His 3002 Ch 18 Lecture

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His 3002 Ch 18 Lecture

  1. 1. Chapter 18
  2. 2. Key Questions: <ul><li>What technological and organizational innovations were behind the emergence of large industrial corporations? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the changes in the workforce in the urban-industrial economy and the reaction of organized labor? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the impact of the new immigration and the start of African American migration to the cities of the North? </li></ul><ul><li>What characterized the changing physical and social structure of the industrial city? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the new patterns of residence and recreation in the consumer society? </li></ul>
  3. 3. New Industry <ul><li>Inventing technology: the electric age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology played a major role in transforming factory work and increasing the scale of production as steam and later electricity freed manufacturers from dependence on water power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the late 19th century, the United States became a technological innovator. Between 1870 and 1900, 900,000 patents had been issued in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison’s success stimulated research and development in Europe and the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention gave the United States a commanding technological lead. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. New Industry, cont’d. <ul><li>The corporation and its impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The modern corporation supplied the structural framework for the transformation of the American economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The corporation became a significant factor in the American economy in the 1850s when railroad companies grew. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two major advantages of the corporation were that a corporation can outlive its founders and its officials and shareholders are not personally liable for its debts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large corporations changed the nature of work and stimulated urban growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical and horizontal integration helped successful corporations reduce competition and dominate industries. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. New Industry, cont’d. <ul><li>The changing nature of work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1906, industrial labor had been reduced to minute, low-skilled operations, making skilled artisans obsolete. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanization and technological innovation did not reduce employment but they did eliminate some jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial workers shared little of the wealth generated by industrial expansion. They labored under unsafe conditions, generally working 10 hours a day, six days a week for low wages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers lived close to factories in poor environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many workers labored in small, cramped, poorly ventilated sweatshops. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. New Industry, cont’d. <ul><li>Child labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many industries employed children, including mining, garment trades, and textile mills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low wages for men often required women to work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women earned lower wages than men and while more job opportunities opened, low wages and poor working conditions continued. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women also found employment in downtown department stores. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the beginning of the 20th century, women had gained increased access to higher education. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. New Industry, cont’d. <ul><li>Responses to poverty and wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growing gap between rich and poor and concerns about working women led to reform movements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenement apartments crammed the urban poor into crowded apartments in urban slums. The settlement house arose to deal with the wretched conditions under which the urban poor lived. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialists, intellectuals, and some politicians supported the Gospel of Wealth theory that helping the poor was of doubtful value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism was a flawed attempt to apply Charles Darwin’s theories to human society with wealth reflecting fitness and poverty weakness. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. New Industry, cont’d. <ul><li>Workers organize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic cycles combined with the growing power of industrial corporations and the decreasing power of workers created social tensions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Uprising of 1877 was a railroad strike notable for the way workers cooperated with one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Knights of Labor was founded in 1869 and led the movement for an eight-hour day but employers responded with court orders and arrests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Federation of Labor became the major union for skilled workers and stressed collective bargaining. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent strikes at Homestead and Pullman were major setbacks for unions. Immigrants also weakened labor radicalism. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. New Immigrants <ul><li>Old-World backgrounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic hardship and religious persecution triggered migration from central and southern Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic hardship prompted Chinese immigration while a land shortage drove Japanese immigration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially most immigrants were young men but by 1900 the number of women immigrants equaled men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain migration involved the migration of an entire village that followed a small number of early migrants to a location. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: Patterns of Immigration, 1820–1914 </li></ul>
  10. 10. New Immigrants, cont’d. <ul><li>The neighborhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except for the Chinese, rarely did a single ethnic group comprise more than half the population of a neighborhood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most immigrants identified with their villages more than their ethnicity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants maintained their cultural traditions through religious and communal institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrant communities insisted on controlling their religious institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic newspapers, theaters, and schools supplemented associational life for immigrants. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. New Immigrants, cont’d. <ul><li>The job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants perceived the job as a way to independence. Typically, immigrants received their first job with the help of a countryman. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills, the local economy, and local discrimination often determined the type of work available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes also channeled immigrants into certain jobs and industries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of most immigrants was to work for themselves. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. New Immigrants, cont’d. <ul><li>Nativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiforeign sentiment resurfaced when immigration swelled after the Civil War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Civil War nativism targeted southern and eastern European Catholics and Jews and had a pseudoscientific underpinning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nativism stimulated proposals to restrict immigration, leading to bans on Asian citizenship and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants fought attempts to restrict immigration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The immigrant experience of the late 1800s and early twentieth century involved a process of adjustment between the old and new. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. New Immigrants, cont’d. <ul><li>Roots of the Great Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1880 and 1900, African Americans began moving into the industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic promise and appeals of black Northerners, especially the Chicago Defender, combined with increasing persecution in the South, stimulated African American migration north. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants took over many traditional black jobs. Black women had few job options outside of domestic service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American migrants were restricted to segregated urban ghettos. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. New Cities <ul><li>Centers and suburbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downtowns extended up and out pushing residential neighborhoods out and leaving the center dominated by corporate headquarters and retail and entertainment districts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The residential neighborhood emerged as homes were crowded out of the city center. Advances in rapid transit technology eased commuting for workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburbs became the preferred residence of the urban middle class after 1870. Privacy, aesthetics, and home ownership stimulated suburban growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: The Growth of American Cities, 1880–1900, p. 589. </li></ul>
  15. 15. New Cities, cont’d. <ul><li>The new middle class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The traditional urban middle class included professionals, doctors, lawyers, educators, editors, and ministers, as well as merchants and shopkeepers. Artisans had dropped out in the late 1800s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new urban middle class expanded to include salespeople, factory supervisors, managers, civil servants, technicians, and white collar office workers performing various jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wealthier members of the new middle class lived in the suburbs. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. New Cities, cont’d. <ul><li>A consumer society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The new middle class changed American into a consumer society and goods became a symbol of prestige. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology stimulated numerous household appliances and new products eased food preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising created demand and helped develop loyalty for brand-name products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The department store was a middle-class retail establishment that became a center of urban downtowns after 1890. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. New Cities, cont’d. <ul><li>The growth of leisure activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure and recreation both separated and cut across social class divisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College football was popular among the elite, but baseball was the spectator sport of the middle class, which took it over after the Civil War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tavern was the workingman’s club. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amusement parks were another hallmark of the industrial city. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>The United States changed in the late 19th century as industrialization and urbanization proceeded at a rapid pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants came to America to realize dreams of freedom and did so to some degree, but many also experienced the dark side of American life. </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of organizations and institutions had emerged to address the worst abuses of the new urban, industrial order. </li></ul>

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