His 2001 5

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His 2001 5

  1. 1. The First World Civilization: Rome, China, and the Emergence of the Silk Road 5
  2. 2. Ancient Italy and Rome
  3. 3. Early Rome and the Republic <ul><li>Importance of geography on the development of Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive agricultural land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City built on 7 hills; 18 miles inland on Tiber River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to sea; centrally located in the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Rome, 753-509 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romulus and Remus, 753 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etruscan Kings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built roads, temples, markets, shops, streets, and houses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etruscan monarchy overthrown, 509 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Roman Republic <ul><li>The Roman Conquest of Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 340 B.C.E. Rome had defeated the Latin states of Latium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks had colonized southern Italy between 750 and 550 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Roman Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Roman State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle between patricians and plebeians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly of Plebeians </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Roman Conquest in the Mediterranean
  6. 6. Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264-133 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Punic Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Punic War, 264-241 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage has to surrender Sicily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sicily becomes Roman province </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Punic War, 218-201 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hannibal attacked Rome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage loses Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rome becomes the dominant power in the western Mediterranean Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Punic War, 149-146 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage completely defeated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage becomes the Roman province of Africa </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic (133-31 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Growing Unrest and a New Role for the Roman Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latifundias contribute to the decline of small farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collapse of the Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Century B.C.E. had two characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jostling for power by powerful individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil wars that were caused by the desire for power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Triumvirate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Aims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for power after the death of Crassus in 53 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war between Antony and Octavian (grandnephew of Julius Caesar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Actium, 31 B.C.E., Antony defeated and Octavian rules the Roman world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Roman Empire at Its Height <ul><li>Age of Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus given title of imperator (commander-in-chief) by the senate </li></ul><ul><li>Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing army of 28 legions; 150,000 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliaries, 130,000 men who were non-citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praetorian Guard of elite troops; 9,000 men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governing the provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate governed some provinces and some were given to the emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustus could overrule the senatorial governors and establish his own policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stabilization of the frontiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustus conquered the central and maritime Alps and then expanded control of the Balkan peninsula up to the Danube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure in Germany where three legions were massacred in 9 C.E. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Early Empire (14-180) <ul><li>Five Good Emperors (96-180) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pax Romana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable men adopted as successors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public work projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontiers and Provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome withdrew from some areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built defensive fortifications along frontier lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally all free inhabitants became a citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greco-Roman world: Latin in the west, Greek in the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities and towns spread culture and law </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Prosperity in the Early Empire <ul><li>Internal peace and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Unprecedented levels of foreign trade </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road trade route </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture still the underlying basis of prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Small peasant farms flourished/large estates collected rent from free tenant farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>Upper classes were supported by agricultural surpluses </li></ul>
  11. 11. Culture and Society in the Roman World <ul><li>Roman Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catullus (c. 87-54 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry to express emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.), Aeneid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtues of duty, piety, and faithfulness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy Greek statues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture: Arch, vault, and dome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction: Baths, roads aqueducts, and bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twelve Tables, 450 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil law – applied to all Roman Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of nations – applied to both Romans and foreigners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of nature – universal law based on reason </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Roman family <ul><li>Paterfamilias </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged marriages for daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Some educated their daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Paterfamilias no longer dominant by 2nd century C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Upper-class women had much freedom and independence in the Early Empire </li></ul>
  13. 13. Slaves and Their Masters <ul><li>Residential slaves: household help, tutors </li></ul><ul><li>Farm slaves: many times worked to death </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: used to build roads, aqueducts, other public structures </li></ul><ul><li>Slave Revolts in Sicily end of the 2 nd century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartacus, 73 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70,000 slave followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushed in 71 B.C.E., 6,000 crucified </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Crisis and the Late Empire <ul><li>Crises in the Third Century </li></ul><ul><li>Military monarchy of Severan rulers followed by military anarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Next 49 years, Roman throne had 22 emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Beset by foreign invasions and civil wars </li></ul><ul><li>Labor shortage because of plague and war </li></ul><ul><li>Near economic collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in trade and small industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fields ravaged by Roman armies and invaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse of monetary system and inflation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Late Roman Empire <ul><li>Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New governmental structure and a rigid economic and social system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New state religion - Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political and military reforms with enlarged civil service and army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded and ensured tax base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Capital – Byzantium (Constantinople) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. End of the Western Roman Empire <ul><li>Empire divided into western and eastern parts and became two independent states by 395 </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of Empire in the west by invasions of Germanic tribes (including Visigoths and Vandals) and Huns </li></ul><ul><li>Odoacer, of German origin, deposed Romulus, the Roman emperor </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transformation of the Roman World: The Development of Christianity <ul><li>Religious Environment of the Roman World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperors were made gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerant of other religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystery religions from the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with Jews when Romans ruled Judaea </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Rise of Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 B.C.E.-29 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus’ message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans saw Jesus as a potential revolutionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resurrected – “the anointed one”, the Messiah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul of Tarsus (c. 5-c. 67) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preach Jesus’ message to Jews and Gentiles </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Spread and Triumph of Christianity <ul><li>Preaching by Christian followers </li></ul><ul><li>Written materials: epistles and New Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Christian churches became more independent </li></ul><ul><li>Romans ignored Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Promise of Salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Another mystery religion </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus was a human figure and easy to relate to </li></ul><ul><li>Church became organized and hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine, First Christian Emperor – Edict of Milan </li></ul><ul><li>Theodosius the Great made it an official religion </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Glorious Han Empires (202 B.C.E.-221 C.E.) <ul><li>Founder, Han Gaozu (Han Kao Tsu) </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism – official ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism and the Sate </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian doctrine integrated with Legalistic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Officials were selected on the basis of merit rather than birth </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service examination </li></ul><ul><li>Academy to train officials </li></ul><ul><li>Population grew from 20 million to 60 million </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Economy <ul><li>Unparalleled productivity and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of domestic and foreign trade by sea and overland “Silk Road” </li></ul><ul><li>State directed manufacturing: weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Operated shipyards, granaries, and mines </li></ul><ul><li>Technological innovations: textile manufacturing, water mills, iron casting, production of steel, paper, rudder and fore-and-aft rigging </li></ul>
  22. 22. Imperial Expansion and the Origins of the Silk Road <ul><li>Han continued territorial expansion and consolidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South to Red River delta (northern Vietnam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West as far as Caspian Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North west into Central Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial trade between China and Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China wanted horses for military purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans wanted silk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulk of trade was overland on the Silk Road </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Changes <ul><li>Social institutions became more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of nuclear family </li></ul><ul><li>Majority lived in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Cities along rivers and trade routes increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Chang’an, imperial capital </li></ul>
  24. 24. Religion and Culture <ul><li>Popular religion: local deities and spirits of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Historical writing </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Iron replaced bronze </li></ul>
  25. 25. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How did the geography of Italy affect Roman development? </li></ul><ul><li>Give a brief description of the Punic Wars and list some of the reasons why Rome went to war with the Carthaginians. </li></ul><ul><li>How did the conquest of the Mediterranean in the Punic wars begin the decline of the Republic? </li></ul><ul><li>Although we might think of the Romans as transmitters of Greek culture, what were some very distinctive things about Roman culture that made it more Roman than Greek? </li></ul>

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