Africa and the Atlantic World Chapter 26 Review
Review 600-1450 <ul><li>Trans-Saharan trade connects Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Trade empires rise – Ghana, Mali...
1450-1750 <ul><li>Maritime trade grows more important than Trans-Saharan trade </li></ul><ul><li>Africans play vital role ...
African States
Kingdom of Kongo <ul><li>Centralized state – military, judicial and financial affairs </li></ul><ul><li>1483 – Portuguese ...
 
Slave Raiding in Kongo <ul><li>Textiles, weapons, advisors and artisans brought in exchange for copper, ivory and slaves <...
Kingdom of Ndongo <ul><li>Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola) grew powerful with wealth from slave trade  </li></ul><ul><li>Establi...
The Great Zimbabwe <ul><li>Regional kingdoms grew out of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 1300 </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated...
European Arrival in South Africa <ul><li>Europeans formed alliances with locals </li></ul><ul><li>Intervened in disputes <...
 
 
 
Islam and Christianity in Early Modern Africa <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial centers in WA </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Social Change in Early Modern Africa <ul><li>CHANGE – Empire Building, political turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUITIES – ...
Population Growth in Africa
Pop Quiz!!!!! <ul><li>Answer one of the following questions in your notebook. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the trade pattern ...
The Atlantic Slave Trade <ul><li>Section II </li></ul>
Overview <ul><li>Most important link between Africa and the Atlantic world. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves sought for plantation...
Foundations of Slave Trade <ul><li>Slavery was not a new concept </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu migrations spread agriculture, ne...
Human Cargoes <ul><li>1441 - 12 slaves to Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>1460 – 500 per year  </li></ul><ul><li>Early slaves s...
Triangular Trade (The Atlantic Circuit)
The Middle Passage <ul><li>Capture of slaves was brutal, force march to coast </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Passage = 4-6 week ...
African Slave Export per Year
Effects of Slave Trade <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>16 million Africans lost </li></ul><ul><li>Several individual soci...
African Diaspora <ul><li>Section III </li></ul>
Destinations of African Slaves
Plantation Societies <ul><li>Fertile lands in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Growing demand for sugar in Europe </li></ul>...
Cash Crops <ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Indigo </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Coff...
Regional Differences <ul><li>Caribbean and S. America </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves fell victims to malaria and Yellow Fever </...
Resistance to Slavery <ul><li>Many resisted servitude </li></ul><ul><li>Some resistance mild, but costly </li></ul><ul><li...
The Making of African American Cultural Traditions <ul><li>African traditions hard to preserve </li></ul><ul><li>Ships mix...
End of the Slave Trade <ul><li>Denmark abolishes slave trade in 1803, followed by Great Britain (1807), United States (180...
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Africa and the Atlantic World

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Review of AP Chapter 26

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Africa and the Atlantic World

  1. 1. Africa and the Atlantic World Chapter 26 Review
  2. 2. Review 600-1450 <ul><li>Trans-Saharan trade connects Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Trade empires rise – Ghana, Mali in West </li></ul><ul><li>Swahili city-states on east coast of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Gold and Ivory </li></ul><ul><li>Many merchants and elites convert to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of Africans remain organized in kin-based tribes </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1450-1750 <ul><li>Maritime trade grows more important than Trans-Saharan trade </li></ul><ul><li>Africans play vital role in global economy </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves become main export </li></ul><ul><li>Slave trade transforms and disrupt parts of Africa, leaves others unaffected </li></ul><ul><li>European colonization </li></ul>
  4. 4. African States
  5. 5. Kingdom of Kongo <ul><li>Centralized state – military, judicial and financial affairs </li></ul><ul><li>1483 – Portuguese merchants establish diplomatic relationship with kings </li></ul><ul><li>Provide advisors, support </li></ul><ul><li>Kings converted to Christianity (COMPARE) </li></ul><ul><li>King Afonso I sought to convert his subjects </li></ul>
  6. 7. Slave Raiding in Kongo <ul><li>Textiles, weapons, advisors and artisans brought in exchange for copper, ivory and slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese traders undermined authority of the kings of Kongo </li></ul><ul><li>Kings appealed for limits to slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese settle in Kongo, take wives </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists go to war with Kongolese, decapitate king </li></ul>
  7. 8. Kingdom of Ndongo <ul><li>Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola) grew powerful with wealth from slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Established colony to support slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Nzinga led resistance, allied with Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese exploit political divisions </li></ul><ul><li>First European colony established </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Great Zimbabwe <ul><li>Regional kingdoms grew out of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 1300 </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated gold near Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller kingdoms displaced rulers in 15 th century </li></ul>
  9. 10. European Arrival in South Africa <ul><li>Europeans formed alliances with locals </li></ul><ul><li>Intervened in disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch mariners built trade post at Cape Town in 1652 </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed land for themselves over Khoikhoi </li></ul><ul><li>1700 – large number of Europeans arrive </li></ul>
  10. 14. Islam and Christianity in Early Modern Africa <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial centers in WA </li></ul><ul><li>Swahili city states in EA </li></ul><ul><li>University at Timbuktu </li></ul><ul><li>Blended with indigenous religions </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women associated with one another – shocked devout Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Fulani tried to impose strict form of Islam – founded states in Guinea, Senegal and Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Kongo and Angola </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted to include traditional African beliefs and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese introduced Catholicism to central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Antonian movement – syncretic cult started by Dona Beatriz </li></ul><ul><li>Taught Jesus was black African Man, executed for heresy </li></ul>
  11. 15. Social Change in Early Modern Africa <ul><li>CHANGE – Empire Building, political turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUITIES – Kinship groups as basis for social organization </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE – Trade with Europeans brought European textiles and metals </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE – American crops such as manioc, maize, peanuts </li></ul><ul><li>How would this look as a thesis statement? </li></ul>
  12. 16. Population Growth in Africa
  13. 17. Pop Quiz!!!!! <ul><li>Answer one of the following questions in your notebook. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the trade pattern of the Atlantic world during between the 16 th and 18 th centuries. Discuss goods and people involved in the trade. </li></ul><ul><li>What effects did the slave trade have on African Societies? Discuss three effects in detail. </li></ul>
  14. 18. The Atlantic Slave Trade <ul><li>Section II </li></ul>
  15. 19. Overview <ul><li>Most important link between Africa and the Atlantic world. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves sought for plantation labor </li></ul><ul><li>Africans traded for manufactured goods </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons traded – sometimes strengthened military forces </li></ul><ul><li>Ended in the 19 th century </li></ul>
  16. 20. Foundations of Slave Trade <ul><li>Slavery was not a new concept </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu migrations spread agriculture, need for labor </li></ul><ul><li>War captives, criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Some slaves worked as administrators, soldiers, advisors </li></ul><ul><li>African law and society led to slaves being seen as private investment </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim merchants sold slaves in Africa, Arabia and Persia </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants captured innocent people when demand was up </li></ul>
  17. 21. Human Cargoes <ul><li>1441 - 12 slaves to Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>1460 – 500 per year </li></ul><ul><li>Early slaves sent to Azores, Madeiras, Sao Tome and Cape Verde Islands </li></ul><ul><li>1520 – 2000 per year to Sao Tome </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese use slaves in Brazil’s sugar industry </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish colonies need labor in Caribbean and Americas </li></ul>
  18. 22. Triangular Trade (The Atlantic Circuit)
  19. 23. The Middle Passage <ul><li>Capture of slaves was brutal, force march to coast </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Passage = 4-6 week trans-Atlantic journey </li></ul><ul><li>Slave ships crowded, filthy, cramped quarters – 50% mortality at times </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough room to stand, often chained, not well fed </li></ul><ul><li>Some slaves attempted to starve, others revolt </li></ul>
  20. 24. African Slave Export per Year
  21. 25. Effects of Slave Trade <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>16 million Africans lost </li></ul><ul><li>Several individual societies devastated </li></ul><ul><li>Labor diverted from Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Sex ratios distorted </li></ul><ul><li>Angola – polygamy practiced, women take on men’s duties </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans introduced firearms as trade </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms encouraged some kingdoms to go to war to capture slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom of Dahomey expanded </li></ul>
  22. 26. African Diaspora <ul><li>Section III </li></ul>
  23. 27. Destinations of African Slaves
  24. 28. Plantation Societies <ul><li>Fertile lands in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Growing demand for sugar in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1516 – plantations established in Hispaniola </li></ul><ul><li>1530s – plantations in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>17 th century – English, Dutch, and French plantations </li></ul>
  25. 29. Cash Crops <ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Indigo </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Plantations specialized </li></ul><ul><li>Slave labor kept cost low </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp racial division of labor </li></ul>
  26. 30. Regional Differences <ul><li>Caribbean and S. America </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves fell victims to malaria and Yellow Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Hard, brutal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Low standards of sanitation and nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Low rates of reproduction (mostly men) </li></ul><ul><li>Imported continuous streams of slave </li></ul><ul><li>½ went to Caribbean, 1/3 to Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>N. America </li></ul><ul><li>5 percent of slaves went to North America </li></ul><ul><li>Disease less threatening </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions less harsh </li></ul><ul><li>Imported large number of females – encouraged families </li></ul>
  27. 31. Resistance to Slavery <ul><li>Many resisted servitude </li></ul><ul><li>Some resistance mild, but costly </li></ul><ul><li>Sabotage, slow work, running away </li></ul><ul><li>Maroons </li></ul><ul><li>Revolts – slaves outnumbered others </li></ul><ul><li>Revolts led to fear by owners </li></ul><ul><li>Most rebellions crushed </li></ul><ul><li>Saint-Domingue revolt led to self-governing republic of Haiti </li></ul>
  28. 32. The Making of African American Cultural Traditions <ul><li>African traditions hard to preserve </li></ul><ul><li>Ships mixed Africans from different regions </li></ul><ul><li>American societies = mixed cultures </li></ul><ul><li>European languages dominated slave societies </li></ul><ul><li>Creole languages – mixed European and African </li></ul><ul><li>Combined religious elements on plantations </li></ul><ul><li>No institutionalized religion with hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Vodou in Haiti, Santeria in Cuba, Candomble in Brazil </li></ul>
  29. 33. End of the Slave Trade <ul><li>Denmark abolishes slave trade in 1803, followed by Great Britain (1807), United States (1808), France (1814), Netherlands (1817), Spain (1845) </li></ul><ul><li>Possession of slaves remains legal </li></ul><ul><li>Clandestine trade continues to 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipation of slaves begins with British colonies (1883), then French (1848), U.S. (1865), Brazil (1888) </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia and Angola continue to the 1960s </li></ul>
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