APWH Chapter 06
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APWH Chapter 06

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Overview of Chapter 6 in APWH

Overview of Chapter 6 in APWH

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APWH Chapter 06 APWH Chapter 06 Presentation Transcript

  • APWH Chapter 6
  • Mesoamerica
  • Andean South America
  • Oceania
  • Mesoamerica Andean S. America P
    • Olmecs – mother culture
    • Maya – decentralized city-states
    • Teotihuacan -
    Mochica – Andean state; unified individual valleys; relied on arms to introduce order Tiahuanaco – Over 10,000 people E
    • Agricultural base – maize staple
    • Cacao beans as money
    • Organized under Mochica – reach region contributed its products to larger economy (potatoes, llama meat, alpaca wool, maize)
    R
    • Bloodletting rituals – fertility
    • Sacrifice to pantheon of gods
    Chavin Cult – large temples, works of art S
    • O: Authoritarian elites, common subjects cultivated, priest class
    • M: Priests, Merchants, Professionals, artisans, peasants, slaves
    • Complex society
    • Specialized labor
    I
    • Mayan writing – history, poetry, myth
    • Astronomy – 365.242 day calendar
    • Mathematics – concept of zero
    • Gold, silver and bronze metallurgy
    • Mochica – no written language
    A
    • O: Jaguars figurines, colossal heads
    • M: Pyramids, observatories, murals
    • Paintings on pottery vessels; portraits, dieties, demons, everyday life
    N
    • No river valleys – heavy rain
    • Isolated, N-S Axis makes diffusion dif.
    • Relatively isolated from Mesoamerica
    • Difficult geographic barriers
  • The Olmecs
    • Coast of Gulf of Mexico
    • Name unknown
    • Cities – complexes of temples, altars, pyramids, tombs, stone sculptures
  • San Lorenzo
  • La Venta
  • Tres Zapotes
  • Obsidian and jade
  • The Maya
    • Yucatan peninsula
    • Used terrace farming
    • Maize, cotton, cocao
    • More than 80 large ceremonial sites
    • City-states
    • Unknown decline
  • Tikal
  • Chichen Itza
  • Mayan writing
  • Calendars and Mathematics
  • Murals
  •  
  • Popul Vuh
    • Creation story
    • Gods wanted intelligent beings to praise them
    • Humans made of maize and water
  • Teotihuacan
    • High point – 400 – 600 CE
    • 200,000 people
    • Records perished when city declined
    • Theocracy
    • “ City of the Gods”
    • Artisans – obsidian and orange pottery
    • Relied less on military might
  •  
  • Chavin Cult
    • Did not organize politically
    • Dry coast and highlands of Andean South America
    • Promoted fertility and abundant harvest
    • Features of human
  • Mochica
    • Regional state in South America
    • Based along Moche River
    • Produced many ceramics
    • Did not make use of writing
  •  
  • Tihuanaco
  • Societies in Oceania
    • Humans entered Australia and New Guinea at least 60,000 years BP – lower sea levels
    • 5,000 years ago, seafaring people from Southeast Asia went to trade
    • Early inhabitants lived on hunting and gathering
  • Australia
    • Maintained hunter-gatherer lifestyle until arrival of Europeans in 19 th century
    • Aboriginal Australians lived in small mobile communities
    • Consumed over 140 species of plants
  • Austronesian Peoples
    • In New Guinea, human communities turned to agriculture around 3000 BCE
    • Root crops – yams and taro
    • Pigs and chickens
    • Cause of change – contact with seafaring people
  • Pacific Islands
    • Settlements in Bismark; Solomon Islands
    • Used outrigger canoes and sails
    • Austronesian migrants spread agriculture
    • Eventually reach Fiji, Tahiti, Hawai’I, Easter Island and New Zealand
    • Populated Philippines, Madagascar, Micronesia
  • Lapita Peoples
  • Summary
    • Very little writing survives
    • Impossible to fully understand social developments in the Americas and Oceania
    • Human migrations spread population throughout world
    • Early inhabitants build productive and vibrant societies
    • Many developments paralleled eastern hemisphere