Chapter 12 - Early Societies in West Africa
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Chapter 12 - Early Societies in West Africa



For my World History students.

For my World History students.



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Chapter 12 - Early Societies in West Africa Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 12– Early Societies in West Africa
  • 2. 12.2 Geography and Trade
    • The northern border of West Africa is the Sahara Desert
    • The Atlantic Ocean makes up the western and southern borders
    • The eastern edge is made up of mountains.
  • 3.
    • The Sahara Desert is about 3.5 million square miles and is about the size of the United States
    • It is very dry and not suitable for large settlements
  • 4. The sahel (semi-desert) is further to the south - It has enough water for some grasslands, short bushes, and a few trees
  • 5.
    • The sahel becomes savanna , an area of tall grasslands and some scattered trees
    • Long rainy season produces good farmland and grazing for cattle
  • 6.
    • The savanna becomes forest further to the south
    • Woodland forest provides different kinds of trees
    • Rainforest dominates the southern-most region
  • 7.
    • Trade connected the different West African regions
    • Rivers were used to trade for highly sought-after goods
  • 8. II. Early Communities and Villages
  • 9.
    • Earliest farm communities consisted of extended families
    • They produced most of their needs
    • Traded with other families for goods they could not produce themselves
  • 10.
    • Farming communities settled south of the Sahara Desert
    • Communities joined together to form larger villages
  • 11.
    • Development of Towns and Cities
    • - Ironworking and trade fueled the growth of cities
    • The Nok tribesmen made iron tools by 500 B.C.E.
    • They used charcoal-fired ovens to melt the steel
    • Blacksmiths shaped it into tools
  • 12.
    • Iron tools improved farming techniques, helping to create a demand for the tools
    • Better farming from tools led to a food surplus, which stimulated trade
    • More trade led to the growth of large towns and cities
  • 13.
    • City of Jenne-jeno , built in 300 B.C.E., was excavated in 1977, proving that cities existed in Africa long before the arrival of Europeans
    • 1. Built at the junction of the Bani & Niger Rivers
    • 2. Good location for fishing, farming, & trade
    • a. Traded catfish, fish oil, onions, & rice in exchange for salt, iron, copper, & gold
  • 14.
    • Craftsmen included potters, metal smiths, weavers, leather workers, and bead makers
    • Blacksmiths were most admired, as iron was a prized item in West Africa
    • Many blacksmiths were also leaders of their community or village
  • 15.
    • IV. The Rise of Kingdoms and Empires
    • Rulers of trading centers grew wealthy from taxes on traded goods
    • They used the wealth to raise and equip an army to conquer other regions
    • They also collected tribute from the conquered peoples
    • West African rulers were both political leaders and religious leaders
    • They performed religious ceremonies to please the gods
  • 16. Between 500 and 1600 C.E. three great kingdoms arose in West Africa south of the Sahara Desert: - Ghana - Mali - Songhai
  • 17.
    • The king might send a governor to rule a newly-conquered region
    • If they were cooperative, the king might allow self-rule
    2 pictures of the great Mali King Mansa Musa
  • 18. Advantages and disadvantages of being part of an empire
    • Advantages
    • King provided protection
    • Armies kept trade routes safe
    • Wars between cities came to an end
    • Disadvantages
    • Had to pay tribute to the king
    • Had to serve in the king’s army