His 2002 World 19
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His 2002 World 19

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    His 2002 World 19 His 2002 World 19 Presentation Transcript

    • The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World 19
    • Growth of Industrial Prosperity
      • New Products
        • Substitution of steel for iron
        • Electricity, internal combustion engine
      • New Patterns
        • Increased industrial production
        • Germany replaces Britain as industrial leader
        • Europe’s two economic zones
      • Toward a World Economy
        • Economic developments, transportation revolution (marine transport and railroads)
        • Products from all over the world
        • Europe dominated world economy with surplus of manufactured goods, markets, capital, industries, and military might
    • The Spread of Industrialization
      • The Spread of Industrialization
        • Russia – Sergei Witte
          • 35,000 miles of railroad track, growth of steel and coal industry, providing ½ of world’s oil
        • Japan
          • Government financed industries, built railroads, bought foreign experts to train Japanese in industrial techniques
          • Developed industries in tea, silk, armaments, and shipbuilding
    • Women and Work
          • New Job Opportunities
        • Women did low-wage work at home in sweatshops to support families
        • Second industrial revolution created new jobs for women
        • Clerks, typists, secretaries, file clerks and sales clerks, teachers, nurses
        • Offered freedom from domestic patterns
    • Industrial Regions of Europe at end of 19 th C
    • Organizing the Working Class
        • Marxist Theory
        • Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), The Communist Manifesto
          • History is that of class struggles
          • Overthrow the bourgeoisie
          • Eventually there would be a classless society
      • Socialist Parties
        • German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875
          • Reichstag worked to pass legislation to improve conditions of workers
          • 4 million votes in 1912 elections in Germany
        • Second International
        • Revisionists
        • Revolutionary socialism
        • Trade Unions
        • Workers in factories in Britain organized with 4 million union members in 1914
    • The Emergence of Mass Society
      • New Urban Environment
        • Growth of cities: by 1914 80 percent of the population in Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France (25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in 1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800)
          • Migration from rural to urban
        • Improving living conditions
          • Boards of health set up
          • Clean water into the city
          • Expulsion of sewage
        • Housing needs
          • V.A. Huber
          • British Housing Act, 1890, allowed town councils to construct cheap housing for workers
    • The Social Structure of Mass Society
      • The Elite
        • 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth
        • Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy
      • The Middle Classes
        • Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class
        • Professionals
        • White-collar workers
        • Middle class values in the Victorian period
      • The Lower classes
        • 80 percent of the European population
        • Agriculture
        • Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers 
    • A Middle-Class Family
    • The Experiences of Women
      • Marriage and the Family
        • Difficulty for single women to earn a living
          • Most women married
        • Birth control
          • Female control of family size
        • Middle-class family
          • Men provided income and women focused on household and child care
          • Fostered the idea of togetherness
            • Victorian ideas
        • Working-class families
          • Daughters work until married
          • 1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband’s wages
          • Material consumption
    • Movement for Women’s Rights
        • Fight to own property
      • Access to higher education by middle and upper-middle class women
      • Access to jobs dominated by men: Teaching, nursing
      • Demand for equal political rights
        • Most vocal was the British movement
        • Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903
        • Suffragettes
      • Support of peace movements
      • The New Woman
        • Bertha von Suttner
    • Education in an Age of Mass Society
      • In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle class
      • Between 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12
        • State teacher training schools
        • Reasons:
          • Needs of industrialization
          • Need for an educated electorate
          • To instill patriotism
      • Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most were women
      • “ Natural role” of women
    • Leisure in an Age of Mass Society
      • Created by the industrial system
      • Transportation systems meant:
        • Working class could go to amusement parks, dance halls, beaches, and team sporting activities
    • The National State
      • Tradition and Change in Latin America
        • Exportation of foodstuffs to Europe and the United States
        • Importation of finished goods
        • Overall situation:
          • Largely rural
          • Former slaves and Indians on the bottom
          • Growth in the middle sectors of society
          • Looked to the United States
        • Working class expanded
          • Growth of the working class led to industrialization
          • Industrialization led to the growth of unions
        • Elites still had the political influence
    • Political Change in Latin America
      • Large landowners took a more direct interest in politics
      • Land owners might support dictators to ensure their interests
        • Porfirio Diaz, ruled Mexico from 1876 – 1910
        • Francisco Madero came to power
        • Demands for agrarian reform led by Emiliano Zapata
        • The United States becomes the power in the west.
    • Rise of the United States
      • Shift to an industrial nation, 1860-1914
        • By 1900 out produced Britain in steel
        • Urbanization
      • By 1900, the US was the world’s richest nation, but:
        • 9 percent of population owned 71 percent of the wealth
        • Unsafe working conditions, work discipline and cycles of high unemployment led to unions
        • The American Federation of Unions formed
      • Progressive Era
        • Reform
        • Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921
    • United States as a World Power
      • Annexation of Samoan Islands, Hawaiian Islands
      • Acquisition of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines from the Spanish-American War
    • Growth of Canada
      • Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick – 1870
      • Manitoba, British Columbia – 1871
      • William Laurier, 1896
    • Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy
      • Britain
        • Two-party parliamentary system
        • By 1918 all males, over 21 could vote; women over 30
        • By 1900 the emergence of the Labor Party
        • Social Reforms that followed
        • National Insurance Act, 1911
      • France
        • Constitution of 1875; the Third Republic formed
        • Bicameral legislature, universal male suffrage, president, premier the leader of government
        • Coalition governments had to be formed to stay in power
      • Italy
        • Industrial north and poverty-stricken south
        • Turmoil of labor and industry
    • Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order
      • Germany
        • Lower house, Reichstag, elected by universal male suffrage
        • Ministers responsible to the emperor
        • Emperor commanded the armed forces and controlled foreign policy
        • Emperor William II, 1888-1918
        • Demands for democracy
        • Movement to block democracy
      • Austria-Hungary
        • Dual Monarchy
        • Emperor Francis Joseph, 1848-1916
        • German minority
        • Problems of ethnic groups
    • Russia
      • Assassination of Alexander II in 1881
      • Alexander III, 1881-1894, felt reform was a mistake
      • Nicholas II, 1894-1917, wanted to rule with absolute power
      • Growth in Marxist Social Democratic Party
      • Revolt in 1905
      • Defeat of Russians by Japanese in 1904-1905
      • Results of antigovernment rebellions
    •  
    • Europe in 1871
    • International Rivalries and the Winds of War
      • Bismarck made alliances to preserve the new German state
      • Bismarck removed by William II in 1890
      • Resulting alliance system
        • Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, Italy
        • Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia
      • Crisis in the Balkans
        • By 1878, Greece, Serbia, and Romania were independent
        • Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian protectorate
        • Bulgaria under Russian protectorate
        • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908
        • Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia
        • Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913
    • Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments
      • A New Physics
        • Westerners and the mechanical conception of the universe
        • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
          • Theory of relativity
          • Energy of matter is equivalent to its mass times the square of the velocity of light
      • Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis
        • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
          • Human behavior determined by the unconscious, past experience, and internal forces
          • Repression begins in childhood
    • The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism and Racism
      • Darwin’s ideas applied to human society
      • Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)
        • Modern-day Germans the only pure successors of the Aryans
      • Anti-Semitism
        • In nineteenth century many Jews left the ghetto and became assimilated into the cultures around them
        • Anti-Jewish parties
        • 72 percent of world’s Jewish population lived in eastern Europe
        • Movement to the United States and Palestine
        • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
          • Zionism
    • Palestine
    • Culture of Modernity
      • Symbolists
        • Poetry, influenced by the ideas of Freud
        • Views
      • Art
        • Impressionism
        • Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
        • Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
      • Post-Impressionism - Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
      • Photography - George Eastman 1888
      • Cubism - Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
      • Visual reality - Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
    • Discussion Questions
      • What were the main ideas of Karl Marx, and what role did they play in politics and the union movement in the late 19 th C and early 20 th C?
      • What is meant by the term mass society, and what were its main characteristics
      • What intellectual and cultural developments in the late 19 th C and early 20 th C “opened the way to a modern consciousness?”