words called subordinating words.  When they told me . . . . . .  Although she knows . . . . . .  While he was doing her homework . . . . . . . . .
  20. 20. Some subordinating words Although - After - BeforeAlthough - After - Before While - Whereas - SinceWhile - Whereas - Since If - Unless - Which - ThatIf - Unless - Which - That Who - Whom -Who - Whom - whose Because - Until - WhenBecause - Until - When
  21. 21. Expanding sentences by dependent Clauses My friend arrives tomorrow. My friend who lives in Cairo arrives tomorrow. The student answered the question. The student who is sitting beside the window answered the question. The student who is sitting beside the window answered the question that the teacher asked. She succeeded. She succeeded because she studied hard.
  22. 22. SENTENCESENTENCE TYPESTYPES
  23. 23. Four main sentence typesFour main sentence types:: 1.1.SIMPLE SENTENCESIMPLE SENTENCE 2.2.COMPOUND SENTENCECOMPOUND SENTENCE 3.3. COMPLEX SENTENCECOMPLEX SENTENCE 4.4. COMPOUND-COMPLEXCOMPOUND-COMPLEX
  24. 24. 1.1. THE SIMPLE SENTENCETHE SIMPLE SENTENCE ONLY ONE INDEPENDENTONLY ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSECLAUSE
  25. 25.  Examples of simple sentences:  The meeting started.  Leila likes reading.  Salwa ate her lunch.  My uncle sent me a letter.  His father is an accountant.  The judge considered the case closed.
  26. 26. 2.2. THE COMPOUNDTHE COMPOUND SENTENCESENTENCE TWO OR MORETWO OR MORE INDEPENDENT CLAUSESINDEPENDENT CLAUSES
  27. 27. There areThere are three waysthree ways to jointo join two independent clausestwo independent clauses to make a compoundto make a compound sentence.sentence.
  28. 28. I. A coordinating conjunction and a comma: Coordinating Conjunctions areCoordinating Conjunctions are sevenseven:: And But Yet For Or Nor So (FAN BOYS) Examples:  Fatma borrowed a novel, and Salma took a history book.  Amin likes Greek food, but his sister prefers Chineese food.  Nasser likes English, so he joined the English department.
  29. 29. II. A Semicolon, a conjunctive adverb, and a comma: Some Conjunctive adverbsSome Conjunctive adverbs Therefore Furthermore Moreover Otherwise However Nevertheless Meanwhile Besides Consequently Still Examples:Examples:  Indian food is delicious; however, it is too spicy.  He liked biology; therefore, he decided to join the faculty of Medicine.
  30. 30. III. A semicolon ;; ExamplesExamples  All the typewriters were removed from the office; computers were put in their place.  The old villa was demolished; a hotel replaced it.
  31. 31. 3.3. THE COMPLEX SENTENCETHE COMPLEX SENTENCE ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSEONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE AND AT LEAST ONEAND AT LEAST ONE SUBORDINATE CLAUSESUBORDINATE CLAUSE
  32. 32.  Examples of complex sentences:  He succeeded because he studied hard.  I remembered her sister when I saw her.  Although he tried very hard, he did not finish in time.  While Sara borrowed a science book, her sister took a history book.  Before he left for school, Samir put all his books in his bag.
  33. 33. NOTE ON PUNCTUATIONNOTE ON PUNCTUATION If the sentence starts with the subordinate clause, a comma is needed.  Because he studied hard, he succeeded.  When I met his father, I told him. If the sentence starts with the independent clause, the Comma is not needed.  He succeeded because he studied hard.  I told his father when I met him.
  34. 34. Summary of Sentence TypesSummary of Sentence Types  SIMPLE SENTENCESIMPLE SENTENCE:: 1 independent clause.  He succeeded.  Ali is clever.  She has finished her homework.  COMPOUND SENTENCECOMPOUND SENTENCE:: At least 2 independent clauses.  He succeeded, and his parents are happy.  She works hard, but her sister always plays.  Nasser is studying, and Ahmad is reading, but their sister is doing nothing.  COMPLEX SENTENCECOMPLEX SENTENCE:: 1 independent clause + at least 1 subordinate clause.  Because he studied hard, he succeeded.  She got the highest marks although she is not the best student.
  35. 35. REMEMBERREMEMBER!! ANY SENTENCE MUSTANY SENTENCE MUST CONTAINCONTAIN AT LEASTAT LEAST ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSEONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE..
  36. 36. AVOIDAVOID SENTENCE FRAGMENTSSENTENCE FRAGMENTS A SENTENCE FRAGMENT IS PART OF A SENTENCEA SENTENCE FRAGMENT IS PART OF A SENTENCE PUNCTUATED AS IF IT WERE A COMPLETEPUNCTUATED AS IF IT WERE A COMPLETE SENTENCESENTENCE EXAMPLESEXAMPLES  Because he studied hard. (fragment: subordinate clause)  While I was waiting. (fragment : subordinate clause)  In the early morning. (fragment: Phrase)  As in the past. (fragment: Phrase)

×