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His 2002 Ch 20


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  • 1. The High Tide of Imperialism 20
  • 2. The Spread of Colonial Rule
    • Expansion into Africa and Asia
      • “ Christians and Spices” said Vasco da gama
      • raw materials and markets
    • The Motives
      • Economic
      • National Grandeur
      • Moral purposes
    • The Tactics
      • From: Limited to controlling regional trade network and established a few footholds for trade and missionary work
      • To: solidifying hold over their territories for security control, national prestige, before economic interests
  • 3. The Spread of Colonial Rule, cont’d
    • Global land grab
    • By 1900, almost all Africa and Asia under colonial rule
      • Exceptions:
        • Japan
          • Strategy of political and economic reform
        • Thailand
          • Used as buffer state
        • Afghanistan and Ethiopia
          • Remote location and mountainous terrain
        • Iran
  • 4. The Colonial System
    • Resistance from societies with long traditions of national cohesion
    • Direct and indirect rule
    • Philosophy of Colonialism
      • Social Darwinism – “survival of the fittest”
      • Comfortable theory: brought benefits of Western democracy, capitalism, and Christianity to tradition-ridden societies
      • Enabled primitive peoples to adapt to challenges of modern world
      • Ignored brutal aspects of colonialism; persuaded that both parties would benefit
  • 5. The Colonial System, cont’d
    • Assimilation or Association?
      • The French rationalization
        • Assimilation: Transform colonial societies in the Western image
        • Association: Collaboration with local elites while leaving local traditions alone
        • Aroused resentment among local population
        • Returned to ‘force by arms”
      • The British
        • No assimilation - treated subjects as culturally and racially distinct
  • 6. India Under the British Raj
    • Territories owned by East India Company, British crown, local maharajas, and rajas
    • Colonial Reforms
      • Order and stability
      • Education - Thomas Babington Macaulay
        • Educated elites, and girls
      • Outlawed sati, ended brigandage, thuggee
      • Introduced railroads, the telegraph, and postal service
    • Costs of Colonialism
      • British textiles supplanted Indian textile industry
      • Zamindar system
    • Failed to bring benefits of modern science and technology
    • Psychological effects
  • 7. India Under British Rule, 1805-1931
  • 8. The Company Resident and His Puppet
  • 9. Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia
    • “ Opportunity in the Orient”: The Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia
      • British – Malayan peninsula: Singapore, Burma
      • French – Indochina: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos
      • American – Philippines
    • The Nature of Colonial Rule
      • Indirect rule and some direct rule
    • Administration and Education
      • Slow to create democratic institutions
      • Slow to adopt educational reforms
    • Economic Development
      • Reluctant to take up “white man’s burden”
      • Slow economic development
  • 10. Colonialism and the Countryside
    • Many continued to live by subsistence agriculture
    • Emphasis of cash crops for exports created plantation agriculture
    • Peasants worked as wage laborers on rubber and tea plantations for poverty wages “shanghaied”
    • Taxes and population growth were a burden on rural areas
    • Migration to the sitty led to squatter settlements
    • modern economy created “Modernizing elite” or entrepreneurial class
  • 11. Colonial Southeast Asia
  • 12.  
  • 13. Empire Building in Africa
    • The Growing European Presence in West Africa
      • Slave trade
        • Abolished by all major countries in the world by 1880s
      • “ Legitimate trade”
      • More permanent presence
        • Gold Coast and Sierra Leone
        • Liberia
      • New class of Africans
      • “ Informal Empire”
    • Imperialist Shadow over the Nile
      • Napoleon
      • Muhammad Ali
      • Suez Canal, 1854-1869
      • Sudan
      • Algiers
  • 14. The Opening of the Suez Canal
  • 15. The Suez Canal
  • 16. Empire Building in Africa
    • Arab Merchants and European Missionaries in East Africa
      • Increase slave trade for plantation agriculture in East Africa and islands off the coast
        • R éunion (sugar), Zanzibar (cloves)
      • Rise of Western interest against slave trade and Christian missionary activity
        • David Livingstone – 1841
        • Abolitionist cause
        • Slave market at Zanzibar closed in 1873
  • 17. Legacy of Shame
  • 18. Bantus, Boers, and British in South Africa
    • Boers – Afrikaans-speaking farmers
      • Great Trek – mid-1830s
      • Believed that white superiority was ordained by god
      • Set up the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal)
    • British
      • Abolished slavery in British Empire in 1834
      • More sympathetic to rights of local African population
    • Zulus, a Bantu people, fought Europeans but were defeated and confined to reservations
  • 19. The Struggle for Southern Africa
  • 20. The Scramble for Africa
    • European rivalries
    • Trade
    • Missionary factor
    • Superiority in firearms
    • Belgium’s claim on the Congo
    • Conference of Berlin, 1884
    • Britain and France at Fashoda; France backs down
  • 21. Colonialism in Africa
    • European governments ruled with least effort and expense
    • Indirect Rule in West Africa
      • Preserve African political traditions because thought Africans were inherently inferior to white race so incapable of adopting European customs and institutions
      • Relied on existing political elites and institutions
        • Cameroon
        • Nigeria
  • 22. Africa in 1914
  • 23. Colonialism in Africa, cont’d
    • British Rule in East Africa
      • Kenya
      • White settlers sought self-government and dominion status, but British avoided racial tensions.
      • British established separate government organs for European and African populations
    • British Rule in South Africa
      • Higher percentage of European settlers
      • Growing division between English-speaking and Afrikaner elements
      • Discovery of gold and diamonds source of problems
      • Boer War – British defeated Afrikaans
      • Concession: gave power to vote only to whites in self-governing colonies
      • British created independent Union of South Africa for Afrikaans in 1910
        • Cape Colony, Natal, and Boer republics
        • Representative government only for European population
      • British: Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana), Swaiziland, Rhodesia
  • 24. Revere the Conquering Heroes
  • 25. Colonialism in Africa, cont’d
    • Direct Rule, French style
      • Direct rule – centralized administrative system
      • Governor-general, commissioners, local administrators
      • Assimilate Africans into French culture rather than preserve natives traditions
      • Africans eligible to run for office and serve in French National Assembly
      • Relative absence of racist attitudes, superiority of Gallic culture, belief in universality of human nature
  • 26. Women in Colonial Africa
    • Mixed impact on rights and status of women in Africa
    • Sexual relationships changed
    • Colonial governments tried to bring an end to forced marriage, bodily mutilations (clitoridectomy), and polygamy.
    • Missionaries educated women and encouraged them to organize themselves to defend their interests
    • End of matrilineal systems:
      • European settlers dealt with males while women restricted to traditional farming methods
    • Men used chemical fertilizer, women used manure
    • Men transported goods using bikes and trucks, women carried goods on heads
    • Restrictions on women’s freedom
  • 27.  
  • 28. The Emergence of Anticolonialism
    • Stirrings of Nationhood
      • Imperialism brought a consciousness of modern nationhood
      • Introduction of western ideas of citizenship and representative government
      • New elite
    • Traditional Resistance: A Precursor to Nationalism
      • Led by existing ruling class
      • Resistance in India
      • Peasant revolts
  • 29. Religious Resentment
    • Sudan – Mahdi – strong Islamic overtones
    • India - The Sepoy Rebellion – 1857
      • Sipahi , horseman or soldier – native troops hired to protect British interests
      • Enfield rifle had cartridges covered with animal fat or lard which had to be bitten off
      • Hindus do not eat animal products and Muslims do not eat pork
      • Full-scale mutiny supported by uprisings in rural areas
      • British suppressed rebellion with arms and armies
  • 30. Discussion Questions
    • What were the causes of the new imperialism of the 19 th C, and how did it differ from European expansion in earlier periods?
    • What were some of the major consequences of British rule in India, and how did they affect the Indian people?
    • What factors were behind the “scramble for Africa,” and what impact did it have on the continent?
    • How did the subject peoples respond to colonialism, and what role did nationalism play in their response?