His 2002 World 18
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His 2002 World 18 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800-1870 18
  • 2. The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact
    • Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
      • Agricultural growth
      • Population growth
      • Able to produce goods cheaply
    • Changes in Textile Production
      • Flying shuttle
      • James Hargreaves, spinning jenny, 1768
      • Edmund Cartwright, power loom, 1787
      • James Watt, rotary steam engine, 1782
      • Cotton textile production
  • 3. The Industrialization of Europe by 1850
  • 4. Other Technological Changes
    • Iron Industry
      • Henry Cort, puddling
    • Railroad
      • Richard Trevithick, steam-powered locomotive
      • George Stephenson, Rocket, 1830
    • Ripple effect
      • Prices of goods fall; markets grow larger; increased sales mean more factories and machinery; thus, self-sustaining
    • The Industrial Factory
      • Workers in shifts
      • Workers come from rural areas
      • Regulations
  • 5. Spread of Industrialization
    • Spread to Europe first
    • Government role
    • United States
      • Internal transportation
      • Labor
  • 6. Limiting the Spread of Industrialization to the Rest of the World
    • Russia was largely rural and agricultural ruled by an autocratic regime that preferred to keep peasants in serfdom
    • India exported cotton cloth produced by hand labor
      • Purchase British-made goods
  • 7. Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
    • Population Growth and Urbanization
      • European population 140 million in 1750 and 266 million by 1850
      • Decline of death rate
      • Increased food supply
      • Growth of cities
        • Poor living conditions
        • Sanitation poor
    • New Social Classes: The Industrial Middle Class
      • New bourgeois
      • Constructed the factories, purchased the machines, figured out where the markets were
      • Reduce the barriers between themselves and the landed elite
    • New Social Classes: The Industrial working class
      • Poor working conditions
      • Women and children
  • 8. Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism
    • Conservative Order
      • Vienna peace settlement, 1815
      • Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
      • Concert of Europe
    • Forces for Change
      • Liberalism
        • Protection of civil liberties
        • Guaranteed by a document
        • Right to vote to men of property only
      • Nationalism
        • Common institutions, traditions, language, and customs
        • Each nationality should have a government
        • Becomes a threat to the existing order
  • 9. The Revolutions of 1848
    • France
      • Agricultural depression, 1846
      • Refusal to extend suffrage to the middle class
      • King Louis-Philippe, 1830-1848, overthrown February 24, 1848
      • Provisional government, call for universal male suffrage
      • Second Republic established, November 4, 1848
      • Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected president
    • Revolution in Central Europe
      • The German Confederation
      • Prussian king, Frederick William IV, (1840-1861)
      • Frankfurt Assembly: hopes and failures
      • Revolution in Austria in March, 1848
      • Revolution in Italy
  • 10. Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 1815
  • 11. Independence and the Development of the National State in Latin America
    • Nationalistic Revolts
    • Creole elites denounced rule of Iberian monarchs and penisulars
    • Napoleon Bonaparte’s victories over Spain and Portugal weakened their colonial empires, led to revolts, and enabled most of Latin America to become independent
      • Mexico
        • Divisions within Mexico
        • Augustin de Iturbide, first emperor of Mexico, 1821
      • South America
        • José de San Martín (1783-1830)
        • Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)
  • 12. Latin America in the First Half of the 19 th C
  • 13. The Difficulties of Nation Building
    • Wars for independence resulted in loss of population, property, and livestock
    • Disputes arose between nations over boundaries
    • Latin America – inexperienced republican governments
    • Caudillos ruled by military force
    • Economic independence but old trade patterns reemerged
    • Landed elites maintained control over economic and social life
    • Masses experienced dire poverty
  • 14. Nationalism in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Question
    • Ottoman control of the Balkans wanes
    • Crimean War, 1853-1855
      • Russians invaded Moldavia and Wallachia
      • Ottoman Turks declare war, October, 4, 1853
      • Britain and France fear Russians would gain an advantage, declare war, March 28, 1854
      • The Crimean War
      • Treaty of Paris, 1855
      • Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe
      • Results of the war
  • 15. National Unification and the National State: 1848-1871
    • The Unification of Italy
    • Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861)
      • Alliance with the French against Austria
      • Peace settlement:
        • Piedmont gets Lombardy
        • Other northern Italian states join Piedmont
    • Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)
      • Red shirts
      • Capture The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
      • Land turned over to Pienmon
    • King Victor Emmanuel II (1861-1878)
      • New Kingdom of Italy proclaimed, March 17, 1861
  • 16. The Balkans in 1830
  • 17. The Unification of Italy
  • 18. The Unification of Germany
    • King William I (1861-1888)
    • Count Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
      • Realpolitik
    • Schleswig and Holstein annexed after the defeat of Denmark in 1864
    • Austro-Prussian War , 1866
    • North German Confederation
    • Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871
    • January 18, 1871, William I of Prussia named kaiser
      • Made Second German Empire
      • Affects of unification
  • 19. The Unification of Germany
  • 20. Nationalism and Reform: The European National State at Mid-Century
    • Great Britain
      • Reform Act of 1832
      • Social and political reform in 1850s and 1860s
    • France
      • Louis Napoleon, Napoleon III (1852-1870)
      • Economic growth and development
      • Reconstruction of Paris
      • Opposition grew in 1860s
    • Austria
      • Problems of ethnic nationalism
      • Ausgleich, Compromise of 1867 creates a Duel Empire
    • Russia
      • Tsar Alexander II (1855-1881)
      • Reforms
  • 21. Growth of the United States
    • Andrew Jackson (1767-1845)
      • Jacksonian democracy
    • Slavery
      • Cotton economy of the South
      • Northern fear that slavery would spread
    • Abraham Lincoln and secession
    • Civil War (1861-1865)
      • War to save the Union
      • Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863
  • 22. Emergence of a Canadian Nation
    • Upper and Lower Canada
      • Rebellions against the government
      • United Provinces of Canada
    • John Macdonald
    • British North American Act, 1867
  • 23. Cultural Life: Romanticism and Realism
    • Characteristics of Romanticism
      • Interest in the past
      • Attraction to the exotic and unfamiliar
      • Poetry ranked above all other forms
        • William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
      • Believed that nature served as a mirror
        • Artistic expression was to reflect inner feelings
        • Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863)
  • 24. A New Age of Science
    • Technological advances
      • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) -- germ theory
      • Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) -- periodic law
      • Acceptance of the scientific method
      • Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -- organic evolution; survival of the fit
  • 25. Eug ène Delacroix, Women of Algiers
  • 26. Realism in Literature and Art
    • Rejected Romanticism
    • Ordinary characters from natural life
    • Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)
      • Madame Bovary
    • Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)
      • Realistic portrayals of life
      • The Stonebreakers
  • 27. Discussion Questions
    • What were the major ideas associated with conservatism, liberalism, and nationalism, and what role did each ideology play in Europe and Latin America between 1800 and 1870?
    • What actions did Cavour and Bismarck take to bring about unification in Italy and Germany, respectively, and what role did war play in their efforts?
    • What were the main characteristics of Romanticism and Realism?