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Chapter 09


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  • Central portion of Ganges plain
  • High Point ofMauryan
  • Debase currency
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 9 Overview
      State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in India
    • 2. I. The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India
    • 3. A. The Mauryan Dynasty and the Temporary Unification of India
      Aryans in India – small kingdoms
      520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west India
      Introduces Persian administrative techniques (ruling patterns)
      327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in India
      Troops mutiny, departs after 2 years - Political power vacuum
    • 4. 1. Kingdom of Magadha
      Filled the power vacuum left by Alexander
      Most important state in N. India
      Conquered neighboring states – lead role in unification of India
      Controlled Indian commerce passing through Ganges
    • 5. 2. Chandragupta Maurya
      Overthrew Magadha rulers
      Expanded kingdom to create 1st unified Indian empire
    • 6. 3. Chandragupta’s Government
      Advisor Kautalya
      Oversee trade, agriculture, tax collecting, maintaining order, foreign relations, waging war
      Network of spies
      Bureaucratic administrative system
      Harsh political philosophy recorded in Arthashastra
    • 7. 4. AshokaMaurya(268-232 B.C.E.)
      Conquered the kingdom of Kalinga (along major trade route), 260 B.C.E.
      Ruled with tightly organized bureaucracy
      Established capital at Pataliputra
      Oversaw implementation of his policies
      Rocks and pillar edicts
      Encouraged Buddhist values – fair, just and humane rule
    • 8. Ashoka’sMauryan Empire
      Regions of India become well integrated
      Subcontinent benefits from trade and stability
      Irrigation systems = agricultural wealth
      Roads built – inns, shaded areas, well
    • 9. 5. Decline of Mauryan Empire
      Economic crisis after Ashoka’s death
      High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenue
      Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries
      Regions begin to abandon Mauryan Empire - disappears by 185 BCE
    • 10. B. The Emergence of Regional Kingdoms and the Revival of Empire
      Mauryan collapse
      India did not crumble into anarchy
      Local rulers form series of regional kingdoms
    • 11. 1. Bactrian Rule in NW India
      Northwestern India
      Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns
      Intense cross-cultural activity accompanies active trade
      Link to China, Medit.
      Taxila flourished
    • 12. 2. The Kushan Empire
      Nomadic conquerors from Central Asia attack Bactria
      Northern India/Central Asia (C. 1-300 CE)
      Kanishka- pacified region between China and Persia
      Maintained silk road network
    • 13. 3. The Gupta Dynasty
      Based in Magadha – wealthy region
      Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CE
      Samudra Gupta and Chandra II conquered regional kingdoms – formed alliances
      Highly decentralized leadership
      Brought stability and prosperity to subcontinent
    • 14. 4. Gupta Decline
      Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5thc. CE
      High cost – resources depleted
      Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault lines
      After the fifth century C.E., Gupta dynasty continued in name only
      Large regional kingdoms dominated political life in India
      Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16thc.
    • 15. II. Economic and Social Distinctions
    • 16. A. Towns and Trade
      Towns dotted Indian countryside
      Northwest corner of subcontinent (closer to Persian Empire)
    • 17. 1. Towns and Manufacturing
      Manufactured goods in big demand – large agricultural economy
      Pots, textiles, iron tools, metal utensils
      Developed in dense network of small workshops
      Large scale businesses - Saddalputta
      Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India built by Ashoka
    • 18. 2. Long Distance Trade
      Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius
      Massive road-building projects under Persian rule
      Alexander extends trade west to Macedon
      Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads
      Cotton, Aromatics, black pepper, pearls and gems
    • 19.
    • 20. 3. Trade in Indian Ocean Basin
      • Seasonal sea trade expands - Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west
      • 21. Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean
    • B. Family Life and Caste System
      Moralist sought to promote stability
      Encouraged respect for patriarchal families
      Promote maintenance of social order
      Nuclear family
    • 22. 1.Gender Relations
      Patriarchy entrenched
      Mahabharata and Ramayana – women are weak-willed emotional creatures
      Child marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s)
      Dominated in household affairs
      Women encouraged to remain in private sphere
      female subordination
    • 23. 2. Social Order
      Caste system from Aryan times
      Brahmins (priests)
      Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)
      Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants)
      Shudras (serfs)
    • 24.
    • 25. 3. Castes and Guilds
      Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system
      With trade and commerce new social groups of artisans, craftsmen, and merchants appeared
      Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes
      Families associate with others in like castes
      Jatis enforced social order
      “outcastes” forced into low-status employment
    • 26. 4. Wealth and the Social Order
      Vaishyasand shudras saw unprecedented wealth
      Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras
      Wealth challengesvarnafor status
      Old beliefs and values of early Aryan society became increasingly irrelevant
    • 27. III. Religions of Salvation in Classical India
    • 28. A. Jainism and the Challenge to the Established Cultural Order
      Social change generated resentment of caste privilige
      e.g. Brahmins free from taxation
      6th-5thc. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo
      Charvakas: atheists
      Jainists, Buddhists
    • 29. 1. VardhamanaMahavira
      VardhamanaMahavira (Jina) founded Jain religion in 5th century B.C.E.
      Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life
      Promotes 7thc. movement based on Upanishads
      Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings
    • 30. 2.Jainist Ethics
      Striving to purify one's selfish behavior to attain a state of bliss
      Principle of ahimsa, nonviolence toward all living things
      Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects
      Too demanding, not a practical alternative to the cult of the brahmans
    • 31. 3.Appeal of Jainism
      Social implication: individual souls equally participated in ultimate reality
      Rejected caste, jati distinctions
      Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups
      Too extreme - no mass movement
      Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)
    • 32. B. Early Buddhism
      Founder came from Kshatriyafamily
      More practical that Jainism
      Salvation comes from leading a balanced and moderate life
    • 33. 1. Siddhartha Gautama
      Gave up his comfortable life to search for cause of suffering
      c. 563-483 BCE
      Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life
      Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk
    • 34. 2. Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment
      Wanders through Ganges valley searching for enlightenment
      Intense meditation, extreme asceticism
      49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment
      Attained title Buddha: “the enlightened one”
    • 35. 3. Buddha and His Followers
      Announced his doctrine at the Deer Park of Sarnath in 528 B.C.E.
      Promotes law of righteousness
      Organized a community of monks
      “Decay is inherent in all component things! Work out your salvation with diligence”
    • 36. 4. Buddhist Doctrine: Dharma
      The Four Noble Truths
      1. All life involves suffering
      2. Suffering is caused by desire
      3. elimination of desire ends suffering
      4. disciplined life in accordance to Noble Eightfold Path are the way to end suffering
      Religious goal: personal salvation, or nirvana, a state of perfect spiritual independence
    • 37. 5. Appeal of Buddhism
      Appealed strongly to members of lower castes because it did not recognize social hierarchies of castes and jati
      less demanding than Jainism, which made it more popular
      Used vernacular tongues, not Sanskrit
      Holy sites venerated by pilgrims
      The monastic organizations--extremely efficient at spreading the Buddhist message and winning converts to the faith
    • 38. 6. Ashoka’s Support
      Converted to Buddhism
      Disillusioned after violent war with Kalinga
      Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court
      Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities
    • 39. C. Mahayana Buddhism
      Early Buddhism was not an easy path to salvation
      Between 3rd century BCE – 1st century CE - Three new developments
    • 40. 1. Development of Buddhism
      1. Buddha became a god
      2. The notion of boddhisatva--"an enlightened being”
      3. Monasteries began to accept gifts from wealthy individuals
    • 41. 2. Spread of Mahayana Buddhism
      Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer development
      India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia
      Hinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier version
      Ceylon, Burma, Thailand
    • 42. 3. Nolanda
      Buddhist Monastery
      Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine, logic
      Peak at end of Gupta dynasty – attracted students from foreign lands
      Helped spread Indian thought
      E.g. mathematical number zero
    • 43. D. The Emergence of Popular Hinduism
      Like Buddhism, undergoes change to appeal to more people
      Inspired by Upanishads and Vedas
      Departed from older traditions
    • 44. 1. The Epics
      Composition of epics from older oral traditions
      Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations
    • 45. 2. The BhagavadGita
      Short poetic work: dialogue between Krishna and warrior Arjuna
      Illustrated expectations of Hinduism and promise of salvation
      Fulfill caste duties
    • 46. 3. Hindu Ethics
      Lead honorable life – 4 principal aims
      Achieve salvation through meeting caste responsibilities (dharma)
      Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha)
      Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama)
      Salvation of the soul (moksha)
    • 47. 4. Popularity of Hinduism
      Gradually replaced Buddhism in India
      Political support by Guptas
      Brahmins given land grants
      Buddhism in decline in India by 1000 C.E.
    • 48. SUMMARY
      Rich agricultural economy leads to creation of large states
      Interregional trade networks develop
      Large empires not permanent, but social order maintained by caste system
      Religious developments reflect social realities
      Buddhism and Hinduism adapt to needs of growing class of commoners
      Religion influence daily lives