Africa and the Atlantic World

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Review of AP Chapter 26

Review of AP Chapter 26

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  • 1. Africa and the Atlantic World Chapter 26 Review
  • 2. Review 600-1450
    • Trans-Saharan trade connects Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Trade empires rise – Ghana, Mali in West
    • Swahili city-states on east coast of Africa
    • Gold and Ivory
    • Many merchants and elites convert to Islam
    • Large number of Africans remain organized in kin-based tribes
  • 3. 1450-1750
    • Maritime trade grows more important than Trans-Saharan trade
    • Africans play vital role in global economy
    • Slaves become main export
    • Slave trade transforms and disrupt parts of Africa, leaves others unaffected
    • European colonization
  • 4. African States
  • 5. Kingdom of Kongo
    • Centralized state – military, judicial and financial affairs
    • 1483 – Portuguese merchants establish diplomatic relationship with kings
    • Provide advisors, support
    • Kings converted to Christianity (COMPARE)
    • King Afonso I sought to convert his subjects
  • 6.  
  • 7. Slave Raiding in Kongo
    • Textiles, weapons, advisors and artisans brought in exchange for copper, ivory and slaves
    • Portuguese traders undermined authority of the kings of Kongo
    • Kings appealed for limits to slave trade
    • Portuguese settle in Kongo, take wives
    • Colonists go to war with Kongolese, decapitate king
  • 8. Kingdom of Ndongo
    • Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola) grew powerful with wealth from slave trade
    • Established colony to support slave trade
    • Queen Nzinga led resistance, allied with Dutch
    • Portuguese exploit political divisions
    • First European colony established
  • 9. The Great Zimbabwe
    • Regional kingdoms grew out of trade
    • Built in 1300
    • Dominated gold near Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers
    • Smaller kingdoms displaced rulers in 15 th century
  • 10. European Arrival in South Africa
    • Europeans formed alliances with locals
    • Intervened in disputes
    • Dutch mariners built trade post at Cape Town in 1652
    • Claimed land for themselves over Khoikhoi
    • 1700 – large number of Europeans arrive
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Islam and Christianity in Early Modern Africa
    • Islam
    • Commercial centers in WA
    • Swahili city states in EA
    • University at Timbuktu
    • Blended with indigenous religions
    • Men and women associated with one another – shocked devout Muslims
    • Fulani tried to impose strict form of Islam – founded states in Guinea, Senegal and Mali
    • Christianity
    • Kongo and Angola
    • Adopted to include traditional African beliefs and customs
    • Portuguese introduced Catholicism to central Africa
    • Antonian movement – syncretic cult started by Dona Beatriz
    • Taught Jesus was black African Man, executed for heresy
  • 15. Social Change in Early Modern Africa
    • CHANGE – Empire Building, political turmoil
    • CONTINUITIES – Kinship groups as basis for social organization
    • CHANGE – Trade with Europeans brought European textiles and metals
    • CHANGE – American crops such as manioc, maize, peanuts
    • How would this look as a thesis statement?
  • 16. Population Growth in Africa
  • 17. Pop Quiz!!!!!
    • Answer one of the following questions in your notebook.
    • Explain the trade pattern of the Atlantic world during between the 16 th and 18 th centuries. Discuss goods and people involved in the trade.
    • What effects did the slave trade have on African Societies? Discuss three effects in detail.
  • 18. The Atlantic Slave Trade
    • Section II
  • 19. Overview
    • Most important link between Africa and the Atlantic world.
    • Slaves sought for plantation labor
    • Africans traded for manufactured goods
    • Weapons traded – sometimes strengthened military forces
    • Ended in the 19 th century
  • 20. Foundations of Slave Trade
    • Slavery was not a new concept
    • Bantu migrations spread agriculture, need for labor
    • War captives, criminals
    • Some slaves worked as administrators, soldiers, advisors
    • African law and society led to slaves being seen as private investment
    • Muslim merchants sold slaves in Africa, Arabia and Persia
    • Merchants captured innocent people when demand was up
  • 21. Human Cargoes
    • 1441 - 12 slaves to Portugal
    • 1460 – 500 per year
    • Early slaves sent to Azores, Madeiras, Sao Tome and Cape Verde Islands
    • 1520 – 2000 per year to Sao Tome
    • Portuguese use slaves in Brazil’s sugar industry
    • Spanish colonies need labor in Caribbean and Americas
  • 22. Triangular Trade (The Atlantic Circuit)
  • 23. The Middle Passage
    • Capture of slaves was brutal, force march to coast
    • Middle Passage = 4-6 week trans-Atlantic journey
    • Slave ships crowded, filthy, cramped quarters – 50% mortality at times
    • Not enough room to stand, often chained, not well fed
    • Some slaves attempted to starve, others revolt
  • 24. African Slave Export per Year
  • 25. Effects of Slave Trade
    • Social
    • 16 million Africans lost
    • Several individual societies devastated
    • Labor diverted from Africa
    • Sex ratios distorted
    • Angola – polygamy practiced, women take on men’s duties
    • Political
    • Europeans introduced firearms as trade
    • Firearms encouraged some kingdoms to go to war to capture slaves
    • Kingdom of Dahomey expanded
  • 26. African Diaspora
    • Section III
  • 27. Destinations of African Slaves
  • 28. Plantation Societies
    • Fertile lands in the Americas
    • Growing demand for sugar in Europe
    • 1516 – plantations established in Hispaniola
    • 1530s – plantations in Brazil
    • 17 th century – English, Dutch, and French plantations
  • 29. Cash Crops
    • Tobacco
    • Rice
    • Indigo
    • Cotton
    • Coffee
    • Plantations specialized
    • Slave labor kept cost low
    • Sharp racial division of labor
  • 30. Regional Differences
    • Caribbean and S. America
    • Slaves fell victims to malaria and Yellow Fever
    • Hard, brutal conditions
    • Low standards of sanitation and nutrition
    • Low rates of reproduction (mostly men)
    • Imported continuous streams of slave
    • ½ went to Caribbean, 1/3 to Brazil
    • N. America
    • 5 percent of slaves went to North America
    • Disease less threatening
    • Conditions less harsh
    • Imported large number of females – encouraged families
  • 31. Resistance to Slavery
    • Many resisted servitude
    • Some resistance mild, but costly
    • Sabotage, slow work, running away
    • Maroons
    • Revolts – slaves outnumbered others
    • Revolts led to fear by owners
    • Most rebellions crushed
    • Saint-Domingue revolt led to self-governing republic of Haiti
  • 32. The Making of African American Cultural Traditions
    • African traditions hard to preserve
    • Ships mixed Africans from different regions
    • American societies = mixed cultures
    • European languages dominated slave societies
    • Creole languages – mixed European and African
    • Combined religious elements on plantations
    • No institutionalized religion with hierarchies
    • Vodou in Haiti, Santeria in Cuba, Candomble in Brazil
  • 33. End of the Slave Trade
    • Denmark abolishes slave trade in 1803, followed by Great Britain (1807), United States (1808), France (1814), Netherlands (1817), Spain (1845)
    • Possession of slaves remains legal
    • Clandestine trade continues to 1867
    • Emancipation of slaves begins with British colonies (1883), then French (1848), U.S. (1865), Brazil (1888)
    • Saudi Arabia and Angola continue to the 1960s