His 2002 World 19

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  • 1. The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World 19
  • 2. Growth of Industrial Prosperity
    • New Products
      • Substitution of steel for iron
      • Electricity, internal combustion engine
    • New Patterns
      • Increased industrial production
      • Germany replaces Britain as industrial leader
      • Europe’s two economic zones
    • Toward a World Economy
      • Economic developments, transportation revolution (marine transport and railroads)
      • Products from all over the world
      • Europe dominated world economy with surplus of manufactured goods, markets, capital, industries, and military might
  • 3. The Spread of Industrialization
    • The Spread of Industrialization
      • Russia – Sergei Witte
        • 35,000 miles of railroad track, growth of steel and coal industry, providing ½ of world’s oil
      • Japan
        • Government financed industries, built railroads, bought foreign experts to train Japanese in industrial techniques
        • Developed industries in tea, silk, armaments, and shipbuilding
  • 4. Women and Work
        • New Job Opportunities
      • Women did low-wage work at home in sweatshops to support families
      • Second industrial revolution created new jobs for women
      • Clerks, typists, secretaries, file clerks and sales clerks, teachers, nurses
      • Offered freedom from domestic patterns
  • 5. Industrial Regions of Europe at end of 19 th C
  • 6. Organizing the Working Class
      • Marxist Theory
      • Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), The Communist Manifesto
        • History is that of class struggles
        • Overthrow the bourgeoisie
        • Eventually there would be a classless society
    • Socialist Parties
      • German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875
        • Reichstag worked to pass legislation to improve conditions of workers
        • 4 million votes in 1912 elections in Germany
      • Second International
      • Revisionists
      • Revolutionary socialism
      • Trade Unions
      • Workers in factories in Britain organized with 4 million union members in 1914
  • 7. The Emergence of Mass Society
    • New Urban Environment
      • Growth of cities: by 1914 80 percent of the population in Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France (25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in 1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800)
        • Migration from rural to urban
      • Improving living conditions
        • Boards of health set up
        • Clean water into the city
        • Expulsion of sewage
      • Housing needs
        • V.A. Huber
        • British Housing Act, 1890, allowed town councils to construct cheap housing for workers
  • 8. The Social Structure of Mass Society
    • The Elite
      • 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth
      • Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy
    • The Middle Classes
      • Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class
      • Professionals
      • White-collar workers
      • Middle class values in the Victorian period
    • The Lower classes
      • 80 percent of the European population
      • Agriculture
      • Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers 
  • 9. A Middle-Class Family
  • 10. The Experiences of Women
    • Marriage and the Family
      • Difficulty for single women to earn a living
        • Most women married
      • Birth control
        • Female control of family size
      • Middle-class family
        • Men provided income and women focused on household and child care
        • Fostered the idea of togetherness
          • Victorian ideas
      • Working-class families
        • Daughters work until married
        • 1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband’s wages
        • Material consumption
  • 11. Movement for Women’s Rights
      • Fight to own property
    • Access to higher education by middle and upper-middle class women
    • Access to jobs dominated by men: Teaching, nursing
    • Demand for equal political rights
      • Most vocal was the British movement
      • Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903
      • Suffragettes
    • Support of peace movements
    • The New Woman
      • Bertha von Suttner
  • 12. Education in an Age of Mass Society
    • In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle class
    • Between 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12
      • State teacher training schools
      • Reasons:
        • Needs of industrialization
        • Need for an educated electorate
        • To instill patriotism
    • Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most were women
    • “ Natural role” of women
  • 13. Leisure in an Age of Mass Society
    • Created by the industrial system
    • Transportation systems meant:
      • Working class could go to amusement parks, dance halls, beaches, and team sporting activities
  • 14. The National State
    • Tradition and Change in Latin America
      • Exportation of foodstuffs to Europe and the United States
      • Importation of finished goods
      • Overall situation:
        • Largely rural
        • Former slaves and Indians on the bottom
        • Growth in the middle sectors of society
        • Looked to the United States
      • Working class expanded
        • Growth of the working class led to industrialization
        • Industrialization led to the growth of unions
      • Elites still had the political influence
  • 15. Political Change in Latin America
    • Large landowners took a more direct interest in politics
    • Land owners might support dictators to ensure their interests
      • Porfirio Diaz, ruled Mexico from 1876 – 1910
      • Francisco Madero came to power
      • Demands for agrarian reform led by Emiliano Zapata
      • The United States becomes the power in the west.
  • 16. Rise of the United States
    • Shift to an industrial nation, 1860-1914
      • By 1900 out produced Britain in steel
      • Urbanization
    • By 1900, the US was the world’s richest nation, but:
      • 9 percent of population owned 71 percent of the wealth
      • Unsafe working conditions, work discipline and cycles of high unemployment led to unions
      • The American Federation of Unions formed
    • Progressive Era
      • Reform
      • Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921
  • 17. United States as a World Power
    • Annexation of Samoan Islands, Hawaiian Islands
    • Acquisition of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines from the Spanish-American War
  • 18. Growth of Canada
    • Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick – 1870
    • Manitoba, British Columbia – 1871
    • William Laurier, 1896
  • 19. Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy
    • Britain
      • Two-party parliamentary system
      • By 1918 all males, over 21 could vote; women over 30
      • By 1900 the emergence of the Labor Party
      • Social Reforms that followed
      • National Insurance Act, 1911
    • France
      • Constitution of 1875; the Third Republic formed
      • Bicameral legislature, universal male suffrage, president, premier the leader of government
      • Coalition governments had to be formed to stay in power
    • Italy
      • Industrial north and poverty-stricken south
      • Turmoil of labor and industry
  • 20. Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order
    • Germany
      • Lower house, Reichstag, elected by universal male suffrage
      • Ministers responsible to the emperor
      • Emperor commanded the armed forces and controlled foreign policy
      • Emperor William II, 1888-1918
      • Demands for democracy
      • Movement to block democracy
    • Austria-Hungary
      • Dual Monarchy
      • Emperor Francis Joseph, 1848-1916
      • German minority
      • Problems of ethnic groups
  • 21. Russia
    • Assassination of Alexander II in 1881
    • Alexander III, 1881-1894, felt reform was a mistake
    • Nicholas II, 1894-1917, wanted to rule with absolute power
    • Growth in Marxist Social Democratic Party
    • Revolt in 1905
    • Defeat of Russians by Japanese in 1904-1905
    • Results of antigovernment rebellions
  • 22.  
  • 23. Europe in 1871
  • 24. International Rivalries and the Winds of War
    • Bismarck made alliances to preserve the new German state
    • Bismarck removed by William II in 1890
    • Resulting alliance system
      • Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, Italy
      • Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia
    • Crisis in the Balkans
      • By 1878, Greece, Serbia, and Romania were independent
      • Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian protectorate
      • Bulgaria under Russian protectorate
      • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908
      • Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia
      • Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913
  • 25. Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments
    • A New Physics
      • Westerners and the mechanical conception of the universe
      • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
        • Theory of relativity
        • Energy of matter is equivalent to its mass times the square of the velocity of light
    • Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis
      • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
        • Human behavior determined by the unconscious, past experience, and internal forces
        • Repression begins in childhood
  • 26. The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism and Racism
    • Darwin’s ideas applied to human society
    • Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)
      • Modern-day Germans the only pure successors of the Aryans
    • Anti-Semitism
      • In nineteenth century many Jews left the ghetto and became assimilated into the cultures around them
      • Anti-Jewish parties
      • 72 percent of world’s Jewish population lived in eastern Europe
      • Movement to the United States and Palestine
      • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
        • Zionism
  • 27. Palestine
  • 28. Culture of Modernity
    • Symbolists
      • Poetry, influenced by the ideas of Freud
      • Views
    • Art
      • Impressionism
      • Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
      • Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
    • Post-Impressionism - Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
    • Photography - George Eastman 1888
    • Cubism - Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
    • Visual reality - Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
  • 29. Discussion Questions
    • What were the main ideas of Karl Marx, and what role did they play in politics and the union movement in the late 19 th C and early 20 th C?
    • What is meant by the term mass society, and what were its main characteristics
    • What intellectual and cultural developments in the late 19 th C and early 20 th C “opened the way to a modern consciousness?”