FDR and the New Deal

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FDR and the New Deal

  1. 1. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and The New Deal
  2. 2. The Young Aristocrat <ul><li>Harvard Undergrad, Columbia Law </li></ul><ul><li>1913 Assistant Sec of Navy </li></ul><ul><li>1921 Polio </li></ul><ul><li>1928 Governor of New York </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Stated He Would End Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>Offered a New Deal for the American people </li></ul><ul><li>Felt We Needed to Experiment to End the Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Would Ask Congress for Broad Powers (Wartime Powers) </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover Carried 6 States </li></ul>1932 Election
  4. 8. FDR ’ s First Inaugural Address
  5. 10. The Brain Trust <ul><li>Harold Ickes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec. of the Interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Formerly Head of IL, NAACP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frances Perkins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec. of Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(First Woman Cabinet Member) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry Wallace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec. Of Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harry Hopkins </li></ul><ul><li>Eleanor Roosevelt </li></ul>
  6. 11. &quot;I came to Washington to work for God, FDR and the millions of forgotten, plain common workingmen.&quot;
  7. 13. The First New Deal The First Hundred Days <ul><li>Straight to Work: Inauguration March 4 th First Action March 5 th </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Session of Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Economic Reform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency Banking Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weed Out Weak Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore Confidence, Hopefully People Would Begin to Put Their Money Back Into The Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Securities Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore Confidence in the Stock Market </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Alphabet Soup CCC TVA AAA FERA NRA CWA When President Roosevelt took office he created program after program to give relief, create jobs, and stimulate economic recovery for the U.S. These programs were called &quot;alphabet soup&quot; as well as the &quot;New Deal.&quot;
  9. 16. The CCC <ul><li>CCC = Civilian Conservation Corp. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This environmental program put 2.5 million unmarried men to work maintaining and restoring forests, beaches, and parks. Workers earned only $1 a day but received free board and job training. From 1934 to 1937, this program funded similar programs for 8,500 women. </li></ul></ul>Outcome: - The CCC taught the men and women of America how to live independently, thus, increasing their self esteem.
  10. 17. The FERA FERA = Federal Emergency Relief Act - Helped those Most Hurt by the Great Depression by sending funds to depleting local relief agencies. Within two hours of its formation $5 million were given out. FDR believed that men should be put to work and not be given charity. His program also funded public work programs. Outcome: - Revitalized many deteriorating relief programs.
  11. 18. The HOLC <ul><li>HOLC = Home Owners Loan Corp. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to help people keep their houses, the HOLC refinanced mortgages of middle-income home owners. </li></ul></ul>Outcome: - Lower Monthly payments gave people more money to spend on other things.
  12. 19. The TVA <ul><li>TVA = Tennessee Valley Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The TVA helped farmers and created jobs in one of America s least modernized areas. The Tennessee Valley was home to 90% Unemployment, no electricity or running water; this program built up the region. </li></ul></ul>Outcome: - Built Numerous Dams, Dam Construction meant new jobs. Brought electricity to the region and stabilized the flooding through the Tennessee River Valley.
  13. 20. The NRA NRA = National Recovery Administration (1933) - Encouraged business and labor leaders to sign codes of fair competition within their industries, set guidelines for pricing and production and guaranteed labor the rights of collective bargaining , minimum wages, and maximum hours. Outcome: - Allowed monopolies to emerge. Small businessmen asserted the codes favored large corporations. In 1935 the Supreme Court declared the NRA unconstitutional
  14. 21. More on the NRA <ul><li>Main Points </li></ul><ul><li>Industry panels set production limits and prices </li></ul><ul><li>Led to Monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>Big business dominates – Smaller businesses outraged </li></ul><ul><li>1935 – Unconstitutional </li></ul>
  15. 22. The AAA AAA = Agricultural Adjustment Act - The AAA tried to raise farm prices. It used proceeds from a new tax to pay farmers not to raise specific crops and animals. Lower production would, in turn, increase prices. Outcome: - Farmers killed off certain animals and crops as they were told to by the AAA. Many could not believe that the federal government was condoning such an action when many Americans were starving. Declared unconstitutional.
  16. 23. More on the AAA <ul><li>Main Points </li></ul><ul><li>AAA = Agricultural Adjustment Act </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers paid for what they didn't plant </li></ul><ul><li>Demand will stay the same, supply will drop, sooo prices may rise </li></ul><ul><li>Unconstitutional </li></ul>
  17. 24. Optimism and Opposition <ul><li>Country's mood becomes optimistic. The poor thought Roosevelt a savior. </li></ul><ul><li>Too Liberal? Too Conservative? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Businessmen – New Deal Too Radical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Left – Not Radical enough </li></ul></ul>
  18. 26. The Opposition <ul><li>Three people posed a problem: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Huey P. Long (Aka: the Kingfish ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrewdest and most ruthless public official ever. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took on banks and big business, etc in Louisiana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Share the Wealth&quot; - seize all large family fortunes and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distribute among the less fortunate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 28. 2.) Dr. Francis E. Townsend <ul><li>1934, the Townsend Plan : every citizen over 60 would receive $200 a month if they retire and spend all the money that same month. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped it would increase spending and revitalize the economy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: Where would the money come from to pay them? </li></ul>
  20. 29. 3.) Fr. Charles E. Caughlin Catholic Priest <ul><li>Attacked Jewish bankers as the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Had his own radio show over the CBS network </li></ul><ul><li>Era of German Bunds and anti-Semitism </li></ul>
  21. 31. Second New Deal <ul><li>Responds to critics and discontent by moving toward social reform and social justice. </li></ul><ul><li>WPA – 3 million workers </li></ul><ul><li>Built bridges, schools, hospitals, roads, libraries. Who would be opposed to that? </li></ul>
  22. 32. The Results <ul><li>The 1st New Deal - Relief & Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Progressive ideas - a little reconstruction can fix anything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a battle between Big Business and the poor, but a joined force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Second New Deal – Recovery & Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We must change the basic structure </li></ul></ul>
  23. 33. Social Security Act (1935) <ul><li>- 65 retirement age </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by taxes extracted from employees and employer </li></ul><ul><li>At the time not a problem: </li></ul><ul><li>At the time there were more people working than there were over 65. </li></ul>
  24. 35. The Revenue Act (1935) <ul><li>Placed a tax on higher incomes as well as an additional surtax on $50,000/year or more </li></ul><ul><li>This was done to generate revenue </li></ul><ul><li>People of great wealth were under attack during the Great Depression </li></ul>
  25. 36. The Wagner Act (1935) <ul><li>(AKA) National Labor Relations Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A turning point in Labor Movement: recognized labor unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business could not employ unfair labor practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Labor Relations Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled disputes between management and unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large increase in union membership </li></ul></ul>
  26. 39. Court Packing <ul><li>Conservative court overturns NRA </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – Judicial Reorganization Bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new Federal judge for every one over 70 yrs. – That would mean 6 new Supreme Court Judges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loses support of Congress, and the people </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Evan Hughes changes </li></ul><ul><li>A Conservative judge dies </li></ul>
  27. 41. Third New Deal <ul><li>AAA - 1935 Farm aid America is Still overproducing! </li></ul><ul><li>Wagner-Steagall Act. Housing for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Wage </li></ul><ul><li>Loans to Homeowners </li></ul>
  28. 42. The Dust Bowl
  29. 43. The Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl of the 1930s lasted about a decade. Its primary area of impact was on the southern Plains. The northern Plains were not so badly effected, but they still endured drought, strong windblown dust storms and an agricultural decline that lengthened the Depression. Many of the farmers in this region decided to migrate westward.
  30. 45. Was Government Responsible for the Economy? <ul><ul><li>Creates a Welfare State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthens the Executive Branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government spending for the poor through deficit spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all Americans suffered </li></ul></ul>Unemployment
  31. 47. New Deal Conclusion <ul><li>The New Deal had reached its ideological limits in 1938 and Congress had grown conservative as many Democrats abandoned their enthusiasm for FDR's ideas after the &quot;Court Packing&quot; incident. </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt and the rest of America increasingly focused on events in Europe and Asia. The outbreak of WWII would gear-up industrial output and bring us out of the Depression. </li></ul>

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