Designing
 Technology that’s Second Nature
The Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)
                  Approach

      ...
Technology, Second Nature
When I See Three Oranges, I Juggle
When I See Two Towers, I Walk

-PHILIPPE PETIT, 1974
 Man on Wire
Topics

•   Gibson’s Direct Perception
•   Neo-Gibsonian Approach (DPAC)
•   Human-Machine Interfaces (A Retrospective)
• ...
Gibson’s Direct Perception
James Gibson

         Sensation vs. Perception

         Stimulus: something that incites or excites the
         senses....
Indirect vs. Direct Perception


       Indirect Perception (classical)
       Matching the event or stimulus with what ha...
Indirect vs. Direct Perception




     Indirect Perception




                           Direct Perception
Two Key Concepts of DP


          1) Invariance

          2) Affordance
Invariance

• An invariant is defined as a constant
  pattern, usually amid change in other
  variables.
  – Transformatio...
Transformational Invariance




                   Transformational invariance are styles
                   of change tha...
Structural Invariance
Structural Invariance




   Structural invariants are patterns that remained constant when something
   else changed.
Structural Invariance (violation)
Invariance?


• Invariance are higher-order patterns that
  are recognized as “fixed” or “constants” by
  the perceptual s...
Direct Perception   Invariance
Invariance in Artifacts




                                        - about knee high
    What is the higher order pattern...
Invariance in Artifacts
Invariance in Artifacts
Invariance in Artifacts
Invariance in Artifacts
                                    Ergonomically relevant         Aesthetically relevant




    ...
Direct Perception
 Direct Perception (information pickup):

 Meaning inherent in an organism-environment system
 can be pi...
Direct Perception (examples)




  “Each thing says what it is…a fruit says ‘Eat me’;
  water says ‘Drink me’; thunder say...
Direct Perception


Direct Perception (action possibilities):
 Potential for action, without significant
 intermediate sta...
Direct perception reveals   Affordance


  An organism directly perceives an object in terms of
  the action it may afford...
Affordance (examples)
 Door Handles




     Pull Affordance   Push Affordance




                                       ...
Affordance (examples)
 Door Handles




                Sequential Affordance




                                        5
Coke Bottle & the Bushmen
More on Affordances


  Types of Affordances




                  II                    I




                  III      ...
More on Affordances




                      Perceptible Affordance: ability to ascend or
                      descend o...
More on Affordances




                      Hidden Affordance: Releasing a
                      foot-operated emergency...
More on Affordances




                      False Affordance: The [pull] handles
                      on the second set...
More on Affordances



                                 When I See Three Oranges, I Juggle
                               ...
More on Affordances




                 [correct rejection]: Negative Affordance

                                       ...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)


      Affordance: the use value of an object with reference to the intrinsic
  ...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian)


      Effectivities: The potential for purposive behaviors.




     W...
Semantic vs. Direct Approach




                  S            D




                                   5
Function Affordance
S   D




          Non-Objects   Objects
Affordances (action & function)

        Action Affordance




                                         Function Affordanc...
Aircraft Yoke’s A-F Affordances




    Action         Function
  (on Yoke)
Pull/Push     Nose up/down
Turn:         Roll ...
Scissors’ A-F Affordances


                               Action affords and
                               nudges user t...
Faucets: A-F affordances
SW Radio’s A-F affordances




         a                   b
Neo-Gibsonian Approach
Direct Perception Action Coupling (DPAC)
Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian)




                              Environment


                    Sensorimoto...
Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian)



                       Environment
                                         ...
Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian)



                          Environment                              “I kick t...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)


Effort-driven Rewards




                                  Positive emotions
 ...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)




• Embodied Cognition
      The body instructs the mind

      It is with our ...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)




                              Environment


                    Sensorimotor
...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)



   Development of Embodied Cognition



                       A-not-B Error

...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)



     Embodied Cognition Shapes thought and Language
     Verticality Schema: M...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)


      Embodied Cognition Shapes thought and Language
                          ...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)


        Our embodiment drives our logic and thought
                           ...
Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC)




 Child: “Pour the salt into the shaker”
 (flowing of material)


Adult: “Fill...
Semantic vs. Direct Approach




                    Choose the direct approach!

                                        ...
Semantic vs. Direct Approach: Challenges



Semantic approach challenges the user
(consider language):
1. Symbolic code (a...
Semantic vs. Direct Approach: Challenges


  Challenge of the Metaphor: Using of patterns
  of experience from one domain ...
Semantic vs. Direct Approach: Challenges



    Direct approach challenges the designer

    (examples)

    1) Affordance...
Semantic vs. Direct Approach (example)




                                         5
Human-Machine Interfaces
       a retrospective
Three Generations of Interfaces



1. Machine-Cowboy Interface
2. Analog-Professional Interface
3. Digital-Hacker Interface
Model T
Machine-Cowboy Interface
Steps Required to Drive Model T



1.    Turn on the fuel line, a petcock on the right floor of the front compartment, all...
Analog Professional Interface
Evolution of the Interfaces
Evolution of the Interfaces
Tyranny of the Push Buttons
Tyranny of the Push Buttons
Overthrowing the Tyranny
Overthrowing the Tyranny




            Embodied Interactions
Tyranny of the Levers
Tyranny of the Levers




Old Design: Steering Wheel + 15 Levers




                                         New Design: ...
Overthrowing the Tyranny of the
Levers
Joysticks Simplify Grader Operation

Left Joystick:
Side-to-side = steering
Twist =...
Overthrowing the Tyranny of the
Levers




            Embodied Interactions
Tyranny of Similarity




 When an interface has a bank of similar controls,
 whether they be push buttons, levers, or kno...
Designing Technology that’s Second
             Nature

              “t2n”
Semantic vs. Direct Approach




                    Choose the direct approach!

                                        ...
Semantic vs. Direct Approach (example)




                                         5
Affordances (action vs. function)


          Action Affordance




                                           Function Af...
Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian)



                         Environment                              “I kick th...
Overthrowing the Tyranny




            Embodied Interactions
Direct Perception (examples)




  “Each thing says what it is…a fruit says ‘Eat me’;
  water says ‘Drink me’; thunder say...
Designing Technology that’s Second
Nature


 1. Direct Perception NOT Semantic
          Invariance
          Affordance

...
DPAC Ideation Exercise
(sketching)
       Design any one or more of the following critical controls
       for a 2-way rad...
DPAC Ideation Exercise

Points to consider from the DPAC approach:
•     Invariance (identifiable & operable in almost all...
Direct Perception Action Coupling
Direct Perception Action Coupling
Direct Perception Action Coupling
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Direct Perception Action Coupling

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A unified framework that brings together Gibsonian Direct Perception and Embodied Cognition to design intuitive Human Machine Interfaces that support mission critical applications. (a presentation for the general audience of engineers and technoogist who may not have a background in psychology)

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Direct Perception Action Coupling

  1. 1. Designing Technology that’s Second Nature The Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Approach Moin Rahman & Ganesh Balakrishnan Design-Integration | Motorola
  2. 2. Technology, Second Nature
  3. 3. When I See Three Oranges, I Juggle When I See Two Towers, I Walk -PHILIPPE PETIT, 1974 Man on Wire
  4. 4. Topics • Gibson’s Direct Perception • Neo-Gibsonian Approach (DPAC) • Human-Machine Interfaces (A Retrospective) • Designing “technology that’s second nature.”
  5. 5. Gibson’s Direct Perception
  6. 6. James Gibson Sensation vs. Perception Stimulus: something that incites or excites the senses. Sensation is passive: occurs when an organism’s senses are stimulated by energy (light, sound energy, etc.). - Detects the presence/absence of stimulus. Perception is active: it occurs when the organism interrogates an object or stimulus with its senses. - Apprehends the meaning contained within the stimulus.
  7. 7. Indirect vs. Direct Perception Indirect Perception (classical) Matching the event or stimulus with what has been stored in memory (comparison): Meaning is Deduced. Direct Perception (Gibsonian) The richness of the stimulation – or higher order pattern or property – is sufficient with which meaning is Derived.
  8. 8. Indirect vs. Direct Perception Indirect Perception Direct Perception
  9. 9. Two Key Concepts of DP 1) Invariance 2) Affordance
  10. 10. Invariance • An invariant is defined as a constant pattern, usually amid change in other variables. – Transformational Invariance – Structural Invariance
  11. 11. Transformational Invariance Transformational invariance are styles of change that remain constant.
  12. 12. Structural Invariance
  13. 13. Structural Invariance Structural invariants are patterns that remained constant when something else changed.
  14. 14. Structural Invariance (violation)
  15. 15. Invariance? • Invariance are higher-order patterns that are recognized as “fixed” or “constants” by the perceptual system.
  16. 16. Direct Perception Invariance
  17. 17. Invariance in Artifacts - about knee high What is the higher order pattern? - deep enough - flat surface - sturdy
  18. 18. Invariance in Artifacts
  19. 19. Invariance in Artifacts
  20. 20. Invariance in Artifacts
  21. 21. Invariance in Artifacts Ergonomically relevant Aesthetically relevant linguistic graphic empathic essential collateral discretionary Courtesy: Del Coates ()
  22. 22. Direct Perception Direct Perception (information pickup): Meaning inherent in an organism-environment system can be picked up directly without any mental calculations 4
  23. 23. Direct Perception (examples) “Each thing says what it is…a fruit says ‘Eat me’; water says ‘Drink me’; thunder says ‘Fear me’; and woman says ‘Love me’ - From the Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Kofka, 1935). 4
  24. 24. Direct Perception Direct Perception (action possibilities): Potential for action, without significant intermediate stages involving memory or inferences
  25. 25. Direct perception reveals Affordance An organism directly perceives an object in terms of the action it may afford 5
  26. 26. Affordance (examples) Door Handles Pull Affordance Push Affordance 5
  27. 27. Affordance (examples) Door Handles Sequential Affordance 5
  28. 28. Coke Bottle & the Bushmen
  29. 29. More on Affordances Types of Affordances II I III IV (negative affordance) 5
  30. 30. More on Affordances Perceptible Affordance: ability to ascend or descend on stairs 5
  31. 31. More on Affordances Hidden Affordance: Releasing a foot-operated emergency brake 5
  32. 32. More on Affordances False Affordance: The [pull] handles on the second set of doors – however, the second set of doors don’t swing open but have to be pushed. 5
  33. 33. More on Affordances When I See Three Oranges, I Juggle When I See Two Towers, I Walk - PHILIPPE PETIT, 1974 Correct Rejection: the affordance of avoidance 5
  34. 34. More on Affordances [correct rejection]: Negative Affordance 5
  35. 35. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Affordance: the use value of an object with reference to the intrinsic physical features of an organism
  36. 36. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian) Effectivities: The potential for purposive behaviors. Walking on wire is determined by an animals effectivities.
  37. 37. Semantic vs. Direct Approach S D 5
  38. 38. Function Affordance S D Non-Objects Objects
  39. 39. Affordances (action & function) Action Affordance Function Affordance Hand Operated Emergency Brake
  40. 40. Aircraft Yoke’s A-F Affordances Action Function (on Yoke) Pull/Push Nose up/down Turn: Roll plane CW or CCW CW or CCW
  41. 41. Scissors’ A-F Affordances Action affords and nudges user towards functional affordance Perceptual Information: 1) visual (jaw movement) 2) auditory (sound of cutting) and 3) haptic (experience of cutting movement and force)
  42. 42. Faucets: A-F affordances
  43. 43. SW Radio’s A-F affordances a b
  44. 44. Neo-Gibsonian Approach Direct Perception Action Coupling (DPAC)
  45. 45. Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian) Environment Sensorimotor pattern Situated Object/Affordance/Goal Cognition Direct Perception Affordances write perception in the language of action.
  46. 46. Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian) Environment “I kick the ball” Sensorimotor pattern Situated Object/Affordance/Goa l Cognition Direct Perception Perception & motor centers are directly coupled (evidence from brain-imaging) Just perceiving an affordance was sufficient to trigger an activation in the motor regions in the brain. And simplify verbalizing an action phrase (“I kick the ball”) excited the motor regions responsible for leg movements.
  47. 47. Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian) Environment “I kick the ball” Sensorimot or pattern Situated Object/Affordance/ Goal Cognition Direct Perceptio n Effort-driven pleasure
  48. 48. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Effort-driven Rewards Positive emotions Increased perception of control Variety of physical movements coupled with thought processes are rewarding
  49. 49. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) • Embodied Cognition The body instructs the mind It is with our bodies that we prehend the world - Merleau-Ponty
  50. 50. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Environment Sensorimotor pattern Situated Object/Affordance/Goal Cognition Direct Perception Cognition emerges in the interaction of an agent with an environment as a result of senosrimotor activity.
  51. 51. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Development of Embodied Cognition A-not-B Error A B
  52. 52. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Embodied Cognition Shapes thought and Language Verticality Schema: More = Up “prices keep going up” “number of books published are rising” “the DOW JONES index fell 1000 points” “turn up the heat”
  53. 53. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Embodied Cognition Shapes thought and Language cranial Embodiment and physical experience is pervasive and dorsal shapes language and thought: ventral “…face of the mountain” “…mouth of the river” “…his argument was airtight” “…his spirits soared” caudal
  54. 54. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Our embodiment drives our logic and thought cranial dorsal ventral caudal
  55. 55. Direct Perception-Action Coupling (DPAC) Child: “Pour the salt into the shaker” (flowing of material) Adult: “Fill the shaker with salt” (rise in level)
  56. 56. Semantic vs. Direct Approach Choose the direct approach! 5
  57. 57. Semantic vs. Direct Approach: Challenges Semantic approach challenges the user (consider language): 1. Symbolic code (a,b,c,d,..) 2. Phonetic code (pu, ba, ga…) 3. Semantic code (“push,” “pull”) 5
  58. 58. Semantic vs. Direct Approach: Challenges Challenge of the Metaphor: Using of patterns of experience from one domain to structure the other. (Model, Control, View) 5
  59. 59. Semantic vs. Direct Approach: Challenges Direct approach challenges the designer (examples) 1) Affordance 2) Feedforward (how do we make the form “broadcast” its function to its users?) 5
  60. 60. Semantic vs. Direct Approach (example) 5
  61. 61. Human-Machine Interfaces a retrospective
  62. 62. Three Generations of Interfaces 1. Machine-Cowboy Interface 2. Analog-Professional Interface 3. Digital-Hacker Interface
  63. 63. Model T
  64. 64. Machine-Cowboy Interface
  65. 65. Steps Required to Drive Model T 1. Turn on the fuel line, a petcock on the right floor of the front compartment, allowing gasoline to gravity-flow from the ten-gallon tank mounted under the front seat to the carburetor. 2. Engage the hand brake by pulling the lever floor-mounted on the left side of the driver's seat to the rear, an arc of about 45 degrees, which also puts the planetary gears in neutral. 3. Turn on the ignition key on the dashboard. 4. Prime the carburetor to a rich startup mixture by pulling out the choke, a knob on the dashboard. 5. Move the throttle lever on the right side of the steering column down about four or five notches. 6. Raise the spark lever on the left of the column to the top to retard the spark. 7. With your right heel, press the electric starter button in the center of the floorboard close to the seat base. 8. With the engine running smoothly, advance the spark by pulling it down two or three notches. 9. Push the brake lever halfway forward to prepare to go either forward or reverse. 10. To go forward, push the brake lever all the way toward the front of the car while pressing the left pedal all the way in, engaging low, and advance the throttle another few notches. 11. With the car moving forward at least 10 mph in low, release the left pedal to shift into high. Adjust throttle as required for desired road speed. 12. To back up, instead of the left pedal, push the center pedal in, engaging reverse. 13. For highway travel, which for a T means 35-40 mph - definitely not expressway traffic - advance (pull down) both spark and throttle.
  66. 66. Analog Professional Interface
  67. 67. Evolution of the Interfaces
  68. 68. Evolution of the Interfaces
  69. 69. Tyranny of the Push Buttons
  70. 70. Tyranny of the Push Buttons
  71. 71. Overthrowing the Tyranny
  72. 72. Overthrowing the Tyranny Embodied Interactions
  73. 73. Tyranny of the Levers
  74. 74. Tyranny of the Levers Old Design: Steering Wheel + 15 Levers New Design: Two Joysticks
  75. 75. Overthrowing the Tyranny of the Levers Joysticks Simplify Grader Operation Left Joystick: Side-to-side = steering Twist = articulation Right yellow button = auto articulation return to center Top black buttons = wheel lean Trigger switch = transmission direction Top yellow buttons = gear selection Fore/Aft = left blade lift Detent = left blade float Right Joystick: Fore/aft = right blade lift Detent = right blade float Side-to-side = blade shift Twist = circle turn Hat switch fore/aft = blade tip Hat switch left/right = drawbar shift Differential Lock/Unlock Electronic Throttle Resume/Decrement
  76. 76. Overthrowing the Tyranny of the Levers Embodied Interactions
  77. 77. Tyranny of Similarity When an interface has a bank of similar controls, whether they be push buttons, levers, or knobs, the user is forced to use his semantic routes rather than the direct perception route.
  78. 78. Designing Technology that’s Second Nature “t2n”
  79. 79. Semantic vs. Direct Approach Choose the direct approach! 5
  80. 80. Semantic vs. Direct Approach (example) 5
  81. 81. Affordances (action vs. function) Action Affordance Function Affordance Hand Operated Emergency Brake
  82. 82. Perception-Action Coupling (Neo-Gibsonian) Environment “I kick the ball” Sensorimot or pattern Situated Object/Affordance/ Goal Cognition Direct Perceptio n Perception & motor centers are directly coupled (evidence from brain-imaging)
  83. 83. Overthrowing the Tyranny Embodied Interactions
  84. 84. Direct Perception (examples) “Each thing says what it is…a fruit says ‘Eat me’; water says ‘Drink me’; thunder says ‘Fear me’; and woman says ‘Love me’ - From the Principles of Gestalt Psychology (Kofka, 1935). 4
  85. 85. Designing Technology that’s Second Nature 1. Direct Perception NOT Semantic Invariance Affordance 2. Meaningfully couple Perception with Action Action Affordance Functional Affordance 3. Embodied Action NOT Abstract Cognition
  86. 86. DPAC Ideation Exercise (sketching) Design any one or more of the following critical controls for a 2-way radio’s interface on a suitable form factor*. 1) Volume control (increase/decrease loudness) 2) Channel Control (connect me with a person or group of people) 3) Talk Control (open mic/channel for transmission) V Schematic diagram of “VChT” with arbitrary shapes T Ch *The form factor – on which these controls may be placed – could be shaped to provide supporting or secondary affordances.
  87. 87. DPAC Ideation Exercise Points to consider from the DPAC approach: • Invariance (identifiable & operable in almost all orientations) • Action Affordance (desired action is unambiguously revealed) • Utilize functional affordance & feedforward (make the control communicate its stated function w/o labels or icons) • Avoid monotony among controls (same shapes or movements) • Utilize sensorimotor patterns (motions) & haptics that may meaningfully map with control attributes such as (increase/decrease loudness, talk/open mic, connect me to xyz) • Think about how our bodily experience shapes thought and apply it in your design (“embodied control”) t2n: e.interaction shapes industrial design
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