His 2002 World 19


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His 2002 World 19

  1. 1. The Emergence of Mass Society in the Western World 19
  2. 2. Growth of Industrial Prosperity <ul><li>New Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution of steel for iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity, internal combustion engine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased industrial production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany replaces Britain as industrial leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe’s two economic zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toward a World Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic developments, transportation revolution (marine transport and railroads) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products from all over the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe dominated world economy with surplus of manufactured goods, markets, capital, industries, and military might </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Spread of Industrialization <ul><li>The Spread of Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia – Sergei Witte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>35,000 miles of railroad track, growth of steel and coal industry, providing ½ of world’s oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government financed industries, built railroads, bought foreign experts to train Japanese in industrial techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed industries in tea, silk, armaments, and shipbuilding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Women and Work <ul><ul><ul><li>New Job Opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women did low-wage work at home in sweatshops to support families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second industrial revolution created new jobs for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clerks, typists, secretaries, file clerks and sales clerks, teachers, nurses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered freedom from domestic patterns </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Industrial Regions of Europe at end of 19 th C
  6. 6. Organizing the Working Class <ul><ul><li>Marxist Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), The Communist Manifesto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History is that of class struggles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overthrow the bourgeoisie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually there would be a classless society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Socialist Parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reichstag worked to pass legislation to improve conditions of workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 million votes in 1912 elections in Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second International </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revisionists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers in factories in Britain organized with 4 million union members in 1914 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Emergence of Mass Society <ul><li>New Urban Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of cities: by 1914 80 percent of the population in Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France (25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in 1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration from rural to urban </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving living conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boards of health set up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean water into the city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsion of sewage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V.A. Huber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Housing Act, 1890, allowed town councils to construct cheap housing for workers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Social Structure of Mass Society <ul><li>The Elite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Middle Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White-collar workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class values in the Victorian period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Lower classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80 percent of the European population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers  </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. A Middle-Class Family
  10. 10. The Experiences of Women <ul><li>Marriage and the Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty for single women to earn a living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most women married </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female control of family size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-class family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men provided income and women focused on household and child care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fostered the idea of togetherness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victorian ideas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working-class families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daughters work until married </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband’s wages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material consumption </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Movement for Women’s Rights <ul><ul><li>Fight to own property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to higher education by middle and upper-middle class women </li></ul><ul><li>Access to jobs dominated by men: Teaching, nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for equal political rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most vocal was the British movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffragettes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support of peace movements </li></ul><ul><li>The New Woman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bertha von Suttner </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Education in an Age of Mass Society <ul><li>In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State teacher training schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs of industrialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for an educated electorate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To instill patriotism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most were women </li></ul><ul><li>“ Natural role” of women </li></ul>
  13. 13. Leisure in an Age of Mass Society <ul><li>Created by the industrial system </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation systems meant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working class could go to amusement parks, dance halls, beaches, and team sporting activities </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The National State <ul><li>Tradition and Change in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exportation of foodstuffs to Europe and the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importation of finished goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall situation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largely rural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Former slaves and Indians on the bottom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth in the middle sectors of society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looked to the United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working class expanded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of the working class led to industrialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialization led to the growth of unions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elites still had the political influence </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Political Change in Latin America <ul><li>Large landowners took a more direct interest in politics </li></ul><ul><li>Land owners might support dictators to ensure their interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Porfirio Diaz, ruled Mexico from 1876 – 1910 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francisco Madero came to power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands for agrarian reform led by Emiliano Zapata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States becomes the power in the west. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Rise of the United States <ul><li>Shift to an industrial nation, 1860-1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900 out produced Britain in steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1900, the US was the world’s richest nation, but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 percent of population owned 71 percent of the wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe working conditions, work discipline and cycles of high unemployment led to unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Federation of Unions formed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Progressive Era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. United States as a World Power <ul><li>Annexation of Samoan Islands, Hawaiian Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines from the Spanish-American War </li></ul>
  18. 18. Growth of Canada <ul><li>Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick – 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Manitoba, British Columbia – 1871 </li></ul><ul><li>William Laurier, 1896 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy <ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-party parliamentary system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1918 all males, over 21 could vote; women over 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900 the emergence of the Labor Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Reforms that followed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Insurance Act, 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1875; the Third Republic formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature, universal male suffrage, president, premier the leader of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition governments had to be formed to stay in power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial north and poverty-stricken south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turmoil of labor and industry </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower house, Reichstag, elected by universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministers responsible to the emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor commanded the armed forces and controlled foreign policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor William II, 1888-1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands for democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement to block democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Francis Joseph, 1848-1916 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German minority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems of ethnic groups </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Russia <ul><li>Assassination of Alexander II in 1881 </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander III, 1881-1894, felt reform was a mistake </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas II, 1894-1917, wanted to rule with absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in Marxist Social Democratic Party </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt in 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat of Russians by Japanese in 1904-1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Results of antigovernment rebellions </li></ul>
  22. 23. Europe in 1871
  23. 24. International Rivalries and the Winds of War <ul><li>Bismarck made alliances to preserve the new German state </li></ul><ul><li>Bismarck removed by William II in 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting alliance system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crisis in the Balkans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1878, Greece, Serbia, and Romania were independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian protectorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulgaria under Russian protectorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments <ul><li>A New Physics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerners and the mechanical conception of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein (1879-1955) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of relativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy of matter is equivalent to its mass times the square of the velocity of light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud and the Emergence of Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human behavior determined by the unconscious, past experience, and internal forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repression begins in childhood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism and Racism <ul><li>Darwin’s ideas applied to human society </li></ul><ul><li>Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern-day Germans the only pure successors of the Aryans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In nineteenth century many Jews left the ghetto and became assimilated into the cultures around them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Jewish parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>72 percent of world’s Jewish population lived in eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement to the United States and Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zionism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Palestine
  27. 28. Culture of Modernity <ul><li>Symbolists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry, influenced by the ideas of Freud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impressionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-Impressionism - Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) </li></ul><ul><li>Photography - George Eastman 1888 </li></ul><ul><li>Cubism - Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual reality - Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What were the main ideas of Karl Marx, and what role did they play in politics and the union movement in the late 19 th C and early 20 th C? </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by the term mass society, and what were its main characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>What intellectual and cultural developments in the late 19 th C and early 20 th C “opened the way to a modern consciousness?” </li></ul>