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Naturalistc Decision Making under Life Threatening Conditions

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A presentation that I gave at the International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making at London, UK. based on my paper that was published as part of NDM9.

A presentation that I gave at the International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making at London, UK. based on my paper that was published as part of NDM9.

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  • 1. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 1 Understanding Naturalistic Decision Making under Life Threatening Conditions Moin Rahman Motorola, Inc. Plantation, FL 33322 USA E-mail: moin.rahman@motorola.com
  • 2. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 2 “Emergency or crisis conditions occur suddenly and often unexpectedly, operators must make critical decisions under extreme stress, and the consequences of poor performance are immediate and catastrophic.” (Salas, Driskell & Hughes, 1996). Decision-Maker under Stress
  • 3. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 3 Haditha Killings
  • 4. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 4 Shooting in the Bronx Amadou Diallo
  • 5. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 5 High Velocity of information processing Emotionally modulated cognition Event perception - volatile - uncertain - complex - ambiguous Naturalistic decision making High velocity of events Non-linear dynamics Complex & chaotic - ill structured - ill defined - high stakes - incomplete information Perceptions & Behaviors (Human Factors) Non-Equilibrium (Event structure) High Velocity Human Factors (HVHF) [Rahman, 2007] Auto Vigilance Response Competition Regressive Behavior
  • 6. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 6 Emotion disrupts cognition Reason facilitates cognition Cartesian Dualism
  • 7. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 7 Classical, “Affect-free,” Human Information Processing Model (Wickens, 1992)
  • 8. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 8 OODA Loop
  • 9. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 9 “Snake in the Grass Effect” (LeDoux, 1996)
  • 10. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 10 High Road vs. Low Road (LeDoux, 1996)
  • 11. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 11 Triune Brain (MacLean, 1993)
  • 12. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 12 Lessons from Ethology: Predator-Prey (PP) Dyad Dynamics: • Sudden, Volatile, Uncertain, High Stakes • Imminent threat to life and limb • Aversive emotions, defensive behavior
  • 13. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 13 1) Orientation (Or) Behavior under Life Threatening Conditions (OrAM) 2) Alarm Response (A) 3) Mobilization (M)
  • 14. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 14 - Fear Bradycardia (brief drop in heart rate) Orientation - Attentional Tunneling Loss of peripheral vision Auditory exclusion “non-consciously size up the threat” (PNS dominates) - Increased SCR - Startle inhibition
  • 15. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 15 1) Orientation (Or) Behavior under Life Threatening Conditions (OrAM) 2) Alarm Response (A) 3) Mobilization (M)
  • 16. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 16 Changes in the brain-body landscape (SNS dominates) Alarm Response - Physiological Tachycardia (heart rate increases) Peaked muscle tension Increased respiration rate -Psychological: Fear potentiated startle response - Neural: Primitive brain takes over -Chemical: Body & brain flooded with hormones and neurotransmitters
  • 17. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 17 The Three Stages of Emotion (Damasio, 1999) CONSCIOUS Complex, flexible and customized plans of response are formulated in conscious images and maybe executed as behavior High Reason simple, stereotyped patterns of response: metabolic regulation, reflexes -- the biological machinery behind what will become pain and pleasure, drives and motivations Basic Life Regulation complex, stereotyped patterns of response: secondary emotions, primary emotions, and background emotions Sensory patterns signaling pain, pleasure, and emotions become imagesFeelings Emotions NON-CONSCIOUS
  • 18. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 18 Emotional Arousal: Marine in Combat Ficks (2005): I heard my feet tapping involuntarily on the Humvee floor. My knees stitched up and down like a sewing machine. My mouth felt dry and gummy. Everything seemed to pass in a blur. I thought of war stories that talked about hyperclarity in combat, seeing every blade of grass and feeling colors more intensely than ever before. But for me, whole city blocks faded into gray fuzz. I feared I was processing information too slowly, seeing only one of every ten things I should. I felt short changed. I wanted hyperclarity, too.
  • 19. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 19 Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, et al., 2005)
  • 20. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 20 1) Orientation (Or) Behavior under Life Threatening Conditions (OrAM) 2) Alarm Response (A) 3) Mobilization (M)
  • 21. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 21 Mobilization Behaviors
  • 22. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 22 signature display challenge display Mobilization Defensive Behaviors (Prey)
  • 23. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 23 Mobilization Defensive Behaviors (Prey)
  • 24. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 24 PP Dyad Socio-Technical Systems (STS) Posture: Exhibit signature and challenge displays (Rahman, 2007b). Outnumbered by violent rioters. Law enforcement officers Freeze: Stays still and blends (camouflage) with the terrainvegetation to remain unseen. Unexpectedly comes across enemy. Reconnaissance marine Fight: Take cover; fire back to neutralize adversary and call for help. Adversary opens fire.SWAT team member Flee: Pilot performs appropriate air combat maneuvers to avoid the adversary’s weapon systems. Outmaneuvered in aerial combat by adversary. Fighter pilot Flee: Issue mayday call; figure out a way to exit the building. Lost bearings inside a structure fire. Fire fighter E.g., Sample BehaviorNature of ThreatType of Human Agent
  • 25. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 25 Model: “emotion-primed” NDM under Life Threatening Conditions
  • 26. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 26 Constructive & Destructive Modulation Constructive Modulation of Emotion: 1) Mann Gulch Wild Land Fire 2) United Flight 232 Destructive Modulation of Emotion: 1) Haditha killings 2) Shooting in the Bronx
  • 27. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 27 Automatic vs. Deliberate: OrAM vs. OODA Controlled Effortful Deductive Slow Self-aware Uncontrolled Effortless Associative Fast Unconscious DeliberateAutomatic
  • 28. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 28 • Training Simulate the somatic markers (emotional arousal: degree & kind) experienced in the field. • Individual differences alexithymia, PTSD, psychopathic tendencies Conclusions (Training & Personnel Issues)
  • 29. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 29 Triune Brain (MacLean, 1993)
  • 30. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 30 Conclusions (Design for Reptilian Brain) S D Gibsonian approach: Direct perception/affordances
  • 31. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 31 Semantic vs. Direct Approach (example) 5
  • 32. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 32 Affordances (action & function) Action Affordance Hand Operated Emergency Brake Function Affordance
  • 33. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 33
  • 34. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 34
  • 35. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 35 Overthrowing the Tyranny Embodied Interactions
  • 36. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 36 • PP Dyad to model NDM under life threatening conditions • Orientation-Alarm response-Mobilization (OrAM) supplants OODA • Empirical research required for a deeper understanding of OrAM in STS. Conclusions (Research Findings)
  • 37. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent and Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2008. 37 moin.rahman@motorola.com

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