The Beginning of the  Twentieth-Century Crisis:  War and Revolution 22
The Road to World War I <ul><li>Nationalism and Internal Dissent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalries over colonies </li></ul><...
The Outbreak of War:  Summer of 1914 <ul><li>Serbia, supported by Russia, determined to create a large, independent Slavic...
Impact of the Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Because Russia and France had a military alliance since 1894, General Alfred von Sch...
Europe in 1914
The Great War <ul><li>1914-1915:  Illusions and Stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>Visions of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Failure o...
The Schlieffen Plan
World War I, 1914-1918
1916 – 1917:  The Great Slaughter <ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“No man’s land” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No p...
World War I, cont’d  <ul><li>Entry of the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinking of the  Lusitania , May 7, 1915 </li...
The Widening of the War <ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire took Germany’s side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia, Great Britain, a...
Soldiers from Around the World
 
The Home Front:  The Impact of Total War <ul><li>Political Centralization and Economic Regimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Wit...
Control of Public Opinion <ul><li>Casualties grew </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotic enthusiasm waned </li></ul><ul><li>Governmen...
Women in the War Effort <ul><li>New role for women </li></ul><ul><li>Took over male jobs and responsibilities, even chimne...
Territorial Changes in Europe and Middle East After World War I
Crisis in Russia and the End of the War <ul><li>The Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems of Tsar Nicholas II ...
Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution <ul><li>Vladimir  Ulianov Lenin (1870-1824) </li></ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks a party dedica...
Civil War <ul><li>Opposition to Communist regime from groups loyal to tsar, bourgeois and aristocratic liberals, and anti-...
The Last Year of the War <ul><ul><li>Last German offensive, March - July, 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied counterat...
The Peace Settlement <ul><li>Palace of Versailles, January 1919, 27 Allied nations </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson, Fourt...
The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Five separate treaties (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), the most import...
The Other Peace Treaties <ul><li>Territorial changes in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austro-Hungarian Empire disappears </...
The Search for Stability <ul><li>Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses of the League of Nations </...
The Great Depression <ul><li>Two events set the stage for the depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in domestic econom...
The Great Depression:  Bread Lines in Paris
The Democratic States <ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key...
Socialism in Soviet Russia <ul><li>Problems facing Russia after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>New Economic Policy (NEP) ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

His 2002 Ch 22

1,592

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,592
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

His 2002 Ch 22

  1. 1. The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution 22
  2. 2. The Road to World War I <ul><li>Nationalism and Internal Dissent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalries over colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialist labor movements create fear nations on the eve of revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russia an army of 1.3 million; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France and Germany, 900,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of military leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex military plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflexibility of military plans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Outbreak of War: Summer of 1914 <ul><li>Serbia, supported by Russia, determined to create a large, independent Slavic state in the Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination of Francis Ferdinand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnian activist working for a Serbian terrorist organization with an aim for a pan-Slavic kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary sought German support for fear of Russia’s alliance with Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria declared war on Serbia July 28, 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany declared war on Russia August, 1, 1914 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Impact of the Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Because Russia and France had a military alliance since 1894, General Alfred von Schlieffen devised a two-front military plan on both countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, invade and defeat France, then deploy German army to the east against Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany declared war on France </li></ul><ul><li>Britain declared war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>August 4 – all great powers of Europe were at war </li></ul>
  5. 5. Europe in 1914
  6. 6. The Great War <ul><li>1914-1915: Illusions and Stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>Visions of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of the Schlieffen Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Battle of the Marne, September 6-10, 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russian failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Tannenberg, August 30, 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Masurian Lakes, September 15, 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven out of Galicia and Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Italy enters the war on the Allied side </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Schlieffen Plan
  8. 8. World War I, 1914-1918
  9. 9. 1916 – 1917: The Great Slaughter <ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“No man’s land” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No plan for fighting a trench war </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Verdun, 1916, 700,000 killed </li></ul><ul><li>Horrors of trench warfare </li></ul>
  10. 10. World War I, cont’d <ul><li>Entry of the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinking of the Lusitania , May 7, 1915 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German return to unrestricted submarine warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States enters the war, April 6, 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolshevik Revolution, 1917 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Widening of the War <ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire took Germany’s side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia, Great Britain, and France declared war on Ottoman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Gallipoli, April 1915 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulgaria entered the war, September 1915, on the side of the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Global Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy enters the war, May 1915, against Austria-Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Middle East, Lawrence of Arabia incited Arab princes against Ottoman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British mobilized forces from India, Australia, and New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies seize German colonies in Africa -- Togoland, Cameroons, South West Africa, and German East Africa, Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied governments used Africans as soldiers and labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese and Indochinese were used to work in European factories as laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan joined Allies to seize control of German territories in Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan took German territories in China, Marshall, Mariana, and Caroline Islands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Soldiers from Around the World
  13. 14. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War <ul><li>Political Centralization and Economic Regimentation </li></ul><ul><li>With great demands for men and material, governments extended their powers </li></ul><ul><li>Drafted tens of millions of young men </li></ul><ul><li>Free market systems shelved so governments could test price, wage, and rent controls </li></ul><ul><li>Food supplies and materials rationed </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalized transportation systems and industries </li></ul>
  14. 15. Control of Public Opinion <ul><li>Casualties grew </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotic enthusiasm waned </li></ul><ul><li>Government took strenuous measures to fight opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of police measures to stifle dissent </li></ul><ul><li>Use of propaganda to arouse enthusiasm </li></ul>
  15. 16. Women in the War Effort <ul><li>New role for women </li></ul><ul><li>Took over male jobs and responsibilities, even chimney sweeps and truck drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Wages increased but never equaled men’s </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs not secure </li></ul><ul><li>After war, governments removed women from jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Wages were lowered </li></ul><ul><li>Positive impact: women’s movement for political emancipation </li></ul><ul><li>Right to vote (Britain in 1918, later in Germany and Austria) </li></ul><ul><li>Women took jobs, had apartments, smoked in public, wore shorter dresses, adopted radical hairstyles </li></ul>
  16. 17. Territorial Changes in Europe and Middle East After World War I
  17. 18. Crisis in Russia and the End of the War <ul><li>The Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems of Tsar Nicholas II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of Rasputin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The March Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strikes led by women with soldiers in Petrograd, March, 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisional government, Alexander Kerensky, continued war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government faced soviets, or councils of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies, who sprang up in army units, factory towns, and rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets were from the lower classes with radical interests and largely groups of socialists, including Bolsheviks </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution <ul><li>Vladimir Ulianov Lenin (1870-1824) </li></ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks a party dedicated to revolution which can destroy the capitalist system </li></ul><ul><li>Exiled in Switzerland, German shipped Lenin to Russia to create disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks promised masses: redistribution of land to peasants, transfer of factories and industries from capitalists to workers, relegation of government power from Provisional Government to soviets </li></ul><ul><li>Bolshevik program’s three slogans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Peace, Land, Bread” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Worker Control of Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ All Power to the Soviets” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collapse of Provisional Government, November 6-7, 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks were renamed the Communists </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918 giving up Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Promised peace, but country sank into civil war </li></ul>
  19. 20. Civil War <ul><li>Opposition to Communist regime from groups loyal to tsar, bourgeois and aristocratic liberals, and anti-Leninst socialists </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Troops sent to Russia to fight Communist (Red) Army </li></ul><ul><li>White army from Siberia defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Urkraine retaken, along with Caucasus: Georgia, Russian Armenia, and Azerbaijan </li></ul><ul><li>How the Bolsheviks won? Leon Trotsky </li></ul><ul><li>“ war communism”, “revolutionary terror”, Red secret police unleashed Red Terror, chekka </li></ul><ul><li>Allied intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Communist regime transformed Russia into a bureaucratically centralized state with a single party </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Last Year of the War <ul><ul><li>Last German offensive, March - July, 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied counterattack, Second Battle of the Marne, July 18, 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William II abdicated, November 9, 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armistice, November 11, 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Casualties of War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devastated European civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8-9 million soldiers dead, 22 million wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birthrate declined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost generation of war veterans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilians died from war injuries and starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600,000 Armenians killed, 500,000 deported with 400,000 dying on their way to safe haven </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. The Peace Settlement <ul><li>Palace of Versailles, January 1919, 27 Allied nations </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points </li></ul><ul><li>Georges Clemenceau of France concerned with his nation’s security </li></ul><ul><li>Clemenceau and Lloyd George determined to punish Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement to create the League of Nations </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Five separate treaties (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), the most important being the Treaty of Versailles with Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty with Germany signed June 28, 1919 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article 231, War Guilt Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Army reduced to 100,000 men, reduce navy, eliminate the air force </li></ul><ul><li>Return to France Alsace and Lorraine and sections of Prussia given to Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Demilitarized zone on the Rhine </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Other Peace Treaties <ul><li>Territorial changes in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austro-Hungarian Empire disappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany and Russia lose territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>As a result of compromises, virtually every eastern European state was left with a minorities problem </li></ul><ul><li>Dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France given control of Lebanon and Syria while Britain received Iraq and Palestine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. The Search for Stability <ul><li>Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses of the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Reparations Commission, April 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of French occupation of the Ruhr valley </li></ul><ul><li>Dawes Plan, August 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Locarno, 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Kellogg-Briand pact, 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>Disarmament </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Great Depression <ul><li>Two events set the stage for the depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in domestic economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International financial crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems of the 1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>Crash of the American stock market, October 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>World wide problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank failures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governments relied on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced budgets, lowering of wages, and raising tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased involvement of the government into economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewed interest in Marxist principles </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. The Great Depression: Bread Lines in Paris
  27. 28. The Democratic States <ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keynes argued for putting people to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called for deficit spending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular Front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weimar Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runaway inflation, 1922-1923 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperity from 1924-1929 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Deal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works Progress Administration (WPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social reforms </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Socialism in Soviet Russia <ul><li>Problems facing Russia after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>New Economic Policy (NEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandra Kollontai (1872-1952) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s rights and social welfare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Death of Lenin, 1924 and struggle for power </li></ul><ul><li>The Politburo </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated Leon Trotsky as a rival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1929 had eliminated the Old Bolsheviks and seized power </li></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×