His 2002 Ch 13

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His 2002 Ch 13

  1. 1. New Encounters: The Creation of a World Market 13
  2. 2. An Age of Exploration and Expansion <ul><li>Islam and the Spice Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spice trade transported in Muslim ships from India or Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam established in Sumatra and Java seaports and moved inland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New sultanate at Malacca – leading economic regional power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of Islam to other trading ports, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim faith and Sufism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spread of Islam in West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim trade and religious influence expanded south of Sahara to West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim control over Mediterranean coast regions brought Islamic values, political culture, and legal traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom of Mali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom of Songhai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Askia Mohammed, a fervent Muslim </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. A New Player: Europe <ul><li>European medieval travelers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicolò, Maffeo, and Marco Polo, 1271 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic motive, religious zeal, expansion a state, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> “ God, glory, and gold” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of capitalism: expansion of trade and search for metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusading mentality strong in Portugal and Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European monarchies increased authority and resources, so turned to the world beyond their borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal went overseas – not strong enough to pursue Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain: had means to pursue power on Continent and beyond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portolani (charts), seaworthy ships, sails, rudder, compass </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Portuguese Maritime Empire <ul><li>The Portuguese lead in exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought Christian kingdom as ally against Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought new trade opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explored west coast of Africa for gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returned with black Africans who were sold as slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Portuguese in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Route to India around southern tip of Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bartolomeu Dias, 1487 attempts to get to India – failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama, 1498 finds India and lands in Calicut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Search for Spices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfonso de Albuquerque 1510 established headquarters at Goa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked Malacca to destroy the Arab spice trade network and provide way station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expeditions to China and Moluccas (Spice Islands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized control of spice trade from Muslin traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success due to guns and seamanship </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Spice Islands
  6. 6. Spanish Conquest in the “New World” <ul><li>The Voyages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyages in 1492, 1493, 1498, and 1502 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Cabot, 1497 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedro Cabral, 1500 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci, wrote letters named new lands “America” (after Amerigo) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Columbus Lands in the Americas
  8. 8. The Conquests <ul><li>Opportunities for conquest and exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape of Good Hope route for Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route across Atlantic for Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spanish conquistadors: upper-class people motivated by glory, greed, and religious zeal </li></ul><ul><li>Superior weapons, organizational skills, determination </li></ul><ul><li>Hernan Cort és defeated Moctezuma and conquered Mexico in 1519 </li></ul><ul><li>Francisco Pizarro controlled Inka Empire (Peru) 1531-1536 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Governing the Empire <ul><li>Encomienda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Council of the Indies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viceroy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Spain and Peru </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Papal agreement </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Impact of European Expansion <ul><li>Native Americans ravaged by disease </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological impact </li></ul><ul><li>Conquerors sought gold and silver </li></ul><ul><li>New products sent to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Deepened rivalries </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Europeans risk their lives? </li></ul>
  11. 11. New Rivals <ul><li>Portuguese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal lacked numbers, wealth to dominate trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease, shipwreck and battles took a toll </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans in Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferdinand Magellan conquered the Philippines for Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First English expedition to the Indies in 1591 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East India Company sent fleet to Surat, India in 1608 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch arrived in India in 1595 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch East India Company formed in 1602 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Europeans in the Americas <ul><li>Dutch, French, English made inroads on Spanish and Portuguese possessions in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trade eroded in both West and the East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial empire in Brazil was profitable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dutch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made inroads in Brazil and Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colony of New Netherland stretched from Hudson river as far north as Albany, New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch West India company went bankrupt </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Europeans in the Americas, cont’d <ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesser Antilles and Louisiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada was part of French crown and became a French province </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict in Europe took precedence over conquest in Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized New Netherland and renamed it New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial empire along Atlantic seaboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge immigration to Americas to escape religious oppression and for economic interests </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Africa in Transition <ul><li>Portuguese in east Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mwene Matapa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled by the Dutch, Boers, in 1652 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Songhai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King Askia Mohammed, 1493-1528 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broke up after his death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased European contact with West Africa </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. European Possessions in the West Indies
  16. 18. The Slave Trade <ul><li>Origins of Slavery in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic in slaves existed for centuries before the Portuguese arrived in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary market for slaves was Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for slaves to work in labor intensive sugar cane industries in New World </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth of Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 th C: 275,000 African slaves exported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 th C: a million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18 th C: 6 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 th -19 th C: 10 million to Americas and 2 million to other areas </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. The Middle Passage <ul><li>High death rates from voyage </li></ul><ul><li>Treated inhumanely – chained, faced diseases and stink from human waste </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prisoners or war captives or inherited their status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as domestic servants or wageless workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase from local slave markets for gold, guns, textiles, utensils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took Africans from coast, then went inland and launched forays against defenseless villages </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Effects of Slave Trade <ul><li>Lives of individual victims and families </li></ul><ul><li>Depopulation of areas of continent (Angola, south of Congo, East Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>20% sold were children </li></ul><ul><li>European justification: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slave trading historical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African intermediaries were the sellers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves could be converted to Christianity and would replace weak American Indian workers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Political and Social Structures in a Changing Continent <ul><li>Importation of manufactured goods from Europe undermined foundations of local cottage industry </li></ul><ul><li>Limited European penetration of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Altering of trading empires </li></ul><ul><li>European impact on inland areas </li></ul><ul><li>European impact on West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity and benefits for West African kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement in the slave trade and temptations of profit contributed to conflict among states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Splintering of the Congo region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movements by Arab forces to expel the Portuguese </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. The Slave Trade
  21. 23. Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade: The arrival of the West <ul><li>Dutch East India Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Batavia, 1619 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Java and Sumatra have pepper plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive monarchies in Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam resisted foreign encroachment </li></ul><ul><li>Spices did not flourish on the mainland </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans became involved in factional struggles </li></ul><ul><li>By end of the 18th century Europeans began to abandon their trading stations </li></ul>
  22. 24. State and Society in Pre-colonial Southeast Asia <ul><li>Religion and Kingship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam and Christianity make inroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism in the lowland areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four types of political systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist kings, Javanese kings, Islamic sultans, Vietnamese Emperors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy and Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly agriculture during the early European period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash crops begin to replace subsistence farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia an importer of manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports of tin, copper, gold, fruits, ceramics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher standard of living than most of Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social institutions </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. European Voyages and Possessions in the 16 th and 17 th Centuries
  24. 26. The Pattern of World Trade from 16 th -18 th Centuries
  25. 27. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How did Portugal and Spain acquire their overseas empires, and how did their methods differ? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the consequences of the arrival of the European traders and missionaries for the peoples of Asia and the Americas? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the main features of the African slave trade, and what effects did European participation have on traditional practices? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the main characteristics of Southeast Asia societies, and how were they affected by the coming of Islam and the Europeans? </li></ul>

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