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  1. 1. The Art of Being Human , 7/e Chapter 16 – FREEDOM PowerPoint by Julie Rodakowski
  2. 2. The view that we are limited in our choices and that freedom isn’t always a reality, even for Americans whose circumstances may often be “ determined” by things beyond their control. DETERMINISM—the deterrent to freedom
  3. 3. <ul><li>Predestination </li></ul><ul><li> (Saint Augustine) </li></ul><ul><li>A type of determinism that suggests that before birth our lives are already mapped out for us. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Determinism </li></ul><ul><li> (Jean-Jacques Rousseau) </li></ul><ul><li>A type of determinism that suggests that we could only be free in our most innocent primitive selves, and that as soon as “leaders” and governments came along with laws and other institutions, freedom was curtailed. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Economic Determinism </li></ul><ul><li>(Karl Marx) </li></ul><ul><li>A type of determinism that suggests that freedom is curtailed by social class and that the need for money explains human motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Determinism </li></ul><ul><li>(B. F. Skinner) </li></ul><ul><li>A type of determinism that suggests that freedom is determined by a network of rewards and punishments that weaves its web to deter us from being totally free, CONDITIONING us as soon as we are born. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Genetic Determinism </li></ul><ul><li>A type of determinism that suggests that our genes determine the people we become. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociobiology </li></ul><ul><li>A type of determinism that suggests that human behavior can be understood in terms of the degree to which we need to preserve and reproduce our genes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The view that we do have the possibility of freedom, that “free will” is, indeed, a possibility. LIBERTARIANISM—the possibility for freedom
  7. 7. Wondered if free will was always a good thing, suggesting that sometimes people are forced to act because they have free will and that the results are not always positive. Suggested that the world is a random collection of chance happenings because of unpredictable acts of people who are indecisive about what they are going to do. These people then experience regret or relief depending upon the results of those actions. <ul><li>William James—INDETERMINISM </li></ul><ul><li>Schopenhauer </li></ul>
  8. 8. Suggested that through psychoanalysis, we can free our minds and thus become free to act as we wish, instead of acting under the control of something repressed in our subconscious . <ul><li>Freud – PSYCHOANALYSIS </li></ul>
  9. 9. (RELIGIOUS EXISTENTIALISM) Maintained that we are free to believe or not believe as we choose, but once having committed ourselves to a faith, we must abide by it or face the bleak possibility that life is without meaning. (SECULAR EXISTENTIALISM) Believed that no god exists, that we are instead free to do whatever we choose, but we must also accept the consequences for the actions. We are, thus, “doomed to freedom” and we suffer “anguish” because of it. <ul><li>Jean-Paul Sartre, A. Camus, & Simone de Beauvoir </li></ul><ul><li>Soren Kierkegaard & Martin Buber </li></ul>