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His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
His 3002 Ch 15
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His 3002 Ch 15

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  • 1. The American Civil War A People’s Contest
  • 2. Key Questions: <ul><li>How did the economic and human resources of the North and South compare? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the Confederate and Union military strategies? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the steps leading to the Emancipation Proclamation? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the impact of the war on Northern political, economic, and social life? </li></ul><ul><li>How did military reversals affect Confederate political and economic life and civilian morale? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the meaning of the Civil War for the nation and its citizens? </li></ul>
  • 3. Mobilization, North and South <ul><li>War Fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the fall of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln mobilized state militias for 90 days but Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee seceded from the Union. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The general belief was that the war would be brief and both northerners and southerners strongly supported their governments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War fever led many to volunteer for military service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The initial enthusiasm for serving faded, leading to drafts by both the Union and Confederacy </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Mobilization, North and South, cont’d. <ul><li>The North’s advantage in resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The North had human and economic advantages over the South. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately half the men of military age fought in the North and their numbers were supplemented by African Americans and Irish immigrants. In the South, 90 percent of the eligible population served. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the war, the North controlled 90 percent of the nation’s industrial capacity.The northern railroad system was twice that of the South. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The North has more abundant financial resources than the South. </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. FIGURE 15–1 A Comparison of the Union and Confederate Control of Key Resources at the Outset of the Civil War
  • 6. Mobilization, North and South, cont’d. <ul><li>Leaders, governments, and strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson Davis had to build a government from scratch while Lincoln had an established structure and organization. Lincoln’s personality was better fit for leadership than the aloof, uncompromising Davis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln adopted a soft strategy to keep the border states in the Union. Maryland and Kentucky never seceded while a guerilla war broke out in Missouri. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The North had to conquer the South while the southerners had to defend their territory. </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. The Early War, 1861–1862 <ul><li>First Bull Run </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union forces under McDowell confronted Confederate soldiers under Beauregard at Manassas, Virginia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the First Battle of Bull Run, the Union seemed headed toward victory but wound up losing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bull Run dispelled some illusions about the war but also boosted southern confidence in their superior military ability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: From Bull Run to Antietam, p. 462. </li></ul>
  • 8. The Early War, 1861–1862, cont’d. <ul><li>The war in the West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces under general Ulysses S. Grant captured the strategic forts Henry and Donelson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant moved south and won victories at Shiloh Church, Tennessee and Corinth, Mississippi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admiral David Farragut led a naval force that captured New Orleans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fall of Memphis meant the only major river town remaining in Confederate hands was Vicksburg. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: The War in the West, 1861-1862, p. 463. </li></ul>
  • 9. The Early War, 1861–1862, cont’d. <ul><li>Reassessing the war: the human toll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heavy losses at Shiloh changed the soldiers’ view of the war. The early bravado and enthusiasm was replaced by the sobering prospect of death or capture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conditions of medical care did not improve a wounded soldier’s survival chances. Women on both sides played major roles in tending the wounded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease was also a major cause of death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion provided some solace to the soldiers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The harsh living conditions strained relations between officers and enlisted men. </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. The Early War, 1861–1862, cont’d. <ul><li>The war in the East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General George McClellan assumed command of the Union army in the east while General Robert E. lee was named head of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee attacked McClellan’s forces twice and was repulsed both times but casualties numbered in the tens of thousands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When McClellan withdrew, Lincoln replaced him with John Pope who lost the Second battle of Bull Run to Lee. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Turning Points, 1862–1863 <ul><li>The naval and the diplomatic war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union naval strategy was to blockade the southern coast and capture its key seaports and river towns, destroying the South’s ability to carry on the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither the Union nor the Confederacy had much of a navy when war erupted. As the Union navy grew, the blockade became more effective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners believed recognition by foreign governments would legitimize their cause and that cotton would be an important diplomatic bargaining point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither Great Britain nor France recognized the Confederacy and France invaded Mexico. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Turning Points, 1862–1863, cont’d. <ul><li>Antietam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing that the South could not sustain a prolonged conflict, Lee moved into Maryland in September 1862, hoping to cut railroad links in Pennsylvania. He was convinced McClellan would not attack. Copies of Lee’s orders fell into Union hands and McClellan pursued Lee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle of Antietam caused thousands of casualties, was a tactical draw, and forced Lee back into Virginia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antietam was a turning point because it kept Lee from threatening Northern industry and financial institutions. It also prompted Britain and France to abandon plans to recognize the Confederacy and allowed Lincoln to announce the abolition of slavery. </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Turning Points, 1862–1863, cont’d. <ul><li>Emancipation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure had mounted in the North during 1862 for some form of emancipation but it was not favored by a majority of northerners, including Irish immigrants. But freeing the slaves would appeal to the British. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in the states still in rebellion against the Union. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proclamation raced through the slave grapevine and continued the process of running away to Union camps that had begun earlier. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of the approximately 180,000 black soldiers and 20,000 black sailors who fought for the Union, over 80 percent were from the South. Many faced discrimination but fought valiantly. </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Turning Points, 1862–1863, cont’d. <ul><li>From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan and moved against Lee’s army, but was repelled at the Battle of Fredericksburg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Joseph Hooker replaced Burnside but was defeated by Lee at Chancellorsville, leading Lee to plan a bold move north. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General George Meade replaced Hooker. At the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, the Union army defeated Lee’s forces. It was the bloodiest battle of the war, boosting Union morale but draining Lee of men and materiel. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg, p. 472 </li></ul><ul><li>Map: The Battle of Gettysburg, p. 424 </li></ul>
  • 15. Turning Points, 1862–1863, cont’d. <ul><li>Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant captured Vicksburg after a siege. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederate forces confined a Union army at Chattanooga, but Union reinforcements divided the Confederate army and broke the siege forcing the Confederate army to retreat into Georgia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Trans-Mississippi West, several Native American tribes battled Union forces for land and resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederate hopes for securing Texas fell short as the naval blockade tightened and Comanches raided western settlements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: Vicksburg and Chattanooga, p. 476 </li></ul>
  • 16. War Transforms the North <ul><li>Wartime legislation and politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln used executive authority to silence opposition through several controversial actions, including suspending the writ of habeas corpus. Executive sanctions fell hard on dissenting Democrats called “Copperheads.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To boost the economy, Congress passed the Homestead Act of 1862 and the Land Grant College Act. A protective tariff helped manufacturers and the National Banking Act of 1863 established a uniform national currency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The draft aroused conflicts including the New York Draft Riot that began with an Irish mob protesting conscription. </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. War Transforms the North, cont’d. <ul><li>The northern economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Though wages increased during the war, prices rose higher, reviving the trade union movement. By 1865, 200,000 northern workers belonged to unions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prospect of large profits bred greed and corruption. Profiteers traded with the enemy, swindled the government, and sold shoddy goods to the army. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The northern economy however fed, clothed, and armed the Union soldiers as well keeping most civilians employed and well fed. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. War Transforms the North, cont’d. <ul><li>Northern women and the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 100,00 northern women worked in various industries during the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women also worked in the expanding government bureaucracy and as nurses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the war also left thousands of women widowed and devastated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new economic opportunities created by the war opened up women’s options, including admission to higher education. </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. The Confederacy Disintegrates <ul><li>Southern politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern politics was hindered by dissent that grew stronger as the Confederacy’s fortunes declined. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States’ rights was a major obstacle to the development of central authority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because their were no political parties, Davis could not appeal to party loyalty to control dissent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls for peace arose as early as 1863. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts by Davis and other Confederate leaders to build a strong sense of Confederate nationalism failed. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. The Confederacy Disintegrates, cont’d. <ul><li>The Southern economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1863, the South experienced difficulty feeding its population. Bread riots broke out in Mobile, Atlanta, and Richmond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the war progressed, Southern soldiers had threadbare uniforms with many garments and arms taken from the Union. Their families suffered under similar conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union and Confederate armies threatened civilians with robbery, rape, and murder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many slaves stopped working and abandoned the plantations. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. The Confederacy Disintegrates, cont’d. <ul><li>Southern women and the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern women managed plantations, working in fields alongside slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern women also worked in factories making uniforms and munitions, government offices and they taught school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the war continued, many women helped their deserting husbands and relatives elude Confederate authorities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1864, many southern women had tired of the war. </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. The Union Prevails, 1864–1865 <ul><li>Grant’s plan to end the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant was appointed commander of the Union forces. He coordinated the Union war effort and changed the tempo of the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant’s strategy was to hammer the enemy continuously. Sherman was advancing through Georgia and Grant’s major focus was on Lee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the Battle of the Wilderness, Grant surprised Lee by not withdrawing after both sides endured heavy casualties. Grant pursued Lee fighting at Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor but heavy casualties led to criticism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman moved through Georgia and captured Atlanta. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: Grant and Lee in Virginia, p. 485 </li></ul>
  • 23. The Union Prevails, 1864–1865, cont’d. <ul><li>The election of 1864 and Sherman’s march </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George McClellan opposed Lincoln in the 1864 election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fall of Atlanta and later victories boosted support for Lincoln who won the election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Thirteenth Amendment outlawing slavery was passed in 1865. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea leaving ruin and devastation in his wake. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Confederate leaders proposed arming slaves but the slaves responded with little enthusiasm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map: The Atlanta Campaign and Sherman’s March, </li></ul><ul><li> p. 486. </li></ul>
  • 24. The Union Prevails, 1864–1865, cont’d. <ul><li>The road to Appomattox and the death of Lincoln </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee’s army remained the obstacle to Union victory. He abandoned the defense of Richmond which fell to Union forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant’s army caught up with Lee’s forces at Appomattox Court House in Virginia where Lee surrendered, ending the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Washington, celebration greeted the Confederate surrender but it was muted by the assassination of Lincoln. </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Conclusion <ul><li>The Civil War caused over one million casualties, dead and wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>It left the South devastated. One in four men between 20 and 40 died. Forty percent of the livestock were lost and so was half the farm machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union victory solved the constitutional problem of secession and ended slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>For black Southerners, emancipation was the conflict’s most important result. </li></ul><ul><li>The Civil War also stimulated a host of diverse changes that unfolded over time. </li></ul>

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