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Mexico from 1821-1850

Mexico from 1821-1850

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Standard32 Standard32 Presentation Transcript

  • Standard 3.2 Explain and analyze problems facing the new Mexican nation, leading to eventual conflict between the United States and Mexico
  • 1810 -1821: Mexico is Born Monarchy v Catholic Churh Union of Gachupines/Criollos
  • Effects of War
  • Mexico’s Infancy
    • By 1820 – Agriculture and Mining industries left devastated
    • New Spain becomes Mexico - change in name but not in power
    • Power remains with the wealthy Europeans
    • Battle for power between Conservatives and Liberals
  • De Iturbide and Guerrero
    • Conflict moderated by Agustin de Iturbide
    • Made deal with liberal Vicente Guerrero
    • Plan de Iguala
  • Plan de Iguala
    • Mexico would become monarchy – European king or price invited
    • Church would maintain power and privilege
    • Criollos and Peninsulares equal
    • Temporary peace in 1821
  • Bankruptcy
    • Spaniards allowed to leave with their value in land holdings in hard currency
    • Silver church bells and gold altarpieces melted to pay Spaniards
  • Troubled Monarchy
    • 1823 – governors and generals including Lopez de Santa Anna issue el Plan de Casa Mata
    • Call for overthrow of Emperor and for a republic
    • 1824 – Iturbide overthrown, exiled and later executed
    • Guadalupe Victoria (Liberal mestizo) becomes first elected president
    • Liberal-Conservative battle continues
  • Age of the Caudillo
  • Age of the Caudillo
    • Liberal-Conservative battle left Mexico weak
    • Strongmen – political and military seen as way to control country
    • Political goals were secondary to personal power
    • 1831 – 1850 – Mexico had over 50 governments (11 headed by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna)
    • No president ever served a full term
  • 1829 - 1834
    • Vicente Guerrero (2 nd President) receives word that Spain is launching an invasion to reconquer
    • Spanish land in Tampico
    • General Lopez de Santa Anna surrounds and attacks
    • By 1830 – Santa Anna was a hero
    • 1833 – wins presidency and soon retires
    • Valentin Gomez Farias becomes president and introduces liberal reforms
  • Santa Anna Returns
    • Church and military upset at liberal reforms of Gomez Farias
    • Call for his overthrow
    • Santa Anna returns and abolishes Constitution of 1824
    • Santa Anna creates a centralist government
  • Political Instability
    • In first 30 years, Mexico went backward
    • Faced several civil war threats and coups
    • Treasury was broke
    • Roads in disrepair, mines flooded and abandoned, rich land was not farmed, Indigenous still had no rights