His 2002 Ch 14
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His 2002 Ch 14 His 2002 Ch 14 Presentation Transcript

  • Europe Transformed: Reform and State Building 14
  • The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century
    • Protestant Reformation
      • Christian church divided into Catholic and Protestant groups
    • Background to the Reformation
      • Changes in 15 th C paved way for upheavals in 16 th C
    • Growth of State Power
      • Renaissance monarchs wanted concentration of authority, suppressed nobility, controlled church, wanted new sources of revenues to increase royal power and grow military forces
      • Niccol ó Machiavelli, The Prince
        • Themes: acquisition, maintenance, expansion of political power as a means to restore and maintain order
        • Abandon morality as the basis for the analysis of political activity
  • Social Changes in the Renaissance
    • Nobles – 2-3 percent
      • dominated society, holding political posts and served as advisers to the king
    • Peasants – 85-90 percent
      • Becoming legally free
      • Resented social superiors and wanted greater share of benefits from their labors
      • Resentful peasants (esp. in Germany) led to support of religious reform movements
    • Merchants and artisans
      • Patricians – traders, industrialists, bankers
      • Burghers – shopkeepers, artisans, guildmasters, guildsmen
    • Propertyless workers and unemployed – 30-40 percent
        • Earning pitiful wages, lived squalid and miserable lives
        • Supported radical religious reform
  • The Impact of Printing
    • Impact on intellectual life and thought
    • Multiple printing with movable metal type
    • Johannes Gutenberg
    • Gutenberg’s Bible 1455 or 1456 – first book
    • By 1500, Europe had 1,000 printers and published 40,000 titles (8-10 million copies)
    • Books encouraged scholarly research and desire to attain knowledge
    • Stimulated ever expanding lay reading public
    • New religious ideas spread rapidly
    • Allowed European civilization to compete with civilization in China
  • Prelude to Reformation
    • Christian humanism or northern Renaissance humanism
      • Goal to reform Christendom
      • Believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves
      • through education - an inner piety or inward religious feeling - bring about reform of the church and society
      • Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
        • Concept “the philosophy of Christ”
        • Christianity is the guiding philosophy for daily life rather than dogmatic beliefs and practices of the church
  • Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
    • Corruption in the Catholic church
    • Renaissance popes failed to meet church’s spiritual needs
      • Involved in worldly interests
      • Julius II (1503-1513) led armies against his enemies
      • Concerned with money and used church to advance careers and wealth
    • People wanted meaningful religious expression and certainty of salvation
    • Collections of relics
    • Indulgences
  • Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany
      • Monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg
    • Looking for assurance of salvation
    • Catholic Church emphasized both faith and good works
    • Luther arrived at the idea of justification by faith alone
    • Immediate problem was the selling of indulgences
      • Ninety-five Theses, 1517
      • Excommunication, 1521
    • The religious movement became a revolution
      • Support of German rulers in 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire
      • Lutheran churches were in the hands of the states
      • New religious services replaced the Catholic Mass: bible reading, preaching word of God, and song
  • Politics and Religion in the German Reformation
    • Fate of Luther’s movement was tied to political affairs
    • Holy Roman Empire consisted of Spain, overseas possessions, Austrian Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, Low Countries, kingdom of Naples
    • Charles V hoped to maintain the unity of his empire in the Catholic faith
    • German states became quite independent of imperial authority
    • Lutheranism was established by the time Charles’ army arrived in 1546
    • Peace of Augsburg, 1555
      • Lutheran states have same legal rights as catholic states
      • Rulers free to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism
      • Subjects did not have the right to choose their own religion
  • Luther Versus the Pope
  • The Spread of the Protestant Reformation
    • Calvin and Calvinism
      • John Calvin (1509-1564)
        • Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536
        • Doctrine of predestination
        • Reform of the city of Geneva, Switzerland, 1536
    • English Reformation
      • King Henry VIII of England (1509-1574)
        • Desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon
        • Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, 1533
        • Act of Supremacy, 1534
        • King Edward VI of England (1547-1553)
        • Queen Mary of England (1553-1558)
  • The Social Impact of the Protestant Reformation
    • New view of the family
    • Eliminated idea of special holiness for celibacy
    • Abolished monasticism and celibate clergy
    • Family is at center of human life
    • Stress on ‘mutual love between man and wife”
    • Doctrine was not reality
      • Women was still a subordinate
  • The Catholic Reformation
      • Society of Jesus, 1540
      • Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
      • Absolute obedience
      • Use of education to achieve their goals
    • A Reformed papacy
      • Pope Paul III, 1534-1549
        • Reform commission
        • Recognized the Jesuits
    • Council of Trent, 1545-1563
      • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings
  • Europe in Crisis, 1560-1650
    • Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century
    • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
      • Huguenots
      • Ultra-Catholics
      • War of the three Henries, (1588-1589)
      • Henry IV, (1589-1610)
      • Edict of Nantes, (1598)
    • Philip II and Militant Catholicism
      • Philip II of Spain, (1556-1598)
        • Strict conformity to Catholicism; strong monarchical authority
        • Problems with the Spanish Netherlands
        • Attempted to crush Calvinism
        • Revolt in Dutch provinces; after 12-yr battle, new modern independent Dutch state
        • Battle of Lepanto, 1571, against the Turks
        • Beginning of 17 th C, Spanish treasury was empty, armed forces obsolescent, government inefficient
  • The England of Elizabeth
    • Q ueen Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, daughter of Henry VIII
      • England became leader of Protestant nations of Europe
      • Laid foundations for a world empire
      • Religious policy based on moderation and compromise
      • Repealed Catholic laws of Mary’s reign
      • New Act of Supremacy – Elizabeth “the only supreme governor” of church and state
      • Church of England was Protestant and moderate
      • Defeated the Spanish Armada
  • Economic and Social Crisis
    • Italy became an economic backwater
    • Population decline
      • In 1500, increase from 60 million to 85 million
      • In 1650, decline after 1650, esp. in central and southern Europe
    • Witchcraft Mania
      • Perhaps 100,000 prosecuted
      • Poor most likely to be accused
      • More than 75 percent were women
  • Economic Trends in the Seventeenth Century
    • Mercantilism
      • Prosperity of a nation depended on a plentiful supply of bullion (gold and silver)
      • Needed a favorable balance of trade: exports greater than imports
      • Monopolies, subsidies, import foreign artisans, improve transportation systems by building roads, bridges, and canals
      • High tariffs on foreign goods to reduce imports and prevent competition
      • Colonies source of raw materials and are markets for finished goods
      • Joint-stock company led to growth of commercial capitalism
      • Economy still depended on agricultural system
      • 80 % of Europeans still worked the land
      • Peasants free of serfdom but saw didn’t improve their lives
  • Seventeenth Century Crises: Revolution and War
    • Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
      • Rivalry between France, Spain, and Holy Roman Empire
      • Peace of Westphalia, 1648
    • A Military Revolution?
      • Changes in science of warfare between 1560-1650
      • Increased use of firearms and cannons
      • Greater flexibility and mobility in tactics
      • Better disciplined and better-trained armies
      • Needed large standing armies (conscription)
      • Needed large bureaucracies to supervise state resources
      • Needed more revenue from taxes – economic burden
  • Europe in Seventeenth Century
  • Response to Crisis: The Practice of Absolutism
    • France under Louis XIV
      • Louis XIV (1643-1715), The Sun King
        • Divine-right monarchy
      • Political Institutions
        • Control of central policy-making machinery
        • Versailles served three purposes
        • Greatest danger came from the high nobility
        • King has authority over foreign policy, war and peace, secular power of the crown against religious authority, ability to levy taxes.
  • The Economy and the Military
      • Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683), controller of finances
      • Promoted mercantilism
      • State intervention in economy
      • Decrease imports and increase exports
      • Subsidies for new industries
      • Built roads and canals
      • Raised tariffs on foreign goods
      • Professional army: 100,000 men in peacetime, 400,000 in war
      • 4 wars between 1667-1713
      • Louis left France impoverished and surrounded by enemies
  • Interior of Versailles: The Hall of Mirrors
  • Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
    • Prussia
        • Frederick William the Great Elector (1640-1688)
        • Frederick I, First king of Prussia, 1701
    • Austria
        • Expansion of territory
        • Monarch never became a centralized absolutist state because of the many national groups
        • Austria - a collection of territories held together by Habsburg emperor: Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary
        • Each had its own laws and political life
  • From Moscovy to Russia
    • Ivan IV, the Terrible, (1533-1584)
      • First to take the title tsar
      • Dynasty ends in 1598 followed by anarchy
    • Zemsky Sobor (national assembly) chose Michael Romanov in 1598 to be new tsar
    • Peter the Great (1689-1725)
      • Trip west, 1697-1698
      • Plans to westernize Russia
      • Reorganize army and navy
      • Divided Russia into provinces
      • Hoped to create a sense of civic duty
  • England and Limited Monarchy
    • England was resistance to absolute monarchy
    • Conflict Between King and Parliament
      • James VI of Scotland became James I (1603-1625) of England
      • Divine right of kings which alienated Parliament
      • Charles I (1625-1649)
      • Divine-right monarchy and religious differences added to hostility between Charles I and Parliament
    • Civil War and Commonwealth
      • Civil war (1642-1648) won by parliamentary forces led by New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell
      • Charles I executed, monarchy abolished and named a republic or commonwealth
      • Parliament dispersed by force and military dictatorship established
      • Monarchy restored after Cromwell’s death in 1658
  • Civil War in England
  •  
  • Restoration and a Glorious Revolution
    • Charles II (1660-1685)
      • Parliament suspicious of his Catholic leanings
      • Declaration of Indulgence, 1672
      • Charles forced to suspend the declaration
    • James II (1685-1688)
      • Open and devout Catholic
      • Religion once again area of conflict
      • Birth of a son, 1688, assuring Catholic monarchy
      • Throne offered to William of Orange and his wife Mary, the Protestant daughter of James II
      • Bill of Rights
  • The Flourishing of European Culture
    • Art: The Baroque
      • Harmonize the classical ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feeling of the 16th century religious revival
      • Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
    • Art: Dutch Realism
      • Realistic portrayal of everyday life
    • A Golden Age of Literature in England
      • Called the Elizabethan Era
      • William Shakespeare (1564-1614)
  • Peter Paul Rubens, The Landing of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles
  • Europe, China, and Scientific Revolutions
    • Sense of order in Chinese society
    • Competitive spirit of Europe
    • Chinese ideological viewpoint of living in harmony with nature rather than trying to dominate it
    • Best and brightest of the Chinese brought into governmental service through the examination system
  • Discussion Questions
    • What were the main tenets of Lutheranism and Calvinism, and how did they differ from each other and other Catholicism?
    • What was absolutism, and what were the main characteristics of the absolute monarchies that emerged in France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia?
    • What was the relationship between European overseas expansion and political, economic, and social developments in Europe?