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Abyssinia IGCSE History
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Abyssinia IGCSE History

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Abyssinia IGCSE History

Abyssinia IGCSE History

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  • 1. Abyssinia •   Because of the Great Depression, Italy wanted to build an empire to secure raw materials.    •   Mussolini was a fascist, and wanted to revive the glories of Rome    •   France and Britain needed Mussolini’s support against Hitler (Stresa Pact 1935)
  • 2. Abyssinia
  • 3. Abyssinia •   The border between Abyssinia and Italian Somaliland was uncertain and disputed - in Dec 1934 there was a small skirmish at Wal-Wal. •   Mussolini demanded an apology and threatened to invade. •   There was great anger in Britain; Hoare (the foreign minister) made a strong speech supporting sanctions and collective security.
  • 4. Abyssinia •   Feb 1935: The League set up a commission, which reported in Sept.  It suggested giving part of Abyssinia to Italy.    •   Oct 1935: Mussolini rejected the plan and invaded Abyssinia.   He used tanks and flamethrowers and attacked red Cross hospitals. •   The League banned weapons sales, and put sanctions on rubber and metal (this hurt Abyssinia more than Italy).   •   It did NOT close the Suez Canal or ban oil sales, which would have stopped the Italian invasion.
  • 5. Abyssinia •   Dec 1935: Hoare-Laval Pact, a secret plan by Britain and France to give Abyssinia to Italy.   •   Britain and France asked that sanctions be lifted - only Abyssinia voted against. •   March 1936: Hitler marched into the Rhineland; everyone forgot about Abyssinia. •   May 1936: Mussolini conquered Abyssinia. •   June 1936: Haile Selassie went to the League to ask it to reconsider its 'terrible precedent' of giving way to force.   He was ignored.
  • 6. Abyssinia A SPECTACULAR failure: 1. The Fascists continued to expand: •     Mussolini kept Abyssinia • Hitler began to expand in Europe. • Fascists took power in Spain • Britain and France abandoned the League as a way of keeping the peace - started to appease Hitler.
  • 7. Abyssinia A SPECTACULAR failure: 2.  The League was ‘a useless fraud’ (AJP Taylor): •     It was slow (the Report took 8 months). •     A country could get its own way if it ignored it. •     ‘Collective security' was useless against big countries - especially during the Great Depression. •     Even the great powers within the League were happy to ignore it (Japan was on the Council). •     Even Britain and France would betray the League. •     Nine countries left 1936-1939.