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Chapter 11<br />Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase<br />
From Kingdom to Republic<br />
The Etruscans and Rome<br />Legend: City’s existence owed to flight of Aeneas<br /> Migrated from Troy<br />The Aeneidby V...
Romulus and Remus<br />Twin descendants of Aeneas<br />Abandoned by evil uncle along Tiber River<br />Nursed by wolf and g...
The Etruscans<br />from Anatolia<br />Colonized Roman regions <br />Thriving cities, economic alliances (bronze, iron)<br ...
The Kingdom of Rome<br />Monarchy through 7th-6thc. BCE<br />Geographic advantage – along Tiber, not on coast<br />Streets...
The Roman Republic and Its Constitution<br />509 B.C.E. – Romans overthrow last Etruscan king<br />Replaced with Aristocra...
Establishment of the Republic<br />Roman Forum<br />Republican constitution<br />Executive: 2 consuls with civil and milit...
Conflicts Between Patricians and Plebeians<br />Patricians (aristocrats)<br />Plebeians (commoners)<br />Plebeians allowed...
Expansion of the Republic<br />Dominated Etruscans<br />Took over iron industry 5th-4thc. BCE<br />Expansion via military ...
Roman Republic 146 B.C.E.<br />
Expansion in the Mediterranean<br />Carthage main competitor<br />Antigonids, Ptolemies, Seleucids<br />Hellenistic prospe...
The Punic Wars<br />Conflict with Carthage, 264-164 BCE<br />3 wars over Sicilian grain supply<br />Rome gains control of ...
From Republic to Empire<br />
Imperial Expansion and Domestic Problems<br />Land distribution<br />Perennial problem<br />Development of large latifundi...
The Gracchi Brothers<br />Tiberius and Gaius<br />Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats<br />Assassinated<br />D...
Civil War<br />87 BCE Gaius Marius takes Rome<br />Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out 83 BCE<br />Reign of terror fo...
The Foundation of Empire<br />Rome still plagued with class conflict<br />Poor flooded cities, joined private militaries<b...
Julius Caesar<br />Nephew of Marius<br />Escapes Sulla’s terror<br />Relatively young, well-timed trip abroad<br />Attacks...
Augustus<br />Civil conflict follows death of Caesar<br />Nephew Octavian fights Mark Antony & Cleopatra<br />Takes title ...
Augustus’s Administration<br />Monarchy disguised as a republic<br />Kept republican form of government<br />Increasing ce...
Continuing Expansion and Integration of the Empire<br />Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas<br />Gaul, Germany, ...
Roman Empire - 117 C.E.<br />
The PaxRomana<br />Roman Peace<br />27-250 CE<br />Facilitated trade, communication<br />
Roman Roads<br />Roads linked the territories, supported trade and communication<br />Curbs, drainage, milestones<br />Pos...
Roman Law<br />Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE<br />Adapted to diverse populations under Roman Rule<br />Laws integrated larger ...
Economy and Society in the Roman Mediterranean<br />
Trade and Urbanization<br />Focus on Mediterranean<br />Growing economy brings social change<br />State brings more region...
Commercial Agriculture<br />Latifundia: production for export<br />Regional specialization increases – better use of land<...
Mediterranean Trade<br />Vigorous trade<br />Sea lanes linked ports from Syria and Palestine to Spain and North Africa<br ...
The City of Rome<br />Cities promoted economic and social change<br />Cash flowed to Rome<br />Taxes, tribute, spoils, com...
Roman Cities<br />Cities built at strategic points<br />Imported goods, luxury items<br />Underground sewage<br />Circus M...
Family and Society<br />Roman family consisted of entire household<br />Slaves<br />Free Servants<br />Close relatives<br />
The Pater Familias<br />Pater Familias: “father of the family”<br />Right to arrange marriages, sell children into slavery...
Wealth and Social Change<br />Newly rich challenge aristocracy<br />Poor class increased in size<br />Often rioted to impr...
Slavery<br />2ndc. CE: estimated at 1/3 of Empire population<br />Customary manumission at age 30<br />Agricultural work, ...
The Cosmopolitan Mediterranean<br />
Greek Philosophy and Religions of Salvation<br />As people moved throughout the Mediterranean world, they carried their re...
Roman Deities<br />Polytheistic<br />Major gods – Jupiter, Mars, Ceres (grain)<br />Tutelary deities<br />Absorption of go...
Greek Influence<br />Influenced Roman philosophy and use of reasonable thought<br />Stoics – sought universal moral standa...
Cicero and Stoicism<br />Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-46 BCE)<br />Major orator, writer<br />Influenced by Greek thought<br ...
Religions of Salvation<br />Masses found comfort in religions of salvation<br />Provided a sense of purpose<br />Spread du...
Mithraism<br />From Zoroastrian myth: god of Sun, light<br />Roman version emphasizes strength, courage, discipline<br />W...
Cult of Isis<br />Open to men and women<br />Most popular religions of salvation before Christianity<br />Used to cope wit...
Judaism and Early Christianity<br />10th century BCE – Jewish Kingdoms of David and Solomon dissolve<br />Jewish faith mai...
The Jews and the Empire<br />Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient cultures<br />Refusal to recognize state gods<br ...
The Essenes<br />Messianic Jewish Cult <br />1st century BCE<br />Strict moral codes<br />Baptism – ritual<br />look for s...
Jesus of Nazareth<br />Jewish teacher<br />Born about 4 BCE<br />Moral code, reputation for miracle-working<br />“kingdom ...
Jesus’ Early Followers<br />Belief in Jesus’ resurrection, divine nature (later)<br />Title Christ: “Anointed One”<br />Te...
Paul of Tarsus<br />Jewish followers – some want to gain converts<br />Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles<br />Je...
Early Christian Communities<br />Local leaders: Bishops<br />Regional variation in doctrine and ritual<br />Nature of resu...
The Growth of Early Christianity<br />
Summary<br />Under Romans, Mediterranean peoples become tightly integrated<br />Roman Empire – Administration over vast la...
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  • Tribunes held right to vetoPatricians still dominated politicsGained right to elect one of two consuls – like Athens, slowly expand rights
  • Class conflicts continued
  • Rome faced challenges from neighboring townsConsolidated power by taking control of ItalyFounded a large regional state (used to be a city state) – established military colonies, friendly policies
  • Played major role in affairs around MediterraneanConflicts with other Mediterranean powers
  • Carthage dominant in Northern Africa, except Egypt (originally a Phoenician colony)
  • Sicily was heart of grain supply in Medit.Romans conquer Carthage and burn most of it to the ground, enslave 50,000 survivorsLater conflict with declining Hellenistic Empires, pirates try to destabilize
  • Imperial expansion brought wealth problems and benefitsUneven distribution of wealthRepublic slowly dissolves and imperial government instituted
  • Conquered lands fell into hands of wealthy elitesBenefited from slave labor
  • Between 2nd and 1st centuriesLike Wang Mang in China- wanted to redistribute landOver limit would lead to land reallocation to small farmersLoyalty to generals due to paycheck
  • Reign of terror lasts five years10,000 individuals murderedProgram did not succeed in long term
  • Rises to popularityPublic spectacles, victories in Gaul
  • Centralizes military Large scale building programsGrants citizenship to ruled territories
  • Ensuing 2 centuries
  • Grain from Africa, Egypt and Sicily find way to large cities
  • 10,000 statues, 700 pools, 500 fountains, 36 marble triumphal arches, temples, bath houses, public buildings, stadiums
  • Employment of hundreds of thousands, population surged
  • Even execute them
  • Define Cosmopolitan – cosmos- world, Polities - citizens
  • Transcript of "Chapter11"

    1. 1. Chapter 11<br />Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase<br />
    2. 2. From Kingdom to Republic<br />
    3. 3. The Etruscans and Rome<br />Legend: City’s existence owed to flight of Aeneas<br /> Migrated from Troy<br />The Aeneidby Virgil<br />Indo-Europeans arrive 2000 B.C.E. – blend<br />Bronze arrives c. 1800, Iron c. 900<br />
    4. 4. Romulus and Remus<br />Twin descendants of Aeneas<br />Abandoned by evil uncle along Tiber River<br />Nursed by wolf and grow strong<br />753 B.C.E. – Romulus founds Rome – becomes king<br />
    5. 5. The Etruscans<br />from Anatolia<br />Colonized Roman regions <br />Thriving cities, economic alliances (bronze, iron)<br />Society declines late 6thc. BCE<br />Greek maritime attacks<br />Celtic invasions from north (Gaul)<br />
    6. 6. The Kingdom of Rome<br />Monarchy through 7th-6thc. BCE<br />Geographic advantage – along Tiber, not on coast<br />Streets, temples, public buildings<br />Major center of trade routes<br />Benefits from decline of Etruscans<br />
    7. 7. The Roman Republic and Its Constitution<br />509 B.C.E. – Romans overthrow last Etruscan king<br />Replaced with Aristocratic republic<br />
    8. 8. Establishment of the Republic<br />Roman Forum<br />Republican constitution<br />Executive: 2 consuls with civil and military powers<br />Consuls elected by assembly of aristocrats (hereditary)<br />Senate – advised consuls and ratified decisions<br />
    9. 9. Conflicts Between Patricians and Plebeians<br />Patricians (aristocrats)<br />Plebeians (commoners)<br />Plebeians allowed to elect tribunes for representation<br />Rights expanded through 3rdc. BCE<br />6-month appointments of dictators in emergencies<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11. Expansion of the Republic<br />Dominated Etruscans<br />Took over iron industry 5th-4thc. BCE<br />Expansion via military threat and incentives<br />Tax exemptions<br />Trade privileges<br />Citizenship<br />Restricted alliances<br />Required military service<br />
    12. 12. Roman Republic 146 B.C.E.<br />
    13. 13. Expansion in the Mediterranean<br />Carthage main competitor<br />Antigonids, Ptolemies, Seleucids<br />Hellenistic prosperity supported growing trade network <br />
    14. 14. The Punic Wars<br />Conflict with Carthage, 264-164 BCE<br />3 wars over Sicilian grain supply<br />Rome gains control of Carthaginian lands<br />Rome dominates Mediterranean by middle of 2nd C. BCE<br />
    15. 15. From Republic to Empire<br />
    16. 16. Imperial Expansion and Domestic Problems<br />Land distribution<br />Perennial problem<br />Development of large latifundia<br />Unfair competition for smaller landholders<br />
    17. 17. The Gracchi Brothers<br />Tiberius and Gaius<br />Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats<br />Assassinated<br />Development of private armies made up of landless peasants<br />Gaius Marius (with reformers)<br />Lucius Cornelius Sulla (with aristocrats)<br />
    18. 18. Civil War<br />87 BCE Gaius Marius takes Rome<br />Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out 83 BCE<br />Reign of terror follows – encourages Romans to kill “enemies” of the state<br />Sulla imposed conservative programs – weakened influence of lower classes<br />
    19. 19. The Foundation of Empire<br />Rome still plagued with class conflict<br />Poor flooded cities, joined private militaries<br />Julius Caesar become a popular leader in favor of social reform<br />Led the process from republic to imperial rule<br />
    20. 20. Julius Caesar<br />Nephew of Marius<br />Escapes Sulla’s terror<br />Relatively young, well-timed trip abroad<br />Attacks Rome 49 BCE<br />Names self Dictator for life in 46 BCE<br />Centralized rule, confiscated land from conservatives<br />Assassinated in 44 B.C.E.<br />
    21. 21. Augustus<br />Civil conflict follows death of Caesar<br />Nephew Octavian fights Mark Antony & Cleopatra<br />Takes title Augustus 27 BCE<br />Ruled for 45 years<br />
    22. 22. Augustus’s Administration<br />Monarchy disguised as a republic<br />Kept republican form of government<br />Increasing centralization of political, military power<br />Stablilized empire<br />Death in 14 CE<br />
    23. 23. Continuing Expansion and Integration of the Empire<br />Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas<br />Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain<br />Integrate into economy and society<br />Coordination of crop production, transport of natural resources<br />Allied with local rulers<br />Developed infrastructure, cities emerge (Paris, Lyons, London, Cologne, Segovia)<br />
    24. 24.
    25. 25. Roman Empire - 117 C.E.<br />
    26. 26. The PaxRomana<br />Roman Peace<br />27-250 CE<br />Facilitated trade, communication<br />
    27. 27. Roman Roads<br />Roads linked the territories, supported trade and communication<br />Curbs, drainage, milestones<br />Postal service<br />
    28. 28.
    29. 29. Roman Law<br />Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE<br />Adapted to diverse populations under Roman Rule<br />Laws integrated larger society<br />Innocent until proven guilty<br />Right to challenge accusers in court<br />
    30. 30. Economy and Society in the Roman Mediterranean<br />
    31. 31. Trade and Urbanization<br />Focus on Mediterranean<br />Growing economy brings social change<br />State brings more regions into control<br />Agriculture – foundation of economy<br />
    32. 32. Commercial Agriculture<br />Latifundia: production for export<br />Regional specialization increases – better use of land<br />Integration of Empire-wide economy<br />Spain- olive oil, wine, horses, metals<br />Palestine and Syria – fruits, nuts, wool<br />Italy – pottery, glassware, bronze<br />Greece – olives, vines<br />Gaul – grain, copper<br />
    33. 33. Mediterranean Trade<br />Vigorous trade<br />Sea lanes linked ports from Syria and Palestine to Spain and North Africa<br />Roman navy kept sea free of pirates – cargo safer and larger<br />“mare nostrum” – our sea<br />
    34. 34.
    35. 35. The City of Rome<br />Cities promoted economic and social change<br />Cash flowed to Rome<br />Taxes, tribute, spoils, commerce<br />Massive construction projects<br />Statuary, monumental architecture, aqueducts<br />Technology: concrete<br />
    36. 36.
    37. 37.
    38. 38. Roman Cities<br />Cities built at strategic points<br />Imported goods, luxury items<br />Underground sewage<br />Circus Maximus<br />250,000 spectators<br />Colosseum<br />Gladitorial Games<br />
    39. 39.
    40. 40. Family and Society<br />Roman family consisted of entire household<br />Slaves<br />Free Servants<br />Close relatives<br />
    41. 41. The Pater Familias<br />Pater Familias: “father of the family”<br />Right to arrange marriages, sell children into slavery, determine work, punish as see fit<br />Women not allowed to inherit property<br />Rarely enforced<br />Supervised household<br />
    42. 42. Wealth and Social Change<br />Newly rich challenge aristocracy<br />Poor class increased in size<br />Often rioted to improve conditions<br />Distraction: “Bread and Circuses”<br />
    43. 43. Slavery<br />2ndc. CE: estimated at 1/3 of Empire population<br />Customary manumission at age 30<br />Agricultural work, quarries, mines<br />Chain labor<br />Revolt under Spartacus, 73 BCE – 70,000 slaves <br />Educated slaves - Epictetus<br />
    44. 44. The Cosmopolitan Mediterranean<br />
    45. 45. Greek Philosophy and Religions of Salvation<br />As people moved throughout the Mediterranean world, they carried their religious beliefs<br />Roads and communications spread popular religions<br />
    46. 46. Roman Deities<br />Polytheistic<br />Major gods – Jupiter, Mars, Ceres (grain)<br />Tutelary deities<br />Absorption of gods from other cultures<br />
    47. 47. Greek Influence<br />Influenced Roman philosophy and use of reasonable thought<br />Stoics – sought universal moral standards<br />
    48. 48. Cicero and Stoicism<br />Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-46 BCE)<br />Major orator, writer<br />Influenced by Greek thought<br />Proponent of Stoicism<br />Emphasized duty to live in accordance with nature and reason<br />Pursuit of justice as highest duty<br />
    49. 49. Religions of Salvation<br />Masses found comfort in religions of salvation<br />Provided a sense of purpose<br />Spread during Hellenistic times<br />Brought to Rome by migrants<br />Roads served as highways for religions of salvation<br />
    50. 50. Mithraism<br />From Zoroastrian myth: god of Sun, light<br />Roman version emphasizes strength, courage, discipline<br />Women not admitted into cult<br />Appealed to military<br />
    51. 51. Cult of Isis<br />Open to men and women<br />Most popular religions of salvation before Christianity<br />Used to cope with stresses of cosmopolitan life<br />
    52. 52. Judaism and Early Christianity<br />10th century BCE – Jewish Kingdoms of David and Solomon dissolve<br />Jewish faith maintained by followers under foreign rulers<br />Jews did not want to participate in worshipping of deities<br />
    53. 53. The Jews and the Empire<br />Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient cultures<br />Refusal to recognize state gods<br />Tension grows as Rome expands into Southwest Asia<br />Repeated Jewish rebellions in Palestine<br />Romans finally crush Jewish self-governance in Jewish Wars (66-70 CE)<br />
    54. 54. The Essenes<br />Messianic Jewish Cult <br />1st century BCE<br />Strict moral codes<br />Baptism – ritual<br />look for savior to free from Roman rule <br />Ascetic lifestyle<br />Dead Sea Scrolls<br />
    55. 55. Jesus of Nazareth<br />Jewish teacher<br />Born about 4 BCE<br />Moral code, reputation for miracle-working<br />“kingdom of God is at hand”<br />Romans fear instigation of rebellion, crucify Jesus in early 30s CE<br />IesusNazarenus Rex Iudaeorum<br />
    56. 56. Jesus’ Early Followers<br />Belief in Jesus’ resurrection, divine nature (later)<br />Title Christ: “Anointed One”<br />Teachings recorded in New Testament<br />Over time, teach he is son of God<br />
    57. 57. Paul of Tarsus<br />Jewish followers – some want to gain converts<br />Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles<br />Jew from Anatolia<br />Intensive travel, missionary activity<br />
    58. 58. Early Christian Communities<br />Local leaders: Bishops<br />Regional variation in doctrine and ritual<br />Nature of resurrection<br />Role of women<br />Gradual acceptance of core texts<br />
    59. 59. The Growth of Early Christianity<br />
    60. 60. Summary<br />Under Romans, Mediterranean peoples become tightly integrated<br />Roman Empire – Administration over vast lands<br />Specialized agriculture and industrial production<br />Spread of popular religions, Philosophy<br />
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