Kinesiology presentation


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Kinesiology presentation

  1. 1. AROUSAL, ANXIETY AND CONTROLLING STRESS IN EMERGENCY STALENESS KINESIOLOGY (SPS 145) Prepared for: Madam Jamiaton Kusrin Prepared by: Mohd Rahimi bin Mohd Shahimi (2010791069) Mohd Hafifi bin Mohd Izani (2010577247) Halimah binti Jakaria (2010724225)
  2. 2. AROUSAL 1. Most critical factor prior to and during performance 2. Body needs to be at optimal level to perform at best 3. Ideal level of arousal should match requirements of specific task and individual 4. Arousal regulation is a major concern among sport psychologists
  3. 3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL & PERFORMANCE Muscle tension Self talk IMPROPER LEVEL OF AROUSAL Coordination Distractibility
  4. 4. ANXIETY  Is a feeling of fear, worry or nervousness, resulting from uncertainty.  Something that causes you worry or fear. advanced English dictionary (page 47)
  5. 5. TYPES OF ANXIETY Trait Anxiety A general predisposition to perceive many situation as threatening and to respond to them with high anxiety State Anxiety An individual’s anxiety at a particular moment (“right now”) and ever changing. Somatic Anxiety Physical component reflecting perception of physiological responses such as heart rate, respiration, and muscle tension Cognitive Anxiety Thought component (worry, fear, concentration disruption)
  6. 6. PRECOMPETITIVE ANXIETY 1. COGNITIVE ANXIETY starts high & remains high as time to event approaches. 2. SOMATIC ANXIETY remains low until 24 hours before the event. 3. Once performance begin, somatic anxiety dissipates rapidly and cognitive state anxiety fluctuates throughout the contest.
  7. 7. CAUSES OF ANXIETY IN ATHLETES  Predisposition to anxiety  Perceived important (threat) of situation  Negative attributional style  Perfectionism  Fear of failure  Competition specific stress Lavallee et al. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes (palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke)
  8. 8. SIGNS OF AROUSAL & ANXIETY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Cold, clammy hands Constant need to urinate Profuse sweating Negative self-talk Dazed look in eyes Headache Dry mouth Difficulties sleeping Increased muscle tension Butterflies in Stomach Inability to concentrate
  9. 9. STRESS The nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it in order to maintain physiological equilibrium. This positive or negative response results from emotions that are accompanied by biochemical and physiological changes directed at adaptation concepts of fitness & wellness ninth edition (page 363)
  10. 10. TYPES OF STRESS EUSTRESS DISTRESS • Use stress in constructive way • High stress, increase sports performance • Can lead to behavioural, physical and mental problems. • High stress, decrease sports performance
  11. 11. GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME Alarm Reaction Any physical or mental trauma triggers an immediate set of reaction that the stress. If the stress is not severe or long lasting, we bounce back and recover rapidly. Resistance Eventually, sometimes rather quickly, we adapt to stress and we tend to become more resistant to illness and disease. Exhaustion A prolonged resisitance leads to exhaustion. A short resisitance allow for the quick recovery. Source: Health News Network
  12. 12. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURE OF AROUSAL & ANXIETY 1. 2. 3. By using Electrocardiogram(ECG or EKG). It is quick and painless test that records the electrical activity of the heart. It may be taken at rest or during exercise. Image source:
  13. 13. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURE OF AROUSAL & ANXIETY 1. Using a mercury Sphygmomanometer 2. Test blood pressure. Image source:
  14. 14. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURE OF AROUSAL & ANXIETY 1. 2. 3. Using a Electroencephalogram (EEG) Determine the difference between interfering signals & brain wave. To examine the effects of visual activity on alpha rhythm in the brain. Image source:
  15. 15. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURE OF AROUSAL & ANXIETY 1. 2. Using a Electrooculography (EOG). EOG is a technique for measuring the resting potential of the retina. Image source:
  16. 16. PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURE OF AROUSAL & ANXIETY 1. 2. 3. The Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). Measure skin conductivity from the fingers or palms. The GSR is highly sensitive to emotions in some people. Image source: Image
  17. 17. BEHAVIORAL MEASURE OF AROUSAL & ANXIETY 1. 2. 3. By using observation. Do observation on athletes behavior before, during and after event can provide much information about their stress response. Clues to watch out for include shaking, talking fast, irregular toilet visit, bitting the nails and inability to stay still.
  18. 18. AROUSAL & ANXIETY PERFORMANCE THEORIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Drive Theory Inverted-U Hypothesis Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning Multidimensional anxiety theory Catastrophe Model Reversal Theory
  19. 19. 1. DRIVE THEORY Drive theory states that the more arousal and anxiety an individual experiences, the higher their performance will be.
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  21. 21. 2. INVERTED-U HYPOTHESIS This theory posits that their is a medium amount of arousal and anxiety that causes one to perform higher - too little anxiety/arousal and too much anxiety/arousal will cause performance to be poorer.
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  23. 23. 3. INDIVIDUAL ZONES OF OPTIMAL FUNCTIONING This theory takes into account that people have different levels of anxiety and arousal that are unique in making them perform at their best. Some people perform their best with low anxiety, some with a medium amount and others with a high amount. The amount of anxiety/arousal that an individual requires to perform their best is based on individual characteristics.
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  25. 25. 4. MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANXIETY THEORY This theory of anxiety posits that when one has anxious thoughts - they will have poorer performance. Anxiety felt by the body will have an effect on performance much like that of the inverted U theory. However, there is little support for this theory.
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  27. 27. 5. CATASTROPHE MODEL The catastrophe model posits that as long as there are lower thoughts of anxiety, then performance will be best at a medium level of physical arousal. If there is a high level of anxious thoughts (worry), performance will be better at a medium level of physical arousal but will suddenly drop off and become very poor. There is a breaking point when performance decreases dramatically.
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  29. 29. 6. REVERSAL THEORY This theory posits that the way that arousal affects performance depends on an individual's interpretation of their arousal. Arousal can be interpreted as pleasant and exciting and as unpleasant and anxious. Arousal that is thought to be pleasant helps performance, and vice versa for bad arousal.
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  31. 31. Why do some pressure?    athletes choke under ‘Choking’ refer to a sudden failure of athletic performance due to an overwhelming anxiety attack. Choking is characterized by anxiety symptoms and the feeling that the harder one tries, the worse one’s performance gets. Most likely to be caused by concern with excessive self consciousness and concern with mechanics skill execution. Lavallee et al. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes (palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke)
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