His 2002 Ch 14
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

His 2002 Ch 14






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

His 2002 Ch 14 His 2002 Ch 14 Presentation Transcript

  • Europe Transformed: Reform and State Building 14
  • The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century
    • Protestant Reformation
      • Christian church divided into Catholic and Protestant groups
    • Background to the Reformation
      • Changes in 15 th C paved way for upheavals in 16 th C
    • Growth of State Power
      • Renaissance monarchs wanted concentration of authority, suppressed nobility, controlled church, wanted new sources of revenues to increase royal power and grow military forces
      • Niccol ó Machiavelli, The Prince
        • Themes: acquisition, maintenance, expansion of political power as a means to restore and maintain order
        • Abandon morality as the basis for the analysis of political activity
  • Social Changes in the Renaissance
    • Nobles – 2-3 percent
      • dominated society, holding political posts and served as advisers to the king
    • Peasants – 85-90 percent
      • Becoming legally free
      • Resented social superiors and wanted greater share of benefits from their labors
      • Resentful peasants (esp. in Germany) led to support of religious reform movements
    • Merchants and artisans
      • Patricians – traders, industrialists, bankers
      • Burghers – shopkeepers, artisans, guildmasters, guildsmen
    • Propertyless workers and unemployed – 30-40 percent
        • Earning pitiful wages, lived squalid and miserable lives
        • Supported radical religious reform
  • The Impact of Printing
    • Impact on intellectual life and thought
    • Multiple printing with movable metal type
    • Johannes Gutenberg
    • Gutenberg’s Bible 1455 or 1456 – first book
    • By 1500, Europe had 1,000 printers and published 40,000 titles (8-10 million copies)
    • Books encouraged scholarly research and desire to attain knowledge
    • Stimulated ever expanding lay reading public
    • New religious ideas spread rapidly
    • Allowed European civilization to compete with civilization in China
  • Prelude to Reformation
    • Christian humanism or northern Renaissance humanism
      • Goal to reform Christendom
      • Believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves
      • through education - an inner piety or inward religious feeling - bring about reform of the church and society
      • Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
        • Concept “the philosophy of Christ”
        • Christianity is the guiding philosophy for daily life rather than dogmatic beliefs and practices of the church
  • Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
    • Corruption in the Catholic church
    • Renaissance popes failed to meet church’s spiritual needs
      • Involved in worldly interests
      • Julius II (1503-1513) led armies against his enemies
      • Concerned with money and used church to advance careers and wealth
    • People wanted meaningful religious expression and certainty of salvation
    • Collections of relics
    • Indulgences
  • Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany
      • Monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg
    • Looking for assurance of salvation
    • Catholic Church emphasized both faith and good works
    • Luther arrived at the idea of justification by faith alone
    • Immediate problem was the selling of indulgences
      • Ninety-five Theses, 1517
      • Excommunication, 1521
    • The religious movement became a revolution
      • Support of German rulers in 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire
      • Lutheran churches were in the hands of the states
      • New religious services replaced the Catholic Mass: bible reading, preaching word of God, and song
  • Politics and Religion in the German Reformation
    • Fate of Luther’s movement was tied to political affairs
    • Holy Roman Empire consisted of Spain, overseas possessions, Austrian Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, Low Countries, kingdom of Naples
    • Charles V hoped to maintain the unity of his empire in the Catholic faith
    • German states became quite independent of imperial authority
    • Lutheranism was established by the time Charles’ army arrived in 1546
    • Peace of Augsburg, 1555
      • Lutheran states have same legal rights as catholic states
      • Rulers free to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism
      • Subjects did not have the right to choose their own religion
  • Luther Versus the Pope
  • The Spread of the Protestant Reformation
    • Calvin and Calvinism
      • John Calvin (1509-1564)
        • Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536
        • Doctrine of predestination
        • Reform of the city of Geneva, Switzerland, 1536
    • English Reformation
      • King Henry VIII of England (1509-1574)
        • Desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon
        • Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, 1533
        • Act of Supremacy, 1534
        • King Edward VI of England (1547-1553)
        • Queen Mary of England (1553-1558)
  • The Social Impact of the Protestant Reformation
    • New view of the family
    • Eliminated idea of special holiness for celibacy
    • Abolished monasticism and celibate clergy
    • Family is at center of human life
    • Stress on ‘mutual love between man and wife”
    • Doctrine was not reality
      • Women was still a subordinate
  • The Catholic Reformation
      • Society of Jesus, 1540
      • Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
      • Absolute obedience
      • Use of education to achieve their goals
    • A Reformed papacy
      • Pope Paul III, 1534-1549
        • Reform commission
        • Recognized the Jesuits
    • Council of Trent, 1545-1563
      • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings
  • Europe in Crisis, 1560-1650
    • Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century
    • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
      • Huguenots
      • Ultra-Catholics
      • War of the three Henries, (1588-1589)
      • Henry IV, (1589-1610)
      • Edict of Nantes, (1598)
    • Philip II and Militant Catholicism
      • Philip II of Spain, (1556-1598)
        • Strict conformity to Catholicism; strong monarchical authority
        • Problems with the Spanish Netherlands
        • Attempted to crush Calvinism
        • Revolt in Dutch provinces; after 12-yr battle, new modern independent Dutch state
        • Battle of Lepanto, 1571, against the Turks
        • Beginning of 17 th C, Spanish treasury was empty, armed forces obsolescent, government inefficient
  • The England of Elizabeth
    • Q ueen Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, daughter of Henry VIII
      • England became leader of Protestant nations of Europe
      • Laid foundations for a world empire
      • Religious policy based on moderation and compromise
      • Repealed Catholic laws of Mary’s reign
      • New Act of Supremacy – Elizabeth “the only supreme governor” of church and state
      • Church of England was Protestant and moderate
      • Defeated the Spanish Armada
  • Economic and Social Crisis
    • Italy became an economic backwater
    • Population decline
      • In 1500, increase from 60 million to 85 million
      • In 1650, decline after 1650, esp. in central and southern Europe
    • Witchcraft Mania
      • Perhaps 100,000 prosecuted
      • Poor most likely to be accused
      • More than 75 percent were women
  • Economic Trends in the Seventeenth Century
    • Mercantilism
      • Prosperity of a nation depended on a plentiful supply of bullion (gold and silver)
      • Needed a favorable balance of trade: exports greater than imports
      • Monopolies, subsidies, import foreign artisans, improve transportation systems by building roads, bridges, and canals
      • High tariffs on foreign goods to reduce imports and prevent competition
      • Colonies source of raw materials and are markets for finished goods
      • Joint-stock company led to growth of commercial capitalism
      • Economy still depended on agricultural system
      • 80 % of Europeans still worked the land
      • Peasants free of serfdom but saw didn’t improve their lives
  • Seventeenth Century Crises: Revolution and War
    • Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
      • Rivalry between France, Spain, and Holy Roman Empire
      • Peace of Westphalia, 1648
    • A Military Revolution?
      • Changes in science of warfare between 1560-1650
      • Increased use of firearms and cannons
      • Greater flexibility and mobility in tactics
      • Better disciplined and better-trained armies
      • Needed large standing armies (conscription)
      • Needed large bureaucracies to supervise state resources
      • Needed more revenue from taxes – economic burden
  • Europe in Seventeenth Century
  • Response to Crisis: The Practice of Absolutism
    • France under Louis XIV
      • Louis XIV (1643-1715), The Sun King
        • Divine-right monarchy
      • Political Institutions
        • Control of central policy-making machinery
        • Versailles served three purposes
        • Greatest danger came from the high nobility
        • King has authority over foreign policy, war and peace, secular power of the crown against religious authority, ability to levy taxes.
  • The Economy and the Military
      • Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683), controller of finances
      • Promoted mercantilism
      • State intervention in economy
      • Decrease imports and increase exports
      • Subsidies for new industries
      • Built roads and canals
      • Raised tariffs on foreign goods
      • Professional army: 100,000 men in peacetime, 400,000 in war
      • 4 wars between 1667-1713
      • Louis left France impoverished and surrounded by enemies
  • Interior of Versailles: The Hall of Mirrors
  • Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
    • Prussia
        • Frederick William the Great Elector (1640-1688)
        • Frederick I, First king of Prussia, 1701
    • Austria
        • Expansion of territory
        • Monarch never became a centralized absolutist state because of the many national groups
        • Austria - a collection of territories held together by Habsburg emperor: Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary
        • Each had its own laws and political life
  • From Moscovy to Russia
    • Ivan IV, the Terrible, (1533-1584)
      • First to take the title tsar
      • Dynasty ends in 1598 followed by anarchy
    • Zemsky Sobor (national assembly) chose Michael Romanov in 1598 to be new tsar
    • Peter the Great (1689-1725)
      • Trip west, 1697-1698
      • Plans to westernize Russia
      • Reorganize army and navy
      • Divided Russia into provinces
      • Hoped to create a sense of civic duty
  • England and Limited Monarchy
    • England was resistance to absolute monarchy
    • Conflict Between King and Parliament
      • James VI of Scotland became James I (1603-1625) of England
      • Divine right of kings which alienated Parliament
      • Charles I (1625-1649)
      • Divine-right monarchy and religious differences added to hostility between Charles I and Parliament
    • Civil War and Commonwealth
      • Civil war (1642-1648) won by parliamentary forces led by New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell
      • Charles I executed, monarchy abolished and named a republic or commonwealth
      • Parliament dispersed by force and military dictatorship established
      • Monarchy restored after Cromwell’s death in 1658
  • Civil War in England
  • Restoration and a Glorious Revolution
    • Charles II (1660-1685)
      • Parliament suspicious of his Catholic leanings
      • Declaration of Indulgence, 1672
      • Charles forced to suspend the declaration
    • James II (1685-1688)
      • Open and devout Catholic
      • Religion once again area of conflict
      • Birth of a son, 1688, assuring Catholic monarchy
      • Throne offered to William of Orange and his wife Mary, the Protestant daughter of James II
      • Bill of Rights
  • The Flourishing of European Culture
    • Art: The Baroque
      • Harmonize the classical ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feeling of the 16th century religious revival
      • Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
    • Art: Dutch Realism
      • Realistic portrayal of everyday life
    • A Golden Age of Literature in England
      • Called the Elizabethan Era
      • William Shakespeare (1564-1614)
  • Peter Paul Rubens, The Landing of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles
  • Europe, China, and Scientific Revolutions
    • Sense of order in Chinese society
    • Competitive spirit of Europe
    • Chinese ideological viewpoint of living in harmony with nature rather than trying to dominate it
    • Best and brightest of the Chinese brought into governmental service through the examination system
  • Discussion Questions
    • What were the main tenets of Lutheranism and Calvinism, and how did they differ from each other and other Catholicism?
    • What was absolutism, and what were the main characteristics of the absolute monarchies that emerged in France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia?
    • What was the relationship between European overseas expansion and political, economic, and social developments in Europe?