The West on the Eve of  A New World Order 17
Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth:  An Intellectual Revolution in the West <ul><li>Scientific Revolution – new way of vi...
Background to the Enlightenment <ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political and social change in 18 th  C </...
Enlightenment, cont’d <ul><li>The Philosophers and Their Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who made up the philosophers? </li></...
Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diederot <ul><li>Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit...
Toward a New “Science of Man” <ul><li>Belief in natural laws for all areas of human life </li></ul><ul><li>Called “Science...
The Later Enlightenment <ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse on the Origins of the In...
The Later Enlightenment, cont’d <ul><li>The “Woman Question” in the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of women ma...
Culture in an Enlightened Age <ul><li>Rococo Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action </li></u...
Economic Changes and the Social Order <ul><li>New Economic Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul></ul...
European Society in the Eighteenth Century <ul><li>Society still divided into traditional orders or estates determined by ...
Europe in 1763
Antoine Watteau,  The Pilgrimage to Cythera
Colonial Empires and Revolution in the Western Hemisphere <ul><li>Society in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiraci...
Colonial Latin America, cont’d <ul><ul><li>The State and the Church in Colonial Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Colonial Latin America, cont’d <ul><li>Catholic church played an important role in Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians ...
Latin America in the  Eighteenth Century
British North America <ul><li>Shared political power between monarch and Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament gradu...
The American Revolution <ul><li>Consequences of the Seven Years’ War </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress </li></...
Birth of a New Nation <ul><li>Articles of Confederation, 1781 </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution, 1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Toward A New Political Order and Global Conflict <ul><li>Enlightenment impacts political development </li></ul><ul><li>Phi...
Russia Under Catherine the Great <ul><li>Catherine II, the Great, of Russia (1762-1796) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial refo...
Enlightened Absolutism Reconsidered <ul><li>Necessities of state and maintenance of the existing system took precedence ov...
Changing Patterns of War: Global Confrontation <ul><li>International rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>War of Austrian Succession,...
The French Revolution <ul><li>Background to the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure of the Old Regime </l...
The French Revolution, cont’d <ul><ul><li>Third Estate (Commoners, skilled workers, bourgeoisie) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
 
Other Problems Facing the  French Monarchy <ul><li>Bad harvests in 1787 and 1788 </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of government ...
From Estates-General to  National Assembly <ul><li>Estates General opens May 5, 1789, at the Palace of Versailles </li></u...
Destruction of the Old Regime <ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, August 26, 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Olym...
The Radical Revolution <ul><li>National Convention, September 1792 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolition of the monarchy, Septem...
Reign of Terror <ul><li>Protect the Republic from internal enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Executions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyon...
Reaction and the Directory <ul><li>Robespierre guillotined on July 28, 1794, thus ending the Reign of Terror </li></ul><ul...
The Age of Napoleon <ul><li>Born on the island of Corsica in 1769 </li></ul><ul><li>Brigadier general, 1794 </li></ul><ul>...
Napoleon’s Empire <ul><li>Peace 1802; war renewed in 1803 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain, Austria, Russia, Russia, and Prussia ...
The Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleon’s Grand Empire
Fall of Napoleon <ul><li>Invasion of Russia, 1812 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia refused to remain in the Continental System...
Discussion Questions <ul><li>Who were the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, and what wer...
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His 2002 World 17

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His 2002 World 17

  1. 1. The West on the Eve of A New World Order 17
  2. 2. Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: An Intellectual Revolution in the West <ul><li>Scientific Revolution – new way of viewing the universe and their place in it </li></ul><ul><li>Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geocentric theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universe a series of concentric spheres with a fixed or motionless earth at its center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heliocentric (sun centered) theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton (1642-1727) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Principia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World-machine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe, China, and Scientific Revolutions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background to the Enlightenment <ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political and social change in 18 th C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A movement of intellectuals who were impressed with accomplishments of Scientific Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton (1642-1727) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World and everything in it worked like a giant machine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke (1632-1704) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essay Concerning Human Understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every person born with a blank mind </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Enlightenment, cont’d <ul><li>The Philosophers and Their Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who made up the philosophers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paris the capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of philosophy not just to discuss the world but to change it </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diederot <ul><li>Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of the Laws (1748) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three kinds of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances/Separation of powers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>François-Marie Arouet, Voltaire (1694-1778) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism of traditional religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored religious toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denis Diederot (1713-1784) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia, 28 volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the ideas of the Enlightenment </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Toward a New “Science of Man” <ul><li>Belief in natural laws for all areas of human life </li></ul><ul><li>Called “Science of Man”, or social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Physiocrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural economic laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam Smith (1723-1790) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State should not interfere with economic matters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Idea became known as laissez-faire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three functions of government: protect society against invasion; defend citizens against injustice; and keep up certain public works The “Woman Question” in the Enlightenment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Later Enlightenment <ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entire society agrees to be governed by its general will </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General will is not only political but also ethical, representing what the entire community ought to do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Émile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education should foster, rather than restrict, children’s natural instincts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Later Enlightenment, cont’d <ul><li>The “Woman Question” in the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of women made them inferior to men, thus male domination of women necessary and right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notable contributions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Winkelmann, Germany astronomer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft, British writer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjection of women by men wrong </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal of reason innate in all human beings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Culture in an Enlightened Age <ul><li>Rococo Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly secular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World of upper-class joy and pleasure; underneath the fragility and transitory nature of pleasure, love, and life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary and artistic culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion in the 18th century of reading public and publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feast days and festivals, e.g. carnival </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Economic Changes and the Social Order <ul><li>New Economic Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower death rates, plague disappeared, better agricultural practices and methods yielded more food, more land farmed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile production shifted to countryside “putting-out” and ‘domestic” system – cottage industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global economy: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade that interlocked Europe, Africa, the East and the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantations of the Western Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial capitalism created enormous prosperity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. European Society in the Eighteenth Century <ul><li>Society still divided into traditional orders or estates determined by heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Governments helped maintain the divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Free peasant and serf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85 percent of Europe’s population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Germany, eastern Europe, and Russia peasants remained tied to the land as serfs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants in Britain, northern Italy, the Low Countries, Spain, most of France, and some areas of western Germany were largely free </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Urban population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrician oligarchies, upper middle class, lower middle class, laborers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Europe in 1763
  13. 13. Antoine Watteau, The Pilgrimage to Cythera
  14. 14. Colonial Empires and Revolution in the Western Hemisphere <ul><li>Society in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiracial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mestizos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mulattoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Economic Foundations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precious metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Colonial Latin America, cont’d <ul><ul><li>The State and the Church in Colonial Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese Brazil and Spanish America were colonial empire for over 300 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial officials had a lot of autonomy over governing due to difficulty of communication and travel between Europe and Latin America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese monarchy created governor general post </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King of Spain appointed viceroys </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Colonial Latin America, cont’d <ul><li>Catholic church played an important role in Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians brought into villages, converted, taught trades and grew crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries controlled lives and kept them docile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built hospitals, orphanages, schools, nunneries which women ran, so they had an alternative to marriage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sor Juana In és de la Cruz, literary figure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Latin America in the Eighteenth Century
  18. 18. British North America <ul><li>Shared political power between monarch and Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament gradually gained the upper hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown chose ministers responsible to the crown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament made laws, levied taxes, passed budgets and influenced the king’s ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growing middle class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Pitt, the elder, prime minister in 1757 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained Canada and India in The Seven Year’s War </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The American Revolution <ul><li>Consequences of the Seven Years’ War </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yorktown, 1781 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Paris, 1783 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Birth of a New Nation <ul><li>Articles of Confederation, 1781 </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution, 1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three branches of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Checks and balances” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Toward A New Political Order and Global Conflict <ul><li>Enlightenment impacts political development </li></ul><ul><li>Philosopher’s natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>What made a ruler enlightened? </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia: The Army and the Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick William II, the Great, of Prussia (1740-1786) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well educated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed the king was the “first servant of the state” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph II of Austria (1780-1790) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms, Problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Russia Under Catherine the Great <ul><li>Catherine II, the Great, of Russia (1762-1796) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charter of the Nobility, 1785 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emelyan Pugachev Rebellion, 1773-1774 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joseph II - true radical change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catherine II and Frederick II attempted some reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightened rulers were limited in what they could do </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Enlightened Absolutism Reconsidered <ul><li>Necessities of state and maintenance of the existing system took precedence over reform </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph, Frederick, and Catherine guided by a concern for power and well-being of their states </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened state power used to create armies and wage wars to gain more power </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary aristocracy was not ready to trumpet equal rights for all </li></ul>
  24. 24. Changing Patterns of War: Global Confrontation <ul><li>International rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>War of Austrian Succession, 1740-1748 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Theresa of Austria (1740-1748) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silesia was seized by Prussia from Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France occupied the Austrian Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France took Madras in India from the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain took Louisbourg in North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All exhausted by 1748; return of all territories but Silesia </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The French Revolution <ul><li>Background to the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure of the Old Regime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Estate (Clergy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>130,000 who own about 10 percent of the land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exempt from the taille </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were divided from within as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>350,000 owning about 25 to 30 percent of the land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Estate (Nobility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 350,000 people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Owned about 25 – 30 percent of the land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking to expand their power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were exempt from the taille </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The French Revolution, cont’d <ul><ul><li>Third Estate (Commoners, skilled workers, bourgeoisie) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants were 75 to 80 percent of the population owning 35 to 40 percent of the land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No serfdom but obligations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled craftsmen, shopkeepers, and wage earners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie (middle class) about 8 percent (about 2.3 million) who own about 20 to 25 percent of the land </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Other Problems Facing the French Monarchy <ul><li>Bad harvests in 1787 and 1788 </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of government finances </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV (1774-1792) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estates General, last called in 1614 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Estate and Second Estate 300 delegates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Estates 600 delegates </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. From Estates-General to National Assembly <ul><li>Estates General opens May 5, 1789, at the Palace of Versailles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands of the Third Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Estate constitutes itself as the National Assembly, June 17,1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Bastille, July 14, 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Fear, July-August, 1789 </li></ul>
  29. 30. Destruction of the Old Regime <ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, August 26, 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Olympe de Gouges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parisian women march to Versailles and force Louis XVI and his family to return to Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Constitution of the Clergy, July 12, 1790 </li></ul><ul><li>National Assembly creates a constitution, 1791 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up a limited constitutional monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative Assembly to make the laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses an indirect voting method to elect representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposition to the new government </li></ul><ul><li>King attempts to flee France in June 1791 </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria, April 20, 1792 </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Radical Revolution <ul><li>National Convention, September 1792 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolition of the monarchy, September 21, 1792, creation of a republic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Execution of Louis XIV, January 21, 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Commune </li></ul><ul><li>Informal European coalition against France -- Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, the Dutch Republic, and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>A Nation in Arms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee of Public Safety, 1793-1794 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal mobilization of the nation, August 23, 1793 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Army grew from 650,000 to 1,169,000 in September 1794 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Reign of Terror <ul><li>Protect the Republic from internal enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Executions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De-Christianization </li></ul><ul><li>New calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Reason </li></ul>
  32. 33. Reaction and the Directory <ul><li>Robespierre guillotined on July 28, 1794, thus ending the Reign of Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Directory, August 1795-1799 </li></ul><ul><li>Stagnation and corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Coup d’état in 1799 </li></ul>
  33. 34. The Age of Napoleon <ul><li>Born on the island of Corsica in 1769 </li></ul><ul><li>Brigadier general, 1794 </li></ul><ul><li>Disastrous expedition to Egypt, 1797 </li></ul><ul><li>Consulate created following the coup d’état of 1799 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon the First Consul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consul for life, 1802 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crowned Emperor Napoleon I, 1804 </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleonic Civil Code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of Napoleon’s domestic policies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Napoleon’s Empire <ul><li>Peace 1802; war renewed in 1803 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain, Austria, Russia, Russia, and Prussia in the Third Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Victories of 1805 to 1807 </li></ul><ul><li>The Grand Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon master of Europe, 1807-1812 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The French Empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allied states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon sought acceptance for revolutionary ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon sought to destroy the old order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does Napoleon fail? </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. The Coronation of Napoleon
  36. 37. Napoleon’s Grand Empire
  37. 38. Fall of Napoleon <ul><li>Invasion of Russia, 1812 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia refused to remain in the Continental System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 40,000 of 600,000 invaders returned to Poland in January, 1813 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeat , April, 1814 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paris captured in March, 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exile to Elba, 1814 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis XVIII took the throne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon returns to France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon defeated by the Duke of Wellington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exile to St. Helena, 1815-1821 </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Who were the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, and what were their main contributions? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the causes, the main events, and the results of the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways were the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the 17 th century English revolutions alike? In what ways were they different? </li></ul>

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