The Great War: World War OnePresentation Transcript
The Great War aka World War I
Causes of WWI
M ilitarism – Countries were building new weapons, naturally they
were excited to see how effective they are.
A lliances – Secret Alliances setup the potential for wide scale war.
I mperialism – Competition for acquisition of new lands.
N ationalism – When pride in one ’s nation is extreme and leads to
people thinking they are better than another group of
people. Leads to competition and conflict.
Central Powers (Triple Alliance)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Allied Powers (Triple Entente)
France, Russia, and Great Britain
If fighting were to break out, members of either alliance were pledged to help each other.
The Great War comes to Europe
Assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand - June 28, 1914
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia - July 28, 1914
Russia comes to the aid of Serbia - July 31, 1914
Germany declares war on Russia - August 1, 1914.
Germany declares war on France – August 3, 1914
Germany declares war on Belgium who was neutral, designed to flank France – August 4, 1914
Austria-Hungary declares war on Russian – August 6, 1914
By September of 1914 war was spread across Europe and trench lines were dug.
Western Front Eastern Front
United States and Neutrality
President Wilson and the members of Congress took a stance of Neutrality.
We had economic ties with nations on both sides.
Roosevelt Corollary - …we will not get involved in Europe's wars.
It wasn ’t our war, didn’t involve us.
Many Americans had cultural ties to Europe and because of this had strong opinions on the war in Europe and U.S. involvement.
Closer to U.S. involvement
The majority of Americans favored the Allies, many were from Britain and others felt obligated to help out our old friend France.
The U.S. began loaning money to the Allies and donating supplies, this enraged Germany and the other Central Power nations.
German Submarine Warfare
Used to stop the flow of supplies from the U.S. to Great Britain and fight the British blockade of Germany.
Germany took out ads in many Atlantic Coast newspapers warning Americans of the dangers of traveling to Great Britain.
1915 Lusitania British passenger liner sunk, 1,200 killed including 128 Americans.
Germany apologized and promised to stop unrestricted submarine warfare and to follow guidelines of engagement.
1916 – American Neutrality Continues
In 1916 Woodrow Wilson ran for re-election on a platform that reminded Americans “he kept us out of war.”
Woodrow Wilson: The United States will remain:
“ neutral in thought and deed.”
1917 - American involvement
A series of events in 1917 finally led to America ’s entry into WWI.
On February 1, 1917 Germany resumed unrestricted
submarine warfare . The land war was at a stalemate and
Germany sought to stop the flow of supplies into Britain.
They knew that this would pull the U.S. into the war but
they figured their u-boats could sink many American
vessels before they reached Europe.
February 3, 1917 the U.S. broke diplomat contact with
What were the four main causes of conflict that led to the Great War ?
March 1, 1917 the British intelligence service intercepted a coded transmission from a German government representative with the last name Zimmerman to the Mexican government.
The message asked the Mexican government to ally itself with Germany and attack the United States.
In return Germany told Mexico that they could have the Western portions of the United States that were taken in the Mexican American war.
The United States was outraged, the U.S. Congress declared war on Germany; Congress and the President sent an urgent message to Mexico warning the nation not to attack the U.S.
Selective Service Act
General conscription was reintroduced in World War I with the Selective Service Act of 1917. All men from 21 to 30 years of age (later extended 18 to 45), inclusive, had to register.
Conscientious objector status was granted to members of pacifist religious organizations, but they had to perform alternative service.
The Espionage Act
Passed on June 1917, specified a fine of $10,000 or twenty years in prison for , among other things
"whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully obstruct the recruiting service of the United States, and whoever, shall willfully utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the military or naval forces of the United States, or the flag ."
Protest of the war: Schenk v U.S. (1919)
Schenck opposed the war and protested by handing out pamphlets that urged young men to avoid military service.
Schenck was charged with conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act by attempting to cause insubordination in the military and to obstruct recruitment.
Schenk v U.S. (1919) The Supreme Court decided: Schenk ’s speech and actions were anti-government and anti-war (WWI). The ruling established the ability of the government to suppress speech and press that present a danger to it or its efforts. YOUR RIGHTS ARE NOT ABSOLUTE, THEY HAVE LIMITS
Sustaining the war effort
Segregation and racism
German Americans targeted
Segregated Military Forces
African Americans primarily assigned to manual labor and service type duties. On the front lines however black soldiers proved themselves in combat and won the respect of their peers and other foreign soldiers.
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia - October 1917
Peace with Germany causes Eastern Front to disappear.
German Army defeated - morale becomes very low.
German sailors become mutinous.
November 11, 1918 - war ends on “ Armistice Day ”.
Now celebrated as Veterans ’ Day in the U.S.
End of the War
Which country had the most soldiers in World War One? Which country had the least soldiers in World War One? Which country had the highest number of deaths? Which country had the least number of deaths? Nation Total Number of servicemen engaged in the war. Number of deaths. Number of soldiers wounded. Number of men taken prisoner or reported missing. Austria 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 Britain 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 France 8,410,000 1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000 United States 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,500
The main points in this document were:
1) no more secret treaties
2) countries must seek to reduce their
weapons and their armed forces
3) national self-determination should allow people of the same nationality to govern themselves and one nationality should not have the power to govern another
4) all countries should belong to the League of Nations.
The Fourteen Points
The Fourteen Points The Fourteen Points was Woodrow Wilson ’s plan for lasting peace. It was designed to avoid future conflicts and ensure autonomy for peoples around the world. It was seen as too ambitious and unworkable. As a result the League of Nations was the only major provision of the 14 points to become reality.
Treaty of Versailles Germany ’ s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks Germany was not allowed an air force Germany was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines The Rhine was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Treaty of Versailles There are three vital clauses here: 1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause". 2. Germany, had to pay reparations , the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to the infrastructure of both countries by the war. 3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace CONGRESS DID NOT SUPPORT THIS!!!
Congress and Isolationism Wilson ’s main goal was to prevent international tensions from leading to war by forming a League of Nations that drew countries together to halt future wars from breaking out. If one country attacked another the League of Nations was to jointly discuss the assault then use a coalition of force to destroy the attacker. Congress believed that it might result in a loss of United States sovereignty Congress was disappointed over the outcomes of the war
The Remaining Problems
The Soviet Union: The Soviet Union did not participate in the treaty negotiations nor in the League of Nations.
Disgruntled Germany : By and large, the people of Germany did not feel responsible for the war. They did not believe they had started the war nor had they been defeated. They believed they had acted in self-defense. The front was still in France. German territory had not been conquered. The treaty was, therefore, seen as too punitive.
The Remaining Problems
Japan: Japan had fought on the side of the Allied Powers. It was one of the victors. But it was not treaty that way at the peace conference. Japan did not receive the rewards a victorious Great Power should have received. Moreover, Japan had introduced a resolution on racial equality. It was vetoed by the United States.