Chapter13

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Chapter13

  1. 1. The Commonwealth of Byzantium Chapter 13
  2. 2. The Big Picture <ul><li>Long distance trade continues to grow due to new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technological developments shape the world – compass, gunpowder, improved ship-building </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of people alters world – nomads interact with settles people </li></ul><ul><li>Religions evolve – Buddhism, Christianity, Islam preach equality of believers, new paths for women </li></ul><ul><li>Religions influence - unifying force and source of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Political structures adapt and change – Centralized and decentralized </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Goal <ul><li>Evaluate the significance of the Byzantine Empire on the civilization of Europe. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Guiding Question <ul><li>How did the Byzantine political organization and culture and affect the development of eastern Europe? </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Early Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Capital: Byzantium </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial, strategic value of location </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople), moves capital there 340 CE </li></ul><ul><li>1453 falls to Turks, renamed Istanbul </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Later Roman Empire and Byzantium <ul><li>Byzantine Empire inherits Roman Empire after fall of Rome in 5 th c. CE </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded and retracted </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern territories remain major power until 13 th c. CE </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Later Roman Empire <ul><li>Roman infrastructure in place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads, institutional hierarchies, communications, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges from strong Persian empire (Sassanid dynasty, 226-641 CE) and Invasions of Germanic peoples </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Early Byzantine State <ul><li>Tradition of statecraft </li></ul><ul><li>Highly centralized rule </li></ul><ul><li>Power in hands of exalted emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine </li></ul>
  9. 9. Caesaropapism <ul><li>Constantine – 1 st Christian emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Christian leader cannot claim divinity, rather divine authority </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in political and religious rule </li></ul><ul><li>After 6 th c. – emperors exalted absolute rulers </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Byzantine Court <ul><li>Etiquette reinforces authority of Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy, bejeweled crown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal purple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical devices designed to inspire awe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High officials presented themselves as slaves to the emperor </li></ul>
  11. 11. Justinian <ul><li>The “sleepless emperor” </li></ul><ul><li>Most important emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Born into Macedonian peasant family </li></ul><ul><li>Wife Theodora - advisor </li></ul>
  12. 12. Justinian and Theodora <ul><li>Intelligent, strong willed </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed riots over high taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious construction projects – Hagia Sophia </li></ul>
  13. 13. Justinian’s Code <ul><li>Systemic review of Roman Law </li></ul><ul><li>Most thorough ever </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus iuris civilis </li></ul><ul><li>Served as source of legal inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced law codes of western Europe </li></ul>
  14. 14. Belisarius and Byzantine Conquests <ul><li>General Belisarius recaptures much of western Roman Empire under Justinian </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to consolidate control of territories </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrew to defend empire from Sassanids, Slavs </li></ul>
  15. 16. Islamic Conquests and Byzantine Revival <ul><li>7 th century Arab Muslim expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Syria, Palestine, Egypt and North Africa fall </li></ul><ul><li>Besieged Byzantium 674-678, 717-718 </li></ul><ul><li>Defense made possible through use of “greek fire” </li></ul>
  16. 17. Imperial Organization <ul><li>Political adjustments needed to deal with the challenge of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Themes (provinces) under control of generals </li></ul><ul><li>Military administration </li></ul><ul><li>Control from central imperial government </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers from peasant class, rewarded with land grants </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient military and political system </li></ul>
  17. 18. Byzantium and Western Europe
  18. 19. Tensions with Western Europe <ul><li>Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine: Greek; Roman: Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts over hierarchical control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germanic peoples establish rule in Byzantine lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman pope crowns Charlemagne in 800, a challenge to Byzantine authority </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Byzantine Economy and Society
  20. 21. Byzantium <ul><li>Dominated military and political affairs of the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy of classical age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural surplus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Craft workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and economic assets of Mediterranean become foundation of Byzantium’s strength </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Rural Economy and Society <ul><li>Grain from Egypt, Anatolia and Danube region provide Constantinople with grain </li></ul>
  22. 23. Free Peasantry <ul><li>Peasants owned small plots of land </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine at its strongest </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone of military system </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy individuals wanted peasant’s land </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in land tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Theme system benefits free peasantry </li></ul>
  23. 24. Decline of Free Peasantry <ul><li>Large landholdings on the increase </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces tax revenues, recruits to military </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy gained tax exemptions </li></ul><ul><li>Last three centuries indicate steady decline of economy </li></ul>
  24. 25. Manufacturing Enterprises <ul><li>Constantinople center of craft industry </li></ul><ul><li>Glassware </li></ul><ul><li>Linen and wool textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Gems and jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Gold and silver </li></ul><ul><li>Silkworms introduced – became major good </li></ul>
  25. 26. Trade <ul><li>Wealth built on trade </li></ul><ul><li>Levied customs duties on goods passing through </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople linked to merchants from Russia, central Asia, Scandanavia, Northern Europe, Black Sea region and Mediterranean Basin </li></ul><ul><li>6 th c. – 12 th c. – Bezant was main currency in Mediterranean </li></ul>
  26. 27. Organization of Trade <ul><li>Banks provided loans for new business </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships formed </li></ul><ul><li>More extensive than in classical era </li></ul>
  27. 28. Urban Life <ul><li>Constantinople was unrivaled </li></ul><ul><li>Palace in the center </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 palace workers </li></ul><ul><li>Wine fountain </li></ul>
  28. 29. Housing in Constantinople <ul><li>Aristocrats – enormous palaces </li></ul><ul><li>Women lived in separate apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans – rooms above workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Government workers- apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Poor, workers – rickety tenements </li></ul>
  29. 30. Attractions of Constantinople <ul><li>Taverns, restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Baths </li></ul><ul><li>Theaters </li></ul><ul><li>Hippodrome – stadiums for entertaining </li></ul>
  30. 31. Classical Heritage and Orthodox Christianity
  31. 32. The Legacy of Classical Greece <ul><li>People of Byzantium were Greek speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Romans made Latin official language </li></ul><ul><li>Greek replaces Latin in 7 th century </li></ul><ul><li>New Testament originally composed in Greek </li></ul>
  32. 33. Byzantine Education <ul><li>Large government = need for educated intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>School system-grammar, reading, writing </li></ul><ul><li>Greek literature, philosophy and science </li></ul><ul><li>Higher learning school in Constantinople </li></ul>
  33. 34. Byzantine Scholarship <ul><li>Focus on humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Studied Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Considered themselves direct heirs of Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Kept classical works of Greeks alive </li></ul>
  34. 35. The Byzantine Church
  35. 36. Church and State <ul><li>Close relationship between Byzantine Christianity and imperial government </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors intervened in theological debates (Council of Nicaea) </li></ul><ul><li>Church was a state department </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed patriarch to support imperial policy </li></ul>
  36. 37. Iconoclasm <ul><li>Icons = paintings of Jesus, saints </li></ul><ul><li>Leo III considered them sinful </li></ul><ul><li>Policy of iconoclasm – “breaking of icons” </li></ul><ul><li>Policy sparked protests and riots </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted over 100 years </li></ul>
  37. 38. Greek Philosophy and Byzantine Theology <ul><li>Theologians examined religious questions from a philosophical point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to understand nature of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine Christianity build on classical foundation </li></ul>
  38. 39. Monasticism and Popular Piety <ul><li>Piety = devotion to God </li></ul><ul><li>Lay population = not ordained or member of clergy; ordinary </li></ul><ul><li>Laity = ordinary people </li></ul><ul><li>Common people looked more to monasteries for guidance </li></ul>
  39. 40. Asceticism <ul><li>Devout individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Self denial and asceticism </li></ul><ul><li>Some lived in caves as hermits </li></ul><ul><li>Celibacy, fasting </li></ul><ul><li>Pilar saints </li></ul>
  40. 41. Byzantine Monasticism and St. Basil <ul><li>Men and women formed monastic communities </li></ul><ul><li>Monks and nuns give up possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Devoted to work and prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Service to communities </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads after 4 th century </li></ul>
  41. 42. Mt. Athos <ul><li>Off limits to females </li></ul><ul><li>Strict lifestyle inspired faith more than high ranking members of clergy </li></ul>
  42. 43. Tensions Between Eastern and Western Christianity <ul><li>Byzantine developments were different than Christianity in western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Arab conquests led to decline of Christian authority in Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between Rome and Constantinople mirrored tension between Byzantine and western European societies </li></ul>
  43. 44. Constantinople and Rome <ul><li>Iconoclasm – Rome opposed </li></ul><ul><li>Differences over rituals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of bread used for communion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaving beards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between God, Jesus and Holy Spirit </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Schism <ul><li>Patriarchs and Popes dispute rights and powers </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchs – autonomy of Christian jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Popes – primacy of Rome as the sole seat of authority </li></ul><ul><li>1054 CE – pope and patriarch excommunicate each other </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern church become known as Eastern Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Western church becomes known as Roman Catholic </li></ul>
  45. 46. The Influence of Byzantium in Eastern Europe
  46. 47. Social Problems <ul><li>Generals of themes become allied with local aristocrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermarry, create class of elite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occasional rebellions vs. Imperial Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Revolts disrupt local economies </li></ul><ul><li>Free peasantry decline </li></ul>
  47. 48. Challenges from the West <ul><li>Normans – from Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>12 th and 13 th century – Crusades to reclaim holy sites </li></ul><ul><li>Venice grows influential during 4 th Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople sacked in 1204 </li></ul>
  48. 49. Challenges from the East <ul><li>Turkish invasions from east </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Saljuqs invade Anatolia </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine factions turn on each other – lose Anatolia </li></ul><ul><li>1453 – Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople </li></ul>
  49. 51. Byzantium and Slavic People <ul><li>Relations from 6 th c. CE </li></ul><ul><li>Serbs, Croats move into Balkan peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgars establish kingdom on lower Danube </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria influenced culturally, politically </li></ul>
  50. 52. Cyril and Methodius <ul><li>Missionaries to Slavs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Cyrillic alphabet for Slavic language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed Orthodox Christianity to spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavic lands develop orientation to Byzantium </li></ul>
  51. 53. Byzantium and Russia <ul><li>Slavs in north began to organize state </li></ul><ul><li>Administered from Kiev on Dnieper River </li></ul><ul><li>Kiev becomes powerful center </li></ul><ul><li>Russian princes sought alliances with Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in Orthodox Christianity </li></ul>
  52. 54. Conversion of Prince Vladimir <ul><li>989 – Prince of Kiev </li></ul><ul><li>Converts to Orthodox Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine teachers travelled north to establish schools </li></ul><ul><li>Kiev becomes conduit for spread of Byzantine culture in Russia </li></ul>
  53. 55. The Growth of Kiev <ul><li>Princes control the Russian Orthodox church </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine culture influences development of Slavic cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctively Slavic Orthodox church develops </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual heir to Byzantium </li></ul><ul><li>Moscow – 3 rd Rome </li></ul>
  54. 56. Summary <ul><li>Byzantine empire grew out of Roman empire </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantium inherited economy and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity grows and eventually separates from Roman church </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural empire dominates Mediterranean and influences developments in eastern Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantium changes over time to deal with challenges </li></ul>

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