His 2002 Ch 13

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  • 1. New Encounters: The Creation of a World Market 13
  • 2. An Age of Exploration and Expansion
    • Islam and the Spice Trade
      • Spice trade transported in Muslim ships from India or Middle East
      • Islam established in Sumatra and Java seaports and moved inland
      • New sultanate at Malacca – leading economic regional power
      • Spread of Islam to other trading ports, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines
      • Muslim faith and Sufism
    • Spread of Islam in West Africa
      • Muslim trade and religious influence expanded south of Sahara to West Africa
      • Muslim control over Mediterranean coast regions brought Islamic values, political culture, and legal traditions
      • Kingdom of Mali
      • Kingdom of Songhai
      • Askia Mohammed, a fervent Muslim
  • 3. A New Player: Europe
    • European medieval travelers
      • Nicolò, Maffeo, and Marco Polo, 1271
    • The Motives
      • Economic motive, religious zeal, expansion a state,
      • “ God, glory, and gold”
      • Rise of capitalism: expansion of trade and search for metals
      • Crusading mentality strong in Portugal and Spain
    • The Means
      • European monarchies increased authority and resources, so turned to the world beyond their borders
      • Portugal went overseas – not strong enough to pursue Europe
      • Spain: had means to pursue power on Continent and beyond
      • Knowledge and technology
      • Portolani (charts), seaworthy ships, sails, rudder, compass
  • 4. Portuguese Maritime Empire
    • The Portuguese lead in exploration
      • Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
      • Sought Christian kingdom as ally against Muslims
      • Sought new trade opportunities
      • Explored west coast of Africa for gold
      • Returned with black Africans who were sold as slaves
    • The Portuguese in India
      • Route to India around southern tip of Africa
      • Bartolomeu Dias, 1487 attempts to get to India – failed
      • Vasco da Gama, 1498 finds India and lands in Calicut
    • The Search for Spices
      • Alfonso de Albuquerque 1510 established headquarters at Goa
      • Attacked Malacca to destroy the Arab spice trade network and provide way station
      • Expeditions to China and Moluccas (Spice Islands)
      • Seized control of spice trade from Muslin traders
      • Success due to guns and seamanship
  • 5. The Spice Islands
  • 6. Spanish Conquest in the “New World”
    • The Voyages
      • Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
      • Voyages in 1492, 1493, 1498, and 1502
    • John Cabot, 1497
      • New England
    • Pedro Cabral, 1500
      • South America
    • Amerigo Vespucci, wrote letters named new lands “America” (after Amerigo)
  • 7. Columbus Lands in the Americas
  • 8. The Conquests
    • Opportunities for conquest and exploitation
    • Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
      • Cape of Good Hope route for Portuguese
      • Route across Atlantic for Spain
    • Spanish conquistadors: upper-class people motivated by glory, greed, and religious zeal
    • Superior weapons, organizational skills, determination
    • Hernan Cort és defeated Moctezuma and conquered Mexico in 1519
    • Francisco Pizarro controlled Inka Empire (Peru) 1531-1536
  • 9. Governing the Empire
    • Encomienda
      • Forced labor
      • Diesase
    • Council of the Indies
      • Viceroy
      • New Spain and Peru
    • Papal agreement
  • 10. The Impact of European Expansion
    • Native Americans ravaged by disease
    • Psychological impact
    • Conquerors sought gold and silver
    • New products sent to Europe
    • Deepened rivalries
    • Why did Europeans risk their lives?
  • 11. New Rivals
    • Portuguese
      • Portugal lacked numbers, wealth to dominate trade
      • Disease, shipwreck and battles took a toll
    • Europeans in Asia
      • Ferdinand Magellan conquered the Philippines for Spain
      • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591
      • East India Company sent fleet to Surat, India in 1608
      • Dutch arrived in India in 1595
      • Dutch East India Company formed in 1602
  • 12. Europeans in the Americas
    • Dutch, French, English made inroads on Spanish and Portuguese possessions in Americas
    • Portuguese
      • trade eroded in both West and the East
      • Colonial empire in Brazil was profitable
    • Dutch
      • made inroads in Brazil and Caribbean
      • Colony of New Netherland stretched from Hudson river as far north as Albany, New York
      • Dutch West India company went bankrupt
  • 13. Europeans in the Americas, cont’d
    • French
      • Lesser Antilles and Louisiana
      • Canada was part of French crown and became a French province
      • Conflict in Europe took precedence over conquest in Americas
    • English
      • Seized New Netherland and renamed it New York
      • Colonial empire along Atlantic seaboard
      • Huge immigration to Americas to escape religious oppression and for economic interests
  • 14. Africa in Transition
    • Portuguese in east Africa
      • Gold trade
      • Mwene Matapa
    • Southern Africa
      • Settled by the Dutch, Boers, in 1652
    • West Africa
      • Mali
      • Songhai
        • King Askia Mohammed, 1493-1528
        • Broke up after his death
      • Increased European contact with West Africa
  • 15.  
  • 16. European Possessions in the West Indies
  • 17.  
  • 18. The Slave Trade
    • Origins of Slavery in Africa
      • Traffic in slaves existed for centuries before the Portuguese arrived in Africa
      • Primary market for slaves was Middle East
      • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans
      • Need for slaves to work in labor intensive sugar cane industries in New World
    • Growth of Slave Trade
      • 16 th C: 275,000 African slaves exported
      • 17 th C: a million
      • 18 th C: 6 million
      • 16 th -19 th C: 10 million to Americas and 2 million to other areas
  • 19. The Middle Passage
    • High death rates from voyage
    • Treated inhumanely – chained, faced diseases and stink from human waste
    • Sources of Slaves
      • Prisoners or war captives or inherited their status
      • Served as domestic servants or wageless workers
      • Purchase from local slave markets for gold, guns, textiles, utensils
      • Took Africans from coast, then went inland and launched forays against defenseless villages
  • 20. Effects of Slave Trade
    • Lives of individual victims and families
    • Depopulation of areas of continent (Angola, south of Congo, East Africa)
    • 20% sold were children
    • European justification:
        • slave trading historical
        • African intermediaries were the sellers
        • Slaves could be converted to Christianity and would replace weak American Indian workers
  • 21. Political and Social Structures in a Changing Continent
    • Importation of manufactured goods from Europe undermined foundations of local cottage industry
    • Limited European penetration of Africa
    • Altering of trading empires
    • European impact on inland areas
    • European impact on West Africa
      • Unity and benefits for West African kingdoms
      • Involvement in the slave trade and temptations of profit contributed to conflict among states
      • Splintering of the Congo region
    • East Africa
      • Movements by Arab forces to expel the Portuguese
  • 22. The Slave Trade
  • 23. Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade: The arrival of the West
    • Dutch East India Company
      • Batavia, 1619
    • Java and Sumatra have pepper plantations
    • Cohesive monarchies in Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam resisted foreign encroachment
    • Spices did not flourish on the mainland
    • Europeans became involved in factional struggles
    • By end of the 18th century Europeans began to abandon their trading stations
  • 24. State and Society in Pre-colonial Southeast Asia
    • Religion and Kingship
      • Islam and Christianity make inroads
      • Buddhism in the lowland areas
      • Four types of political systems:
      • Buddhist kings, Javanese kings, Islamic sultans, Vietnamese Emperors
    • Economy and Society
      • Mostly agriculture during the early European period
      • Cash crops begin to replace subsistence farming
      • Southeast Asia an importer of manufactured goods
      • Exports of tin, copper, gold, fruits, ceramics
      • Higher standard of living than most of Asia
      • Social institutions
  • 25. European Voyages and Possessions in the 16 th and 17 th Centuries
  • 26. The Pattern of World Trade from 16 th -18 th Centuries
  • 27. Discussion Questions
    • How did Portugal and Spain acquire their overseas empires, and how did their methods differ?
    • What were some of the consequences of the arrival of the European traders and missionaries for the peoples of Asia and the Americas?
    • What were the main features of the African slave trade, and what effects did European participation have on traditional practices?
    • What were the main characteristics of Southeast Asia societies, and how were they affected by the coming of Islam and the Europeans?