Project Management


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This Project Management Presentation was made for the Ateneo Graduate School of Business (AGSB) Middle Managers Operations Management Class, Semester 1 of 2011.

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  • These answers the who are involved or stakeholdersThese are the some of the traits an effective project manager must have.
  • This is the what. This definition was from project management body of knowledge PMBOK.The project here has a definite beginning and end not an ongoing endeavour. then you ask the class what is the project is to you?another definition of a project is to manage a project means to Complete a series of tasks with a due date.From there you can determine how much project management tools you need to apply.
  • How to manage a projectIn any project we do we sometimes get overwhelmed by the weight of the project at hand. Breakdown to smaller manageable portions
  • By adjusting the constraints we alter the project
  • Project life cycle should reflect the end poduct.This should not be confused with the project process grps.Here it can be seen that the dream house has been broken down into end products that need to be delivered when combined create the dream house
  • On the last note these are for the tasks on wc they are less than fully committed, thus determine where they need to invest in their time.
  • One such tool in recognizing the who you should surround yourself with to create a team that his a high productivity and efficeincy
  • Displays the skills and knowledge of people who may work on your project
  • Just because a person has the right skills and knowledge doesn’t assure success. That person must be given an adequate amount of time to perform all the necessary work.Factor in productivity, efficeincy and availability
  • Begin planning your workload by developing human resource matrix and a person load chart
  • Success in this project oriented organization requires you to…Here create a matrix structure where people from different areas of the organization are assigned to lead or work on projects.MANCOM where teams can assemble rapidly, expertise can be available for different projects.Disadvantages – team members work on multiple projects who respond to 2 or more managers, team may not be familiar with style and knowledge, team members may focus more on their individual assigmnents and less on the project and its goals.
  • Reaffirm who you will involve in the projectMake sure everyone concerned with he project is still on board
  • Create the following
  • Project Management

    1. 1. Project ManagementMMOPEMAN<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />
    2. 2. PROJECT MANAGERS<br />
    3. 3. PROJECT<br />Is a time bound endeavour undertaken to create a product or service. It is characterized by the need for the service of many different people in an organization while requiring considerable planning and coordination of tasks.<br />
    4. 4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT<br />The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet requirements.<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6. Take action by decomposition or breakdown into major project deliverables<br />Work Breakdown Structure [WBS]<br />
    7. 7. Constraints<br />SCOPE of the PROJECT<br />Ensuring the project includes all the work required and only the work required.<br />TIME<br />COST<br />COST<br />TIME<br />QUALITY<br />SCOPE<br />
    8. 8. PROCESS GROUPS<br />Initiate<br />Plan<br />Control<br />Execute<br />Close<br />
    9. 9. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE<br />This is usually misunderstood as the process groups in project management.<br />
    10. 10. SPAN TIME ESTIMATING<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />
    11. 11. Determining When the Project will Be Done<br />Project assignments always have DEADLINE.<br />Required Info to determine the amount of time for your project:<br />Duration: length each individual activity takes<br />Sequence: order of activities<br />
    12. 12. Developing a Network Diagram<br />Network Diagram<br />a flowchart illustrating the order of project activities performed<br />
    13. 13. Developing a Network Diagram<br />Elements of the network diagram:<br />Event<br />significant occurrences in project’s life; a milestone / deliverable; takes no time and consumes no resources—occurs instantaneously; signposts signifying certain points during project completion<br />Activity<br />describes action / work to go from one event to another in the project; consumes time and resources<br />
    14. 14. Developing a Network Diagram<br />Span-time: <br />Actual calendar time to complete an activity<br />DURATION of an activity<br />Affected by amount of work effort, people’s availability, and whether people can work on an activity at the same time.<br />Work effort, as opposed to span time, is the amount of time a person needs to work on an activity to complete it.<br />
    15. 15. Developing A Network Diagram<br />Activity-in-the-box approach (also called activity-in-the-node, precedence or dependency diagramming)<br />Activity-on-the-arrow-approach (also called the classical or traditional approach)<br />
    16. 16. Developing A Network Diagram<br />Activity—work required to move from one event to another<br />A<br />tA = 0<br />B<br />tB = 0<br />Event—milestone or deliverable<br />Span Time—duration<br />Event<br />1<br />t1 = 2 wks<br />
    17. 17. Importance of A Network Diagram<br />Determine how long the entire project will take<br />Identify potential difficulties<br />Consider alternatives to complete the project more quickly<br />The network diagram represents your PLAN—your ROAD Map…<br />
    18. 18. Defining Span Time Estimate<br />Span-time estimate:<br />your best sense of how long you need to actually perform an activity (realistically speaking)<br />
    19. 19. The Underlying Factors<br />The underlying makeup of an activity determines how long it will take.<br />You are required to determine its different aspects and how they affect one other. <br />
    20. 20. The Underlying Factors<br />
    21. 21. Resource Characteristics<br />Types of Resources to Support the Project:<br />
    22. 22. Resource Characteristics<br />For each resource, determine its…<br />Capacity<br />productivity per unit time period<br />Availability<br />on the calendar; when a resource will be available<br />
    23. 23. Sources of Info Support<br />Sources can be based from the following:<br />Historical records of how long similar activities have taken place in the past<br />People who have performed similar activities in the past<br />People who will be working on the activities<br />Experts familiar with the type of activity, even if they haven’t performed work exactly like it in the past<br />
    24. 24. Improving Activity Span-Time Estimates<br />Define your activities clearly.<br />Subdivide your activities until your lowest level activity estimates are two weeks or less.<br />Define activity start and end points clearly.<br />Involve the people who will perform an activity when estimating its duration.<br />Minimize the use of fudge factors.<br />
    25. 25. Displaying your project’s schedule<br />Key-events list<br />Activities list<br />Combined key-events/activities list<br />Gantt Chart<br />Combined milestone chart and Gantt chart<br />
    26. 26. PROJECT SCHEDULING<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />
    27. 27. IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT SCHEDULE<br />Provides a basis for you to monitor and control project activities.<br />Helps you determine how best to allocate resources so you can achieve the project goal.<br />Helps you assess how time delays will impact the project.<br />Figures out where excess resources are available to allocate to other projects.<br />Provides basis to help you track project progress.<br />
    28. 28. SCHEDULE INPUTS<br />Personal and project calendars– critical elements are working days, shifts and resource availability <br />Description of project scope– key start and end dates<br />Project risks– to ensure that there’s enough extra time to deal with identified risks<br />Lists of activities and resource requirements– identifying possible constraints and other factors that may affect the schedule<br />* A Project Manager should be aware of deadlines and resource availability issues that may make the schedule less flexible *<br />
    29. 29. SCHEDULING TOOLS<br />Schedule Network Analysis<br />Graphic presentation of the project’s activities<br />Gantt Chart<br />useful tools for analyzing and planning more complex projects; helps you monitor whether the project is on schedule. <br />
    30. 30. GANNT CHART<br />
    31. 31. SCHEDULING TOOLS<br />Critical Path Analysis & PERT Charts<br />helps you to plan all tasks that must be completed as part of a project; act as the basis both for preparation of a schedule, and of resource planning <br />
    32. 32. PERT CHART<br />
    33. 33. Schedule Compression <br />helps shorten the total duration of a project by decreasing the time allotted for certain activities.<br />CRASHING - assign more resources to an activity thus decreasing the time it takes to complete it<br />FAST TRACKING- rearranging activities to allow more parallel work<br />SCHEDULING TOOLS<br />
    34. 34. PROJECT REVIEW<br />“ What if” scenario analysis<br />compares and measures the effects of different scenarios on a project<br />Resource leveling<br />rearrange the sequence of activities to address the possibility of unavailable resources <br />Critical chain method<br />this also addresses resource availability; you plan activities using their latest possible start and finish dates<br />Risk multipliers<br />adding extra time to high-risk activities<br />
    35. 35. KEY POINTS<br />Scheduling aims to predict the future, and it has to consider many uncertainties and assumptions,<br />The schedule identifies and organizes project tasks into a sequence of events that create the project management plan.<br />A variety of inputs and tools are used in the scheduling process, all of which are designed to help you understand your resources, your constraints, and your risks. The end result is a plan that links events in the best way to complete the project efficiently. <br />
    36. 36. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />
    37. 37. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT<br />The process of using a company’s resources in the most efficient way possible.<br />resources such as goods and equipment, financial resources, and labor resources such as employees.<br />
    38. 38. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT<br />Resource management can include ideas such as making sure one has enough physical resources for one's business, but not an overabundance so that products won't get used, or making sure that people are assigned to tasks that will keep them busy and not have too much downtime<br />
    39. 39. Human Resources<br />Identify the skills and knowledge needed to perform your project’s activities<br />Specify the people who’ll work on each activity<br />Determine how much effort they have to invest to complete their assigned tasks<br />Determine their slack times and reevaluate<br />
    40. 40. ENNEAGRAM<br />Use the ENNEAGRAM to get an insight on the qualities of our employees and to check if they “fit” into their job description.<br />Appoint project leaders into more appropriate positions based on their strengths and weaknesses thus increasing productivity<br />Can help understand fears and desires, strengths and weaknesses, defenses and anxieties, how we react to frustration and disappointment - and, more positively, what our truest capacities and greatest strengths are so that we can build on those rather than on misjudgments and illusions.<br />
    41. 41. Skill Roster<br />primary skill/ knowledge<br />secondary skill/knowledge<br />interest<br />Person is able to assume a lead role in a task requiring this skill/knowledge<br />Has some training or experience in the skill/knowledge but should work under another’s guidance<br />Person would like to work on tasks involving this skill/knowledge<br />
    42. 42. Human Resource matrix<br /><ul><li>Describe in detail all work to perform the activity
    43. 43. Consider their history
    44. 44. Have the person who’ll do the work participate in estimating the required work effort
    45. 45. Consult with experts familiar with this type of activity, even when they haven’t performed work exactly like it before.</li></li></ul><li>Productivity<br />Knowledge and skill<br />Prior experience<br />Sense of urgency<br />Ability to switch among several tasks<br />The quality and setup of the physical environment<br />Efficiency<br />Non-project-specific professional activities<br />Personal activities<br />Availability<br />
    46. 46. Aligning the Key Players for the Project<br />Recognize the people who define and influence your work environment<br />Understand their unique roles<br />Know how to work effectively with them to create a successful project<br />Iloilo Plant<br />Logistics<br />Production<br />Sales<br />Engineering<br />QA<br />Project A<br />Project responsibility<br />Functional<br />responsibility<br />Project B<br />Project C<br />
    47. 47. Defining Team Member’s Roles and Responsibilities<br />Authority<br />ability to make binding decisions about your project’s products, schedule, resources, and activities<br />Responsibility<br />The commitment to achieve specific results<br />Accountability<br />Bringing consequences to bear in response to people’s performance.<br />
    48. 48. Finalizing your Project’s Participants<br />Inform them that your project has been approved and when the work will start<br />Confirm that they are still able to support your project<br />Explain what you will do to develop the project team and start the project work<br />Reconfirm the work you expect them to perform, when they’re to do it, and the amount of time you expect them to spend on it<br />
    49. 49. Work Order Agreement<br />
    50. 50. Planning for Nonpersonnel Resources<br />Resource matrix for all nonpersonnel resources<br />Individual usage charts for each nonpersonnel resource<br />Summary usage chart for all nonpersonnel resource<br />
    51. 51. Resource Matrix for Nonpersonnel Resources<br />
    52. 52. Usage Chart<br />
    53. 53. Summary Usage Chart<br />
    54. 54. COSTMANAGEMENT<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />
    55. 55. Cost Management<br />Project Cost Estimation<br />Progressive<br />evolves as more project details become available.<br />Variance<br />each estimate should provide a range of cost and time.<br />
    56. 56. What is a GOOD Estimate?<br />Defines what the project will accomplish<br />What assumptions were made<br />How long the estimates are valid<br />Project Cost based on the Current Information<br />
    57. 57. What is a GOOD Estimate?<br />Presents to the stakeholder everything that is relevant to the proposed work – Transparency.<br />If there are any disagreements, in the estimate, it is better to talk about it sooner than later.<br />
    58. 58. Estimate Phase #1<br />Ballpark or Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM)<br />Based on high level objectives<br />Typically high variance<br />Depending on the industry<br />+/- 25% to +/- 75%<br />
    59. 59. Estimate Phase #2<br />Budget Estimate or Top Down Estimate<br />A little more accurate<br />Formulated in the early stages<br />Uses info from previous experience/projects<br />Range of variance is much smaller, <br />+/- 10% to +/- 25%<br />
    60. 60. Estimate Phase #3<br />Definitive Estimate or Bottom Up Estimate<br />Requires a WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)<br />WBS is a deliverables oriented decomposition of the project scope<br />
    61. 61. WBS Example<br />
    62. 62. WBS Explained<br />Code of accounts clarifies the deliverable to all participants<br />Provides an accurate record of all the elements in the project<br />Saves time and helps control costs<br />WBS Dictionary or Reference helps keep all divisions on the same page<br />
    63. 63. Definitive Estimate<br />Takes the most time but is the Most Accurate, +/- 5% to +/-10% of variance<br />Very detailed<br />Easier to make accurate estimates once you know everything that the project will create<br />
    64. 64. POOR Estimates<br />Controlled<br />Poor planning<br />Rushed, bloated, “low-balled” estimate<br />Uncontrolled<br />Fluctuation in Raw Materials costs<br />Inaccurate information<br />
    65. 65. POOR Estimates<br />Can come from the Customer, Stakeholders, and even Project Sponsor<br />Change Orders or new deliverables after project scope has been finalized<br />
    66. 66. QUALITY & RISKMANAGEMENT<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />
    67. 67. Four Aspects of Quality<br />Client Satisfaction<br />Accurate and Current specifications<br />Quality of the Product of the Project<br />Quality of the Project<br />
    68. 68. Achieving Quality<br />Do the Right Thing Right the First Time (DTRTRTFT)<br />The CUSTOMER is the next Person/Operation in the Process<br />Statistical Process Control<br />
    69. 69. Risk<br />“The possibility that you may not achieve your product, schedule, or resource targets because something unexpected occurs or something planned doesn’t occur.”<br />
    70. 70. Risk Management<br />“It is the systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It includes maximizing the probability and consequences of positive events and minimizing the probability & consequences of adverse events to project objectives.”<br />
    71. 71. Risk Management<br />Risk Management Planning<br />Risk Identification<br />Qualitative Risk Analysis<br />Quantitative Risk Analysis<br />Risk Response Planning<br />Risk Monitoring and Control<br />
    72. 72. Taxonomy of Risks<br />
    73. 73. REPORTING & CONROLMANAGEMENT<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />
    74. 74. Reporting & Control<br />Managing the Scope<br />Client Expectations<br />Commitments <br />The Vision<br />Specifications<br />Work Package/ Activity Performance Requirements<br />Changes <br />Documents<br />
    75. 75. Reporting & Control<br />Managing Work Package/Activity Performance<br />Work authorization<br />Activity Duration<br />Schedule<br />Activity Start and Completion<br />Slack<br />Maintaining a Sense of Urgency<br />Relay Race Mentality<br />Technical Objective Achievement<br />Cost Control<br />Carpe Diem<br />
    76. 76. Reporting & Control<br />Managing Resource Application<br />Managing the Project Itself<br />Visibility<br />Maintaining Sense of Urgency<br />Interfaces<br />Over-all Cost Performance<br />System Performance<br />Replanning<br />
    77. 77. THANK YOU<br />abellon | calivo | dayan | gamba | marquez<br />prof gus<br />july 27, 2011<br />