Hist 3001 Ch 03 Lecture


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Hist 3001 Ch 03 Lecture

  1. 1. Key Questions: <ul><li>What were the patterns of contact between Native Americans and Spanish, French, and English colonists? </li></ul><ul><li>How did slavery and other labor systems develop in early America? </li></ul><ul><li>How were African American communities formed? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the causes and consequences of European immigration to America? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Indians and Europeans <ul><li>Indian workers in the Spanish borderlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish control of labor depended upon the existence of a sizable Indian communities and a large Spanish military force. These conditions were met in New Mexico and to a lesser extent, Florida. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To control Native American labor, the Spanish used several methods including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The encomienda–the right to collect tribute from native peoples. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The repartimiento–a mandatory draft of Indian labor for public projects. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rescate–ransoming captives that Indian groups captured from one another. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Indians and Europeans (cont’d.) <ul><li>The web of trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians believed that trade required the giving of gifts to prove their friendship. The French proved most successful in understanding this aspect of trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade benefited both Indians and the French as Indians received metal weapons and goods, wool blankets, and glass beads while the French received furs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Indians grew dependent on European trade goods, the French exercised more control over the Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European trade eventually led to violence and warfare. The Beaver Wars between the Iroquois and Huron led to the destruction of the Huron. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Indians and Europeans, cont’d. <ul><li>Displacing Native Americans in the English colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike the French and Dutch, the English colonies were settled by farmers who competed with Indians for land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disputes between Native Americans and English colonists arose in part because the English and Native Americans had different ideas and practice of land use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The increase in colonial population led to the displacement of Indians. The colonists acquired Indian lands through purchase, fraud and in the aftermath of war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans who survived war and disease often regrouped to form new communities beyond colonial settlements. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Indians and Europeans, cont’d. <ul><li>Bringing Christianity to Native Peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franciscan priests drove Spain’s efforts to control the New Mexico and Florida colonies. In seeking converts, the missionaries used goods and ceremonies to impress Indians, followed epidemics to show the power of the Christian God, and offered protection from attack and food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian converts incorporated Christian teaching into their native beliefs and practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Jesuits in Canada used similar strategies with similar results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English missionaries enjoyed little success. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: Spanish and French Missions in North America, p. 74 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Indians and Europeans, cont’d. <ul><li>After the first 100 years: conflict and war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Philip’s War resulted from the growing frustration of the Wampanoags with land-hungry settlers. Initially victorious, the Indians led by Metacom (King Philip) were defeated and lost what remained of their independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion began when frontier settlers attempted to violently seize the land of the Susquehannocks. The Virginia governor opposed the attacks, sparking the rebellion. As a result, the Powhatans lost their remaining lands. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Indians and Europeans (cont’d.) <ul><li>After the first 100 years: conflict and war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pueblo revolt led by Pope resulted from discontent with harsh Spanish rule. The initial result was the removal of the Spanish from New Mexico for 13 years. Their return was marked by less stringent policies toward Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois adopted a policy of neutrality between European powers. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Africans and Europeans <ul><li>Labor needs and the turn to slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans were pleased with the abundant land in the new World but perplexed by the scarcity and high cost of labor. The reverse had been true in Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans first attempted to enslave Indians but their declining numbers, the refusal of men to do farm labor, and the ease of escape made Indians unsuitable as a labor source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans relied on Africans to capture slaves, establishing forts and posts on the West African coast. Africans of all social ranks were enslaved. Slaves were marched to the coast in chains, loaded on to ships for the brutal middle passage, and then sold in the Americas. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Africans and Europeans, cont’d. <ul><li>African slaves in the New World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery arose in the southern colonies because indentured servants became harder to find and African slaves became more available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves were preferable to servants because slave status passed from a mother to their children and so could be a self-reproducing labor force, were easily captured if they tried to escape, and were slaves for life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1720, slavery was firmly established in the South because it met the labor needs of planters commercially producing staple crops for market. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: African Origins of North American Slaves, p. 82 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Africans and Europeans, cont’d. <ul><li>African slaves in the New World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery was present in every British colony but fewer slaves lived in northern colonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In northern areas where large commercial farms existed, slavery existed. But most northern farmers produced food for their families and slaves were not profitable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern slaves were found in cities, especially ports. In Philadelphia at the beginning of the eighteenth century, one of six residents was a slave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race relations became more rigid after 1700 when laws restricted the rights and opportunities of free blacks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions of slaves also worsened as slave codes reduced an entire class of people to property. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Africans and Europeans, cont’d. <ul><li>African American Families and Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African families and communities emerged with greater success in the southern colonies, and witnessed the rise of a creole (American-born) slave community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most slaves were field hands, except for men trained as skilled workers and women who were nurses and cooks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Though fragile, most slaves lived in family groups by the late eighteenth century. Kinship reflected West African traditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community life forged ties among slaves and offered opportunities to preserve elements of African heritage, especially funerals. Few slaves were attracted to Christianity before the American revolution. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Africans and Europeans, cont’d. <ul><li>Resistance and rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Though it was a desperate act, thousands of slaves ran away. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave resistance included working slowly, breaking tools, feigning illness, damaging crops, stealing, and setting fire to barns, house, and fields. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized rebellion was the rarest form of rebellion and the hardest to implement because it required complete secrecy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stono Rebellion in South Carolina in 1739 was started by about 20 slaves, many newly arrived from Angola. The revolt was put down by white troops with Indian help and led to the passage of laws requiring stricter regulation of slave activities. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. European Laborers in Early America <ul><li>A spectrum of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-half to two-thirds of all white immigrants were indentured servants.Chesapeake planters also employed transported English convicts, mostly young, lower-class men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The redemption system brought many German families to the colonies. Redemptioners were to pay the costs of passage on arrival in America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owners of undeveloped land rented tracts to families without property to clear the land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants seeking to develop fisheries advanced credit to fishermen to outfit their boats but later moved to a wage system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern farmers used children as laborers. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. European Laborers in Early America <ul><li>New European immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European immigrants flooded into America in the 17th and 18th centuries, including 250,000 Scotch-Irish, thousands of Irish Catholics, and almost 100,000 German Protestants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most immigrants went to locations where land was cheap and labor was in demand, the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, from western Pennsylvania to the Carolinas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: Ethnic distribution of Settler Populations in British mainland colonies, c. 1755, p. 95 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Eighteenth century America presented a mosaic of people and communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans adapted to each other and to changing American conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>European nations became more involved in their American colonies as the 18th century proceeded. </li></ul>