Chapter 11 From the Crusades to New Muslim Empires
<ul><li>There were a number of crusades between 1096 and 1291. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to gain control of Palestine....
11.2 Events Leading Up to the Crusade <ul><li>Sultan  - the sovereign ruler of a Muslim state </li></ul><ul><li>Anatolia  ...
11.3 The Story of the Crusades <ul><li>Crusades began as a response to the threat posed by the Seljuks </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>The First Crusade  (1096-1099) - Four nobles led the first crusade -From Anatolia south to Palestine -After 9 mont...
Second Crusade (1146-1148) <ul><li>Until now there was a lack of unity among Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>When they banded t...
The Third Crusade (1189-1192) <ul><li>Ransom  - money paid in exchange for the release of prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Grea...
Later Crusades <ul><li>Wars continued for another 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>They were popular movements for poor people ...
The Reconquista <ul><li>Liberian Peninsula  - a peninsula in southwestern Europe that today is divided between Spain and P...
11.4 Christians and the Crusades <ul><li>European Christians reaped many benefits from the crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Many...
11.5 Muslims and the Crusades <ul><li>Fewer benefits for Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>They did drive crusaders from the Middl...
11.6 Jews and the Crusades <ul><li>Synagogue - a Jewish house of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism prejudice toward ...
Experiences of Individuals <ul><li>Eliezer ben Nathan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote about violent destruction of community i...
11.7 The Mongol Invasion <ul><li>Muslims succeeded in driving crusaders from the Holy Land. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols a no...
11.8 New Muslim Empires and the Expansion of Islam <ul><li>New empires grew up in Muslin lands </li></ul><ul><li>Islam con...
Safavid Empire <ul><li>Another Muslim power </li></ul><ul><li>1501, Muslims in  Persia founded the Safavid dynasty </li></...
11.9 Chapter Summary <ul><li>European Christians began crusades to repel the Seljuk Turks and took Holy Lands </li></ul><u...
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From the Crusades to Modern Muslim Empires

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From the Crusades to Modern Muslim Empires

  1. 1. Chapter 11 From the Crusades to New Muslim Empires
  2. 2. <ul><li>There were a number of crusades between 1096 and 1291. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to gain control of Palestine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ancient homeland of Jews and the place where Jesus lived. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christians called it the Holy Land. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The city was sacred to the Jews, Christians and Muslims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11th century in Muslim control - the Seljuk Turks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This upset the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He asked the Pope Urban II for help. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pope called Christians to go on a crusade, or religious war to gain control of the Holy Land. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This was the start of a series of wars where Christians fought Muslims over Palestine and nearby land. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crusades were also mounted against Jews and against Christians considered heretics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They took place in Europe and North Africa as well as the Middle East. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 11.2 Events Leading Up to the Crusade <ul><li>Sultan - the sovereign ruler of a Muslim state </li></ul><ul><li>Anatolia - a large peninsula at the western edge of Asia; also called Asia Minor </li></ul><ul><li>Seljuk Turks established a new Muslim dynasty. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A central Asian people that had been migrating into Muslim lands for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chieftain converted to Islam in 10th century, his descendents took control of the Abbaid capital of Baghdad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to expand their territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took over much of Anatolia (Asia Minor) - part of the Byzantine Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This alarmed Christians in Europe, they feared for their safety and property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Empire was threatened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also worried about the fate of the Holy City - Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem was a sacred city to Jews because their great temple had once stood there. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem was sacred city to Christians because Jesus was crucified and rose from the dead </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem was sacred city to Muslims because Muhammad rose to heaven during his Night Journey (Dome of the Rock) </li></ul><ul><li>Under Muslim rule, Jews, Christians, and Muslims usually lived together peacefully. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All 3 Their freedoms varied from time to time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims allowed destruction of important Christian Churches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel was unsafe for a time </li></ul><ul><li>Robbers attacked and killed Christian pilgrims, they were afraid they would not be able to visit the Holy land </li></ul>The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
  4. 4. 11.3 The Story of the Crusades <ul><li>Crusades began as a response to the threat posed by the Seljuks </li></ul><ul><li>The Seljuks had advanced to within 100 miles of the Byzantine capital of Constantople. The emporer asked for help and Pope Urban II called the council of Clermont, France. He called the crusade to to drive the Muslims back and reclaim Jerusalem. The Pope promised entry to heaven to all who joined the fight, </li></ul><ul><li>The French jumped on board, they sent organized armies of trained knights, thousands of townspeople, craftsman, and peasants to join the crusade. </li></ul><ul><li>Faith inspired many to put on the red cross. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants saw a way to earn money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young noble sons hoped to gain estates in Holy Land. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The First Crusade (1096-1099) - Four nobles led the first crusade -From Anatolia south to Palestine -After 9 months a traitor let them into the city. -Antioch fell to the Christians . - </li></ul><ul><li>In June they surrounded Jerusalem and scaled the walls -In July city Surrendered </li></ul><ul><li>They massacred the Muslims and Jews in the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Survivors were sold into slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Some stayed and established 4 crusader kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lebanon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Second Crusade (1146-1148) <ul><li>Until now there was a lack of unity among Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>When they banded together they fought more effectively </li></ul><ul><li>They captured the northern city of Edessa ( a crusader kingdom) </li></ul><ul><li>Christians answered by having the Second Crusade. </li></ul><ul><li>Crusade was a failure. </li></ul><ul><li>German army badly beaten in Anatolia. </li></ul><ul><li>French went to Damascus, in Jerusalem they were beaten back and went home to France. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Third Crusade (1189-1192) <ul><li>Ransom - money paid in exchange for the release of prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Great sultan Salah al-Din, called Saladin by Europeans, had largest Muslim empire, he united Egypt, Syria, and lands to the East - lead fight against crusaders in Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>He took back most of Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>He captured Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t kill his prisoners - he freed many or sold them. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Jerusalem shocked Europe and started 3 rd Crusade. </li></ul><ul><li>King Richard I of England, known as Richard the Lion hearted, led fight against Salah al-Din </li></ul><ul><li>Richard’s Army forced surrender of Acre, Palestine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When exchanging prisoners Richard became impatient and killed all 2,700 Muslim prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Richard fought his way toward Jerusalem, but army was not strong enough to attack city. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders signed a peace treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>-Muslims agreed to let Christian pilgrims enter Jerusalem </li></ul>
  8. 8. Later Crusades <ul><li>Wars continued for another 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>They were popular movements for poor people </li></ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of peasant children from France and Germany marched in the “Children’s Crusade” - few reached the Holy Land - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some sold into slavery by merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some went home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many disappeared without a trace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>None of the later Crusades recaptured Jerusalem </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Reconquista <ul><li>Liberian Peninsula - a peninsula in southwestern Europe that today is divided between Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition - a judicial body established by the Catholic Church to combat heresy and other forms of religious error </li></ul><ul><li>Expulsion - removal by force </li></ul><ul><li>Wars to retake Liberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) from Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Muslims had to pay a special tax </li></ul><ul><li>Christian rulers in northern Iberia chipped away at Muslim lands. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Muslim lands broke up into rival kingdoms Christians took advantage of the weakness and captured Toledo Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims gradually gave up more land and new Muslims not tolerant of Jews or Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews and Muslims stayed in areas ruled by Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition was used against Muslims and Jews to make them convert to Christianity. They used torture to convert. Thousands burned at stake </li></ul>-Isabella and Ferdinand sent armies against Granada, in 1492 -Muslims lost last strong hold in Spain -Jews told to become Catholic or leave country (17,000 Jews left homes forever) -the expulsion of Muslims and Jews ended centuries of cooperation between these groups and Christians in Spain.
  10. 10. 11.4 Christians and the Crusades <ul><li>European Christians reaped many benefits from the crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Many crusaders were </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wounded or killed in battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others died from disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hardships of travel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brought economic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed way to pay for supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased use of money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knights became bankers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings started tax systems to raise funds for crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changed society too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchs grew more powerful as nobles and knights left home to fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing power of monarchs helped to end feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with eastern cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New foods (melons, apricots, sesame seeds and carob beans and spices) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing made of muslin (Cotton fabric from Persia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard I of England - 3 rd crusade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devoted to Christian cause of honor and courage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxed his people heavily to pay for armies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ruthless and brave spent most of reign in crusades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anna Comnena - daughter of Byzantine emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote about experiences of 1 st crusade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed feelings about crusaders - respected Christians but thought many dangerous - questioned if all fighting for God. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thought some might be in it for wealth, land or glory of battle. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 11.5 Muslims and the Crusades <ul><li>Fewer benefits for Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>They did drive crusaders from the Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost land in Iberia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims were a more advanced society so gained less than Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Muslims as a group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many lost lives in battles and massacres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusaders destroyed Muslim property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained exposure to new weapons and military ideas - standing (permanent) army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim merchants earned riches from trade with Europe - money helped fund new mosques and religious schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought political changes as Muslims banded together to fight common foe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salah al-Din greatest Muslim leader during crusades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2 nd crusade he saw Muslims needed to defend themselves and Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As soldier realized Muslims had to organize and corporate with each other, He unified groups under his strong leadership. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He was famed for his courtesy as well as his military skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He ransomed and freed most prisoners he took </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usamah ibn-Munqudh believed in the will of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fought fearlessly against crusaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respected both Christians and Jews because of their faith in one God. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes Muslims and Christians observed and admired each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims were willing to give their lives to protect their families, lands, and property from the crusaders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 11.6 Jews and the Crusades <ul><li>Synagogue - a Jewish house of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism prejudice toward Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation - the forced separation of one group from the rest of a community </li></ul><ul><li>Great suffering for Jews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusaders slaughtered Jews and Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others became slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Jews as a group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent persecutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole communities of Jews killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed synagogues and holy books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looted homes and businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tortured Jews to make accept Christianity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became prosperous bankers and traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riots and massacres across Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not hold public office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians took over trading businesses run by Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1290 England expelled all Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1394 France expelled all Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation spread throughout Europe 14 th and 15 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to live in ghettos with walls and gates to keep from rest of town </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Experiences of Individuals <ul><li>Eliezer ben Nathan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote about violent destruction of community in First crusade Jews killed children and themselves rather than give up religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He hated the crusaders and wondered why God let so many Jews die </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eleazar ben Judah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish scholar lived in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second crusade he was forced to flee town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left everything behind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several years later, 2 crusaders attacked his family and killed his wife and 3 children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued to preach love to all humanity in the city of Worms. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 11.7 The Mongol Invasion <ul><li>Muslims succeeded in driving crusaders from the Holy Land. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols a nomadic people with homeland north of China </li></ul><ul><li>13 th century Genghis Khan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Across Asia destroyed cities and farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000’s were slaughtered or made into slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols empire stretched across Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated Seljuk Turks in Anatolia and took parts of Persia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed Baghdad and killed the caliph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In west Muslims stopped Mongol advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mamluks were Muslims of Turkish decent led charge and defeated Mongols in Palestine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still ruled a huge empire in Asia and started converting to Muslim - this brought unity to empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols made Persian the language of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuilt destroyed cities and encouraged learning, the arts and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol Empire largest the world had ever seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local rulers controlled different regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1300’s empire badly weakened </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 11.8 New Muslim Empires and the Expansion of Islam <ul><li>New empires grew up in Muslin lands </li></ul><ul><li>Islam continued to spread to new lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Timur Lang - Mongolian from central Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed descendent from Genghis Khan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They invaded India, Syria and Anatolia. He defeated Ottoman army at Natolia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Timus’s death Ottoman armies regained control of their land. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ottomans set out to expand empire - ended the Byzantine Empire and renamed city Istanbul and became the Ottoman capital. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1500’s Ottomans destroy Mamluk Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They took Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Arabia as well as southeaster Europe. North Africa, and Persia and Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed subjects considerable freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews, Christians and Muslims had own communities called Millets - they are allowed to govern themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly declined after 1700 and came to an end in the 20 th century. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Safavid Empire <ul><li>Another Muslim power </li></ul><ul><li>1501, Muslims in Persia founded the Safavid dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shahs - rulers in certain Middle East lands, especially Persia (modern -say Iran) soon controlled parts of Iraq as well as Persia - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottomans were Sunni Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safavids were Shi’a their dynasty lasted until 1700’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They fought a number of wars and still fight today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Mughal Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Muslim empire founded by Babur -a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1526 Babut invaded India and founded the Mughal Empire -Ruled most o India until 1700’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further spread of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims were in West Africa and the Sahara Desert. Across the Indian Ocean to southeast Asia and the islands of Indonesia. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 11.9 Chapter Summary <ul><li>European Christians began crusades to repel the Seljuk Turks and took Holy Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades were between 1096 to 1291 </li></ul><ul><li>Christian won control of Jerusalem and set up 4 kingdoms in the middle east </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims won back Jerusalem in 1187 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1291 Muslims had recaptured all their cities </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades were waged in North Africa and Europe too </li></ul><ul><li>During Reconquista Christians drove Muslims from Iberian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Long lasting effects on Christians, Muslims and Jews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews suffered great hardships - many killed lost homes and property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam survived crusades and Mongol invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ottomans built great Muslim empire in Middle East and eastern Europe </li></ul>
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