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Sensory Aesthetics

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A model for applying social science to inform the design of product aesthetics. This is illustrated with an example: product aesthetics for the law enforcement market.

A model for applying social science to inform the design of product aesthetics. This is illustrated with an example: product aesthetics for the law enforcement market.

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  • Never the twain shall meet Science: calculation and measurement ID: Cultivation and Passion How can sciences, with its methods of analytical thought and empirical rigor – i.e., critical thinking, inform the creative thinking, particularly in the aesthetic realm of industrial design.
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  • The ancient Greeks used the term “aesthetic” to refer to sensation and feelings – good or bad, beautiful or ugly [8]. However, modern usage has somewhat corrupted the original connotation and now it is used as a synonym for “beautiful.” Our objective is to use the word aesthetic in its original sense. And to emphasis the original meaning and contrast it from modern day usage we have coined the term “sensory aesthetic.” That is, the sensory feelings (good or bad) evoked by the aesthetics (beautiful or ugly) of a product or interface.
  • Instantaneous impression The concept of sensory aesthetics can be best appreciated in the words of Le Corbusier [12] who made his observations concerning the empathetic ideals of architecture (here we treat the building as a product serving a certain function): “…the disposition of elements in a building should be such a way that the sight of them affects us immediately by their delicacy or their brutality, their riot or their serenity, their indifference or their interest.”
  • Social Cognition SYSTEM 1 PROCESS: Fast, intuitive, unreflective, SYSTEM 2: slow, deliberate, reflective
  • “… the disposition of elements in a building should be such a way that the sight of them affects us immediately by their delicacy or their brutality, their riot or their serenity, their indifference or their interest.” Probity, virtutue, rectitude Cass Gilbert: American march to justice
  • Visceral: automatic, pre-wired layered in the brain, which perceives stimuli purely on immediate appearances. Behavior: the layer of the brain that controls everyday behavior; this level is used to perceive effectiveness of use and derive pleasure from it. Reflective: layer of the brain that is involved in reasoning and reflection; this level is used to rationalize and intellectualize an experience with a product.
  • Source: The designer or the design team is the source of the message (e.g., determine the type of aesthetics to be conveyed. This is labeled as DSnA = Designed Sensory Aesthetic) Transmitter: The message is encoded in the product as a signal [physical stimulus – geometry, dimension, material, texture, sound, light, etc.] for transmission. Channel: This is the context and the environment in which the user comes into contact and interacts with the product. Receiver: These are the sensors [human sensory system] that register the signal and where the process of decoding the message begins. Destination: The faculties of the message’s recipient (consumeruser) are considered to be the destination. That is, the message is subjectively perceived when the physiological, psychological and emotional arousals triggered by the message are [nonconsciously and consciously] interpreted. At this point, the consumer intuitively perceives and becomes aware of the sensory aesthetic communicated and contained in the message, from his or her point of view (cultural background, value system, personal history, peer influence, etc.). This is labeled as PSnA = Perceived Sensory Aesthetic.
  • “Every single object or gesture is susceptible to the imposition of meaning, nothing is resistant to the process.” For instance, a car, will not allow itself to be viewed solely for its utilitarian function (transportation); it is rich in connotation and is pliant to the imposition of meaning. For instance, a BMW 7 Series sedan and a Mini Cooper share the same functional utility (transportation); they do essentially the same job but connote different things about their users: thrusting, upwardly mobile executive versus ecologically sound, right-on trendy, respectively.. Furthermore, from the semiotic point of view, it had to not only denote function but also had to connote symbolic value [4] such as class, status, wealth, austerity, power, etc. The value proposition in the manufacturer’s standpoint was straightforward: to make the product saleable it had to be made palatable to the human senses. : (1) aesthetic impression (visceral level cognition: attractiveunattractive); (2) semantic interpretation (behavioral level cognition: functionaluse); and (3) symbolic association (reflective level cognition: personal/social significance)
  • Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. The earliest known rock paintings are dated to the Upper Paleolithic , 40,000 years ago, while the earliest European cave paintings date to 32,000 years ago. The purpose of the cave paintings is not known, and may never be. The evidence suggests that they weren't merely decorations of living areas, since the caves in which they've been found don't have signs of ongoing habitation. Also, they are often in areas of caves that aren't easily accessed. Some theories hold that they may have been a way of transmitting information, while other theories ascribe them a religious or ceremonial purpose. Humans and their Arts Humans are said to have an innate predisposition and proclivity to create and consume art. Ethologists point out that art, as a trait has been selected by evolution, as it provides “enabling mechanisms for the performance of selectively valuable behaviors such as appropriating the material needs of life” (food, tools, shelter, etc.) [7]. For instance, it is conjectured that prehistoric man – in a dangerous, unknown, unsure and unpredictable world – made sure that his technology (spear, pottery, etc.) worked by deliberately reinforcing it with emotionally satisfying special [artistic] elaborations and shaping. Cultural anthropologists point out that art was integral to ritual whose purpose was to inculcate group identity, cooperation, cohesiveness and cooperation. Furthermore, by imposing culture on nature they sought to control nature. In earlier times art and ritual were interwoven and were considered a “divine and mysterious visitation.” This approach was made necessary for the group to protect itself from disease, vagaries of nature, and the dangers associated with acquisition of food (hunting). Functional Art In the preceding section we showed that functional art – the art incorporated into prehistoric technology (weapons, tools, etc.) – is almost as old as our species (homo sapiens). And it should be emphasized that we distinguish functional art – the art of technology, machines, etc. – from the representational (art, sculpture, etc.) and performance arts (drama, music, poetry, etc.). Industrialized Art The industrialized art of today is a natural and logical extension of the functional art that began in prehistoric times. Obviously, there is one crucial difference: In earlier times, the consumer was his own designer & artist (designer-artist-consumer); or, as civilization advanced, they were at least in close proximity (e.g., the consumer directly interacted with the craftsperson, and thus, influenced the style, form and functional aspects of the product). However, these earlier models have been supplanted with the industrialization of technology, chiefly characterized by mass production and an increased complexity of the technology itself. This has divorced the consumer from his designer-artist self and has distanced the professional designer-artist from the ultimate end-user. Although we use the term “industrialized art” it is not restricted to the machines of the industrial age. It also includes microcomputer based machines such as appliances, tools and toys – and their virtual interfaces. The ‘divorce’ and ‘distancing’ of designer from consumer is ameliorated by providing a limited ability to customize a product or its interface through skins and themes. However, this is not true with all products, and even when provided they are mostly superficial and don’t provide the structural latitude to reconfigure the aesthetics at a deeper level. Finally, a word on terminology. For the sake of consistency, we will use the term “product design” to refer to all functional artifacts that are used to accomplish a particular goal such as transport, communicate, entertain, cook, etc. And, as one might expect, almost all of these modern day, functional artifacts are either driven or managed (or both) by microcomputers.
  • Visual auditory
  • Activities that are made visible are just the tip of the iceberg. The tip has
  • Safety is a fundamental need This diagram shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more primitive needs at the bottom. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the four lower levels are grouped together as deficiency needs associated with physiological needs, while the top level is termed growth needs associated with psychological needs. While deficiency needs must be met, growth needs are continually shaping behaviour. The basic concept is that the higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus once all the needs that are lower down in the pyramid are mainly or entirely satisfied. Growth forces create upward movement in the hierarchy, whereas regressive forces push prepotent needs further down the hierarchy.
  • Humans – or most living organisms – are faced with two undesirable options in their quest for survival: competition vs. cooperation Choosing between two undesirable options…go for least desirable Society exists because of the promise of security Thomas Hobbes thought that what binds human beings together is a fear of death at one another’s hands, and as an antidote to that fear, he urged an absolute monarch who could restrain me from assaulting you and vice versa. Running debate about the nature of human society: Were humans savage but for the constructs of civil society? – Thomas Hobbes Or were they civil but for the corruptions of society – Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Contract between the citizen and the sovereign Citizen  abide by the generally accepted laws Ruler  uphold and enforce the law Fair, impartial
  • Bonding displays: a display of strength and valor without deadly effects
  • Prosematic behaviors are rudimentary behaviors that make up a master routine in an organisms quest to survive and reproduce – largely driven by the R-complex The signature display consists only of dynamic components – a single pushup produced by flexion of the forelimbs (a), followed by two head bobs. The signature display may also be referred to as an assertive display. The challenge display includes both dynamic and static modifiers. In addition to an initial pushup (a), followed by several head bobs (b), there are two conspicuous static modifiers – extension of the gular fold (c) and sagitall expansion (d), produced by a side-to-side narrowing of the body.
  • Tensed musculature, upright posture, sharp & snappy uniform (contrast with the civilian): cap/beret, baton, insignia Challenge display: gait, authoritative pacing, display of weapon, sound of boots
  • Tensed musculature, upright posture, sharp & snappy uniform (contrast with the civilian): cap/beret, baton, insignia Challenge display: gait, authoritative pacing, display of weapon, sound of boots
  • Bonding displays: a display of strength and valor without deadly effects They went to war because their country ordered them to. But in the end they fought not for their country or their flag, they fought for each other. - Lt. Col. Hal Moore in We were soldiers once…and young , which describes the Ia Drang campaign (1965), the first major conflict of the Vietnam War [7].
  • Bonding displays: a display of strength and valor without deadly effects
  • Culture is the Collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another 5-dimensions of culture Expression of power through pageantry Culture is expressed during parades & pageants: A parade is a capsule that captures: Power, discipline, masculinity, certainty
  • Patterned – programmed -- way of thinking is reflected in march pasts Music taps into a powerful, innate urge for group bonding.
  • Cultures express their values through symbols, rituals and heroes Symbols are words, meanings, gestures and objects that carry often complex meanings recognized within that culture Rituals are collective activities that are technically unnecessary to the achievement of the desired ends, but that within a culture are considered socially essential, keeping the individual bound within the norms of the collectivity. Rituals are carried out for their own sake -- greeting Paying respect Also allows leaders to assert themselves Heroes are persons real or imaginary, alive or dead, who possess characteristics that are highly prized in a culture and serve as modes of behaviors.
  • Culture consists in patterned ways of thinking, feeling and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols , constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts. ----------------- Purpose of uniform: stand apart from the rest Amplify the power distance: health, wealth, vitality, incorruptibility, An unique design language based for every PD…to go with the uniform
  • Police started the dark blue tradition in the middle of the 19 th century, they wanted to imitate uniforms already familiar to the populace suggestive of authority, efficiency, courage and general unbribaility
  • Many military officers wore uniforms requiring breeches and riding boots Many military uniforms requiring breeches and riding boots, highly acceptable because of their association with such aristocratic activities as animal hunting and steeplechasing. Attention to wardrobe is as important as firepower and maneuver…uniforms are an unignorable part of successful military action, indispensable in the art of making troops do what they don’t want to do.
  • Rituals are collective activities that are technically unnecessary to the achievement of the desired ends, but that within a culture are considered socially essential, keeping the individual bound within the norms of the collectivity. Rituals are carried out for their own sake -- greeting Paying respect Also allows leaders to assert themselves Culture provides the means to cope up with the challenges and uncertainties the world presents to the individual and the group in their quest for survival
  • Heroes are persons, alive or dead, real or imagined, who possess characteristics that are highly prized in a culture and thus serve as models for behavior.
  • Each culture justifies authority to exert control, maintain order and discipline The power distance between two parties (A & B) in a hierarchy is the difference between the extent to which A can determine the behavior of B and the extent to which B can determine the behavior of A.
  • High intellectual, moral and spiritual level…. Affecting the mind with a sense of overwhelming grandeur or irresistible power: calculated to inspire awe, deep reverence, or lofty emotion, by reason of its beauty, vastness or grandeur
  • To kill or to be killed… Motivation to actively fight, follows from the character of combat when experienced by a particular kind of natural soldier… Posturing is used to a great extent in the practice of law enforcement Force continuum…force is the last resort…don’t want to alienate society and lose cooperation.
  • Deterrence posturing Presence = proactive reaction Preventive reaction Protective reaction
  • A force based view of policing the intentional use of force to produce injury or damage to persons or property
  • Sound as an immediate attention getting mechanism…besides this, the sound may be designed to accomplish the following: Make the unequal distribution of power palpable: who gets to use the road when you hear this sound Amplify the power distance (decibel, frequency and cycles per sec) – bordering on coercion 3) Air Horn: punctuating with air horn emissions to further increase the power distance Neutral distance 4) Truck reversal Medium 5) Air raid siren (forewarning of impending threat) 6) A call for help (injured system or victim to authority) Air Horn
  • Sonic effects can shape the behavior of the crowds. At Nazi rallies, subsonic bass tones were used to unsettle the audience and prepare it for a frenzied response to Hitler
  • Sonic effects can shape the behavior of the crowds. At Nazi rallies, subsonic bass tones were used to unsettle the audience and prepare it for a frenzied response to Hitler
  • masculinity emphasizes authority, autonomy, and strength, Masculine identity is a social construction Extra Notes: We define masculine identity as the sense a man makes of himself as a man, which develops in the course of his interactions with others. A man encounters—and learns to anticipate—others' expectations of him as a man; he responds, others react, and through this back-and-forth, he comes to see and present himself in particular ways. ). In its idealized and stereotypical forms, it connotes aggression, autonomy, strength, heterosexuality, rationality, a facility with tools and technology, emotional detachment (e.g., Collinson and Hearn, 1994; Connell, 1987), and more generally, the reverse of “anything that smacks of femininity” (Kilduff, 2001: 599). Masculinity has been described as an identity men strive to achieve by beating “lesser men” in contests of manhood (Kerfoot and Knights, 1993: 672); those seeking it as “preoccupied with . . . differentiating self by out-performing others [and] validating self by negating others” (Barrett, 1996: 141); and those attaining it as “never secure,” dependent on others’ confirmation “to affirm and reaffirm to themselves and to others who and what they are” (Barrett, 1996: 141; see also Bird, 1996; Messner, 2005). masculine identity-constructions in dangerous workplaces because few settings evoke more vividly the dominant cultural image of the ideal man—autonomous, brave, and strong—but masculinity is also pursued in other work settings.
  • Gender based icon design. Feminine icons are more abstract in nature whereas masculine icons are clear cut and direct
  • TETRA trends London metro required a device that was somewhat consumer oriented (less power distance) Could lend itself to posturing, when the need arises Yet, efficient (uncertainty avoidance) – follows the no-nonsense mission critical aesthetic
  • TETRA trends Korea Police’s needs contrasted with that of London Police
  • A frame of analogy
  • …the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either comfortable or uncomfortable in unstructured situations. They are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual. Law enforcement attitude: suspicious and maintain an edge
  • Law enforcement attitude: suspicious and maintain an edge
  • The concept of design ecology is illustrated with law enforcement in the context of a high altitude railway system (railway link connecting Golmud, China to Lhasa, Tibet). This railway link is a technological marvel as it traverses through 340 miles of permafrost, often at altitudes between 13,000 and 16,000 feet through a region prone to earthquakes, low temperatures and atmospheric pressures. Chinese engineers had to develop innovative strategies to keep the tracks stable on the permafrost by elevating them – and using a network of pipes to circulate liquid nitrogen and cold air beneath the rails to keep them frozen throughout the year. Furthermore, the railcar cabins are equipped with oxygen masks and a system to circulate enriched oxygen. The photos below provide images of the landscape (physical ecology) in which the rail system operates and of Lhasa, Tibet.
  • China: Ecology: low mountains, fertile plains, navigable rivers Social:dependency, centralized control, complicated world involving social relationships. Agricultural people need to get along with each other and live in a harmonious fashion (find it difficult to disentangle object from background) Philosphies: Taoism, confucianism… “ If one perceives oneself as embedded within a larger context of which one is an interdependent part, it is likely that other Greek: High mountains descending into the ocean Favor hunting, herding, fishing and trade Occupations require little cooperation with others - individualism, debate, democracy
  • China: Ecology: low mountains, fertile plains, navigable rivers Social:dependency, centralized control, complicated world involving social relationships. Agricultural people need to get along with each other and live in a harmonious fashion Philosphies: Taoism, confucianism… “ If one perceives oneself as embedded within a larger context of which one is an interdependent part, it is likely that other Greek: High mountains descending into the ocean Favor hunting, herding, fishing and trade Occupations require little cooperation with others - individualism, debate, democracy
  • China: Ecology: low mountains, fertile plains, navigable rivers Social:dependency, centralized control, complicated world involving social relationships. Agricultural people need to get along with each other and live in a harmonious fashion (find it difficult to disentangle object from background) Philosphies: Taoism, confucianism… “ If one perceives oneself as embedded within a larger context of which one is an interdependent part, it is likely that other
  • Cognitive affordance : design feature that helps users in knowing something. As a simple example, clear and precise words in a button label could be a cognitive affordance enabling users to understand the meaning of the button in terms of the functionality behind the button and the consequences of clicking on it. Physical affordance: design feature that helps users to physically do something. Adequate size and easy-to-access location of a control, say a volume knob on a radio, is a physical affordance. Sensory affordance : design feature that helps users sense something. E.g., a large font sizes that make the text readable, LCDs that can be viewed under bright sunlight in products used outdoors, etc. Functional affordance: design feature that helps users accomplish work. For example, pressing the camera key on a cell phone launches the camera function. Next, pressing the OK button (shutter button) enables the shooting of a picture. The availability of the picture taking capability (camera function and associated interface elements), on a cell phone, is a form of functional affordance. Cultural affordance: is a commonly agreed upon [cultural] convention adopted by a society or group with regard to the comprehension, interaction and aesthetic sensibilities of a product or system. For example, with regard to aesthetic sensibilities, it is common to see home owner associations and townships, specify through codes, acceptable and unacceptable paint colors for a house’s exterior.
  • Cognitive affordance : design feature that helps users in knowing something. As a simple example, clear and precise words in a button label could be a cognitive affordance enabling users to understand the meaning of the button in terms of the functionality behind the button and the consequences of clicking on it. Physical affordance: design feature that helps users to physically do something. Adequate size and easy-to-access location of a control, say a volume knob on a radio, is a physical affordance. Sensory affordance : design feature that helps users sense something. E.g., a large font sizes that make the text readable, LCDs that can be viewed under bright sunlight in products used outdoors, etc. Functional affordance: design feature that helps users accomplish work. For example, pressing the camera key on a cell phone launches the camera function. Next, pressing the OK button (shutter button) enables the shooting of a picture. The availability of the picture taking capability (camera function and associated interface elements), on a cell phone, is a form of functional affordance. Cultural affordance: is a commonly agreed upon [cultural] convention adopted by a society or group with regard to the comprehension, interaction and aesthetic sensibilities of a product or system. For example, with regard to aesthetic sensibilities, it is common to see home owner associations and townships, specify through codes, acceptable and unacceptable paint colors for a house’s exterior.
  • Cognitive affordance : design feature that helps users in knowing something. As a simple example, clear and precise words in a button label could be a cognitive affordance enabling users to understand the meaning of the button in terms of the functionality behind the button and the consequences of clicking on it. Physical affordance: design feature that helps users to physically do something. Adequate size and easy-to-access location of a control, say a volume knob on a radio, is a physical affordance. Sensory affordance : design feature that helps users sense something. E.g., a large font sizes that make the text readable, LCDs that can be viewed under bright sunlight in products used outdoors, etc. Functional affordance: design feature that helps users accomplish work. For example, pressing the camera key on a cell phone launches the camera function. Next, pressing the OK button (shutter button) enables the shooting of a picture. The availability of the picture taking capability (camera function and associated interface elements), on a cell phone, is a form of functional affordance. Cultural affordance: is a commonly agreed upon [cultural] convention adopted by a society or group with regard to the comprehension, interaction and aesthetic sensibilities of a product or system. For example, with regard to aesthetic sensibilities, it is common to see home owner associations and townships, specify through codes, acceptable and unacceptable paint colors for a house’s exterior.
  • It has become a design icon for its time and reflects the new dreams of Folkhemmet, the Swedish social democratic vision of a “peoples home” that became closely allied to modernism or “Funktionalism” as it was called in Sweden. A modern political idea that were more “humanistic” and “supportive” to the “ body” of the Swedish people then i.e. the German or Russians ideas and also easier to accept, less imposive and authoritarian. The other chair by Jonas Bohlin from 1987 sends a totally different message. Here the modernistic aesthetic has become empty signifiers that can be used for provocation and a formal experiment. The chair is clearly not comfortable and it certainly not humanistic. It was made in a time when the Swedish social democratic visions where falling apart and it became obvoius that “The peoples home” was not for everybody. Jonas Bohlin’s chair in steel and concrete reflect the rift in the new Sweden were some people get beaten and other spend fortunes on “designer chairs”.
  • ArtDesign in the anthropological perspective. How events and technologies influence their artistic expressions Modernism is a tendency rooted in the idea that the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life had become outdated; therefore it was essential to sweep them aside. In this it drew on previous revolutionary movements, including liberalism and communism. Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was "holding back" progress , and replacing it with new, and therefore better, ways of reaching the same end. In essence, the modernist movement argued that the new realities of the industrial and mechanized age were permanent and imminent, and that people should adapt their world view to accept that the new equaled the good, the true and the beautiful. Never before have the conditions of life changed so swiftly and enormously as they have… in the last fifty years. We have been carried along… [and] we are only now beginning to realize the force and strength of the storm of change that has come upon us. H .G . WELLS, 1933
  • myths that circulate in everyday life construct a world for us and our place in it:
  • Heavy, solid, distinct
  • Heavy, solid, distinct
  • Transcript

    • 1. SENSORY AESTHETICS How Social Science can Inform Design Aesthetics Moin Rahman Ira Jhangiani
    • 2. A recognizable, repeatable motif with an established visual syntax Sensory Aesthetics Design Language
    • 3. Sensory Aesthetics
    • 4. Sensory Aesthetics Design Language AESTHETICS
    • 5. sensory aesthetics as a first order orientation response that is automatic, fast, nonconscious, and effortless to the aesthetics of the stimuli leading to an instant and implicit conclusion on its aesthetic valence . Sensory Aesthetics “ Thin Slicing” the Aesthetics
    • 6. Sensory Aesthetics
    • 7. Sensory Aesthetics delicacy X brutality riot X serenity indifference X interest - Le Corbusier
    • 8. Sensory Aesthetics
    • 9. Sensory Aesthetics Theory of Communication (Design)
    • 10. Sensory Aesthetics Aesthetic Bias
    • 11. Why Aesthetics?: THE MESSAGE “ thrusting, upwardly mobile executive” “ ecologically sound, right-on trendy”
    • 12. Roots of Art: “Deep Connection” Paleolithic Cave Paintings (Lascaux, France)
    • 13. sensory aesthetics as a first order orientation response that is automatic, fast, nonconscious, and effortless…. Sensory Aesthetics Revisiting Sensory Aesthetics Definition The Whole Body as a Sensory System: -Assess the environment in multiple modalities (“cathectic basis”) - Esthetic emotion (knowledgeexperience have little or no role) “ preferences need no inferences”
    • 14. Sensory Aesthetics Socially shared, collective consciousness Deeply rooted desires Fundamental behaviors Physical, demographic, organizational & semiotic setting Potential for action Zeitgeist: spirit of the times (fashion and fads)
    • 15. Applying Sensory Aesthetics to Inform the Design of a Law Enforcement “mission critical” Product (an illustration)
    • 16. Deep Structures Deeply rooted desires
    • 17. Every activity or goal is motivated by deeply-rooted desires to fulfill intrinsic & extrinsic needs arising from wants such as food, shelter, social cohesion, etc. Deep Structures Deep structures are the unearthing of deeply-rooted desires of an individual or a society, which have been shaped by their existential needs, histories and philosophies.
    • 18. Human Needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy Deep Structures
    • 19. Hobbesian Choice The Promise of Security Binds Society Together Deep Structures
    • 20. Deep Structures Were humans savage but for the constructs of civil society? - Thomas Hobbes Or were they civil but for the corruptions of civil society? - Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • 21. Why has government been instituted at all? Because the passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason without constraint. - Federalist Papers (No. 15) Deep Structures
    • 22. Social Contract The Law Enforcer Deep Structures
    • 23. Survival Safety Security Serious Deep Structures’ Aesthetic
    • 24. Behaviors Fundamental behaviors
    • 25. The conscious and nonconscious development, cultivation and execution of behavioral patterns when seeking to accomplish routine goals in daily life, at work & play. Behaviors
    • 26. Security through Prosematic Behaviors Behaviors rudimentary behaviors that are necessary to survive and reproduce (driven by the R-complex) signature display challenge display
    • 27. Security through Prosematic Behaviors: Live Action Shots Behaviors
    • 28. Security through Prosematic Behaviors Behaviors
    • 29. Security through Prosematic Behaviors Behaviors
    • 30. Security through Prosematic Behaviors Behaviors bonding display
    • 31. Security through Prosematic Behaviors Behaviors
    • 32. Behaviors’ Aesthetic Authoritarian Bold Invincible
    • 33. Culture Socially shared, collective consciousness
    • 34. Culture is the Collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another - Geert Hofstede Culture
    • 35. Culture
    • 36. Culture PLAY PLAY
    • 37. Culture Symbols Rituals Heroes a culture expresses its values through…
    • 38. Culture Symbols Patterned ways of thinking, feeling and reacting are acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols.
    • 39. Culture uniforms convey values & intents, visible evidence of group cohesiveness, and stimulate citizens’ impulses to join in. probity & virtue (judge, clergy) Expertise (naval officer, airline pilot) courage (marine, fire) Extraordinary cleanliness (doctor, food worker)
    • 40. Culture Symbols (Artifacts)
    • 41. Culture Rituals “ collective activities that are technically unnecessary to the achievement of the desired ends, but that within a culture are considered socially essential, keeping the individual bound within the norms of the collectivity” Marines Core Values: Honor Courage Commitment PLAY
    • 42. Culture Heroes: positive role model Possess highly prized characteristics
    • 43. Culture Power Distance “ the extent to which a culture accepts and expects the unequal distribution of power.”
    • 44.
      • Physical Authority
        • visual
        • auditory
        • - tactile
      • Mental Authority
        • auditory
        • technical
      • Moral Authority
        • reputation
        • branding
      Culture Power Distance (tangible and intangibles) INSPIRING AWE DEEP REVERENCE LOFTY EMOTION
    • 45. Culture Deterrence over elimination of threat
    • 46. Culture
    • 47. “ the role of police is best understood as a mechanism for the distribution of non-negotiable coercive force.” - Egon Bittner Force: Always an Option
    • 48. Sound as a medium to express unequal distribution of power Sonic Weapon 1 2 4 3 5 6 6
    • 49. Sonics: European Police Siren
    • 50. Subsonic bass tones to stir and stimulate the audience [frenzied response] Sonics Nazi Rally
    • 51. “ the manner in which a culture distributes emotional roles between genders .” Culture Masculinity vs. Feminity TOUGH tender
    • 52. Culture Masculine and Feminine Texture
    • 53. Culture Masculine and Feminine Form
    • 54. Culture Masculine and Feminine Products
    • 55. Culture Masculine and Feminine Icons Concrete (Masculine) Abstract (Feminine)
    • 56. Culture Masculine and Feminine Form Endomorph Mesomorph Ectomorph
    • 57.
      • - reduced power distance (friendly, approachable)
      • mildly masculine
      • can “posture” (in synch with officer’s posturing displays)
      • Yet, a no-nonsense, expression of the law enforcement aesthetic
      Action!!! London Metropolitan Police MTH800 [FRED]
    • 58.
      • - High power distance (assertive)
      • aggressive, autonomous and strong
      • can “posture” (in synch with officer’s posturing displays)
      • Amplification of the law enforcement aesthetic
      Action!!! MTP850 [Barney] Korea National Police
    • 59. Action!!! Head to head comparison MTH800 [FRED] MTP850 [Barney]
    • 60.
      • Police culture
      • (coping mechanisms):
      • training
      • conditioning
      • shared experiences
      • Attributes
      • honor
      • sense of duty
      • ethics
      “ the extent to which a culture programs its members to feel either comfortable or uncomfortable in unstructured situations.” danger novel unknown surprising different from usual Culture Uncertainty Avoidance PLAY
    • 61. “ me” vs. “us”: celebration of the individual over the team, uniqueness over uniformity. Consumer orientation: highly personalized product Mission orientation: Uniformity & team-centric Culture Individualism vs. Uniformity
    • 62. Ecology Physical, demographic, organizational & semiotic setting
    • 63. Ecology is the general science that studies the relationship between the organism and the external environment - Ernest Haeckel Ecology
    • 64. Ecology design and aesthetics of pre-existing artifacts, symbology, jargon, clothing, cuisine, etc. Semiotics slow vs. fast; economical vs. deliberative; utilitarian vs. pleasure deriving Interactions public vs. private sector; single vs. multi user; emergency vs. regular; mission critical vs. non critical. Organizational codes mobile vs. fixed; night vs. day; covert vs. overt; personal vs. work Operational modes socioeconomic strata, age group, gender, etc. Demographic terrain, climate, altitude, etc. GeographicalPhysical Features (examples) Elements of Ecology
    • 65. Ecology: Chinese-Tibetian Railway
    • 66. Ecology Conflicting aesthetics (Tibetan vs. Communist). Tibetan’s love for color and resplendence vs. the official Chinese [communist] aesthetic that is stark, dour and plain. Semiotics Physically demanding, cognitive impoverishment (low oxygen), physiologically taxing, dangerous, high risk, scenic and breathtakingly beautiful Snowcapped mountains, high altitude (16,000 ft.), low oxygen (30% - 40% of sea level), cold, permafrost GeographicalPhysical Aesthetic Implications Features (examples) Elements of Ecology
    • 67. Ecology: Tibet vis-à-vis China
    • 68. Ecology  Economy and Social Structure Ecology East Asian Greek relationships context middle way harmony independent atomistic decontextualize logical instrumental
    • 69. Ecology
    • 70. Ecology
    • 71. Affordance Potential for action
    • 72. Affordance The intuitive grasp or potential for action Affordance
    • 73. Affordance Cognitive affordance : design feature that helps users in knowing something. Physical affordance: design feature that helps users to physically do something. Sensory affordance : design feature that helps users sense something. Functional affordance: design feature that helps users accomplish work. Cultural affordance: is a commonly agreed upon [cultural] convention adopted by a society or group with regard to the comprehension, interaction and aesthetic sensibilities of a product or system.
    • 74. Affordance
    • 75. Affordance
    • 76. Epoch Zeitgeist: spirit of the times (fashion and fads)
    • 77. Epoch Jet Age: Streamlined Decade (jet age) DC-3 (circa 1930)
    • 78. Epoch Jet Age: Streamlined Decade (jet age) 1934 Chrysler Airflow Union Pacific Streamliner
    • 79. Epoch Denotation & Connotation These two chairs have a similar denotation and very different connotation. Bruno Mattson, Eva , 1934. Jonas Bohlin, Concrete, 1987 Capture the values of a law enforcement domain, its ecology, terrain and mission
    • 80.
      • traditional thinking is outdated
      • an utopian outlook
      • rising from the ashes of WW I – a rebirth “new”
      • democracy: people are sovereign
      • - put people in control of their lives
      • an obsession with technology, machines, materials
      Modernism was characterized by: the unadorned, geometric forms, abstracted shapes, and bold colors Epoch - people, politics, periods & technologies 1914-1939
    • 81. Epoch Myth making  mythical status Myths help us make to sense of our experience within a culture They serve the ideological function of naturalization: perpetuate prevailing cultural values, attitudes and beliefs “ natural” to social groups: that which confers power and privilege
    • 82. 2007 Toyota Tundra 2006 SALES 124,508 (previous model) LAST MAJOR REDESIGN New this year. CASH INCENTIVES $1,315 NOTABLE The 5.7-liter V-8 is great, providing brute force without being brutish. ASSESSMENT Just what the domestic trucks need: a serious competitor, at last, from Toyota. 2007 Dodge Ram 1500 2006 SALES 199,771 LAST MAJOR REDESIGN 2002 model. CASH INCENTIVES $5,502 NOTABLE Ram was the originator of the bold big-bully look, with huge grille and dropped fenders. ASSESSMENT Not a benchmark when new, and now past due for a makeover . NOTABLE: Ram was the originator of the bold big-bully look, with huge grille and dropped fenders. NOTABLE: The 5.7-liter V-8 is great, providing brute force without being brutish Myth making Epoch
    • 83. Corresponding Author Contact: [email_address] (or) [email_address]
    • 84. Validating the Sensory Aesthetics Framework
    • 85.
      • Which of these six filters exist?
      • How do these filters interact?
      • How do we measure these filters?
      • How do we apply this SA filter framework in design?
      Validating the Sensory Aesthetics Framework
    • 86.
      • Identifying the design strategy
        • Application in the current design lifecycle
      • Review of existing tools and techniques
      • Associating the 6 filters to existing tools
      • Consolidating existing tools to create a methodology applicable to the SA framework
      Validating the Sensory Aesthetics Framework
    • 87. Review of existing tools and techniques       Quantitative        Qualitative Lindstrom Sensogram Zaltman ZMET Approach Oliver, Polkinghorne, Bruner Narrative Analysis Jordan Pleasurability Checklist Jordan Property Checklist Desmet PrEmo Sanders Collaging Gaver Cultural Probes Osgood Semantic Differential Nagamachi Kansei Engineering Author/Developer Method
    • 88.  
    • 89. PrEmo
    • 90.  
    • 91. Story Telling Missing Picture ZMET: Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique Triad Task Metaphor Probe/Expand the Frame Metaphor Probe/ Expand the Frame
    • 92. Sensory Non-Visual Metaphors Vignette ZMET: Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique Digital Imaging
    • 93.  
    • 94. Sensogram
    • 95. Sensogram
    • 96. journey as entertainment… entertainment as journey… Sensogram

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