Topic.12 World War II And The United States


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Topic.12 World War II And The United States

  1. 1. Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Department of Social Science “ We shall fight on the beaches… we shall fight on the street… we shall never surrender.” - Winston Churchill
  2. 2. <ul><li>World War I left the people of the United States weary of foreign crusades; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Princeton’s Veterans of Future Wars and Future Gold Star Mothers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups like these were common in the 30s and 40s United States; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During the 1920s, the United States practiced peace through diplomacy; </li></ul><ul><li>Americans were tired of war; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Coolidge: “The people have had all the war, the taxation, and all the military service they want.” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In 1921, reps. from nine Asian and European nations met to discuss rising tension in the Pacific; </li></ul><ul><li>The conference resulted in a ten year moratorium on building battleships; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They went on to include an agreement that for every five naval vessels owned by the US or Britain, Japan could own three… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In 1928, the French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, and US Secretary of State, Frank Kellogg posed a new idea; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kellogg-Briand Pact was going to outlaw war; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pact was eventually signed by 62 nations; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It denounced war as a means for resolving international disputes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pact lacked an enforcement mechanism; basically it could not be enforced… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>In 1935, 150,000 college students participated in a nationwide student strike for peace; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500,000 also signed pledges stating the would not serve in the event of war… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Around 70% of Americans believed that intervention in World War I had been a mistake… </li></ul>39% Percentage of students who would refuse to participate in any war, even if the country was invaded.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Was the 3/5 deal made with Japan at the Washington Conference legitimate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we as US citizens have to look at issues like this from our P.O.V. or must we look at the “big picture”? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is it possible to outlaw war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a very basic concept, so why can it not be accomplished? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do we see shifts in public opinion once the war begins? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Between 1935 and 1937, the US Congress passed three separate neutrality laws ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They put an embargo on arms sales; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US battleships were restricted from entering war zones and from being armed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans could not travel on ships that belonged to countries at war… </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>By 1938, sentiment began to change; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan was stockpiling raw materials and gaining territory on mainland Asia; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany was rebuilding military power and acquiring land; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy was trying to restore Roman glory through military force… </li></ul></ul>World War II Overview
  9. 28. <ul><li>Adolf Hitler ’s political career began in 1919, as he joined a small political party, the party will later become known as the Nazis ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This political party demanded all Jews be stripped of German citizenship; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also wanted all German speaking people united under one country… </li></ul></ul>
  10. 29. <ul><li>In 1923, Hitler tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the German Republic; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler would be arrested and thrown in jail where he serves nine months; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While in jail, Hitler writes Mein Kampf ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler convinced the German gov’t to lift the ban on the Nazi party in 1928… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 30. <ul><li>In 1933, Hitler had run for President and lost the election; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He had grown the Nazi party into the largest political party in Germany; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1933, the President of Germany made Hitler the Chancellor of Germany; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the end of 1935, Hitler had become dictator of Germany… </li></ul></ul>
  12. 31. <ul><li>Within months of taking power, Hitler made sweeping changes; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions were banned, and newspaper censorship was imposed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nazi party was the only one allowed to operate; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The regime operated a secret police, the Gestapo – they squashed all opposition; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler also required all youth ten and older to join youth organizations that pushed Nazi beliefs… </li></ul></ul>
  13. 32. <ul><li>Anti-Semitism was the driving force behind Hitler’s beliefs; </li></ul><ul><li>The 1935 Nuremburg Laws put restrictions on Jews in Germany; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermarriage was forbade; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews lost their property rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews were barred from civil service and any managerial positions… </li></ul></ul>
  14. 33. <ul><li>On the night of November 9, 1939, now known as Kristalnacht - Hitler’s plan went into action; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nazis imprisoned more than 20,000 Jews in concentration camps in this one night campaign; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed 200 synagogues and 7,500 Jewish businesses… </li></ul></ul>
  15. 34. At its very inception this movement depended on the deception and betrayal of one's fellow man; even at that time it was inwardly corrupt and could support itself only by constant lies. After all, Hitler states in an early edition of &quot;his&quot; book (a book written in the worst German I have ever read, in spite of the fact that it has been elevated to the position of the Bible in this nation of poets and thinkers); &quot;It is unbelievable, to what extent one must betray a people in order to rule.&quot; We do not want to discuss here the question of the Jews, nor do we want in this leaflet to compose a defense or apology. No, only by way of example do we want to cite the fact that since the conquest of Poland three hundred thousand Jews have been murdered in this country in the most bestial way. Here we see the most frightful crime against human dignity, a crime that is unparalleled in the whole of history.
  16. 36. <ul><li>The first major instance of international instability took place in Asia; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Japanese gov’t was short on raw materials and were desperate; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1931, Japan invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They established a “puppet” gov’t in the region; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Hoover refused to take military action in the region; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He also refused to establish economic sanctions on Japan; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He did agree to not recognize the Manchurian gov’t… </li></ul></ul>
  17. 37. <ul><li>Japan takes the slap on the wrist and believes that the United States will not interfere with their plans in Asia; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1934, Japan terminated the Five-Power Naval Treaty , which restricted their Navy in the Pacific; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1937, Japan invaded China; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In response, the League of Nations wanted to impose sanctions on Japan; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States refused to support any sanctions on Japan… </li></ul></ul>
  18. 38. <ul><li>In December 1937, Japanese aircraft bombed the Panay , on the Yangtze River; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Americans were killed in the attack; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The attack angered the public, however not many people cried out for war; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US accepted Japan’s apologies, indemnities for the families, promise against future attack, and punishment of the pilots… </li></ul></ul>
  19. 39. <ul><li>Benito’s Mussolini ’s Italy posed yet another threat to world peace; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He promised to restore his country to martial glory; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mussolini’s goal was to build an Italian empire in North Africa; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mussolini also passed Anti-Semitic laws, banning all Jews from social life… </li></ul></ul>
  20. 40. <ul><li>On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain and France had signed a pact to protect Poland and were forced to declare war on Germany; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) was not eager for war; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, FDR was a smart man and believed war was inevitable; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He began to get ready for war in 1940 and 1941… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 41. <ul><li>Here are the steps that FDR took to get ready for war in the United States; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorizing the doubling of the size of the Navy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pledging to come to the aid of any North, Central, or South American country that was attacked; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushing Congress to pass the first peacetime military draft; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded 50 old US Navy destroyers to England in return for possession in the Caribbean; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered the Navy to attack on site German subs on site, that were patrolling the east coast US… </li></ul></ul>
  22. 42. <ul><li>The draft in the United States required the registration of all men between the ages of 21 and 35; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1.2 million were drafted for a one-year service; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressed passed an extension to the one-year service in October 1941… </li></ul></ul>
  23. 43. <ul><li>These are United States production numbers prior to US involvement in WWII; </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft: 296,429 </li></ul><ul><li>Naval Ships: 87,620 </li></ul><ul><li>Artillery: 372,431 </li></ul><ul><li>Bullets: 41.59 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Tanks: 102,351 </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks: 2.46 Million </li></ul>
  24. 45. <ul><li>Hitler formed a series of alliances with countries that shared their view of expansion; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1935, Germany signed a pact with Japan; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The same year signing the Rome-Berlin Axis – a treaty with Italy; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler took the Rhineland back from France, GB and France allowed this to happen; believing this would satisfy Hitler’s needs; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler annexed Austria in 1939, imprisoning their Chancellor, again GB and France acquiesced ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later that year Hitler demanded Sudetenland , the western part of Czechoslovakia… </li></ul></ul>
  25. 46. <ul><li>In September 1938, Chamberlain (GB) and Daladier (FR) met with Hitler to see what his plan for Europe was; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler agreed not to take anymore land in Europe; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a Non-Aggression Pact ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler promised Stalin a “ sphere of influence ”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “sphere” would cover Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, and northern Romania; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With Germany's eastern front protected, Hitler was ready for war… </li></ul></ul>
  26. 48. <ul><li>At daybreak on September 1, 1939, German tanks broke across Polish lines; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German bombers attack Polish railroads by air; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On September 17, the Soviet Union joined the attack, and Poland was overrun in three weeks; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The key to German success was a new military strategy; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The blitzkrieg ; or lightening war, stressed speed, force, and surprise; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By closely coordinating air and ground forces, Germany ripped through its’ enemies defenses… </li></ul></ul>
  27. 49. <ul><li>Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No fighting took place in late 1939, and early 1940, leading Europeans to call WWII a “phony war”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France moved troops to the Maginot Line , a supposed invincible line of defense protecting France’s eastern border… </li></ul></ul>
  28. 50. <ul><li>This is how the blitzkrieg worked: </li></ul><ul><li>In April 1940, German freighters sailed into the ports of Denmark; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cargo holds of these ships were filled with German soldiers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Danes, taken completely by surprise surrendered in two hours – the Norwegians held out until June; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1940, Hitler began his assault on Western Europe; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Maginot Line was outflanked after Hitler captured Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luxembourg surrendered in one day, Holland five… </li></ul></ul>
  29. 51. <ul><li>The Allied Forces rushed across the English Channel to confront the Germans; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were met by German tank columns at Dunkirk ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Royal Air Force ( RAF ) held the Germans off long enough to evacuate 338,000 Allied soldiers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British appealed to the United States for help; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This help came in the form of weapons, not soldiers… </li></ul></ul>
  30. 52. <ul><li>During WWI, the French held out against Germany for four years, this time they lasted only two weeks; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany began its assault of France on June 5, 1940; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler walked down the streets of Paris on June 14; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In just six weeks, Hitler had taken over most of continental Europe… </li></ul></ul>
  31. 53. <ul><li>Hitler was convinced that Britain would negotiate with him after conquering France; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill disagreed and refused to negotiate with Hitler, this infuriated him; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler would make Britain pay with a series of attacks; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He ordered German subs to fire upon British ships; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In July 1940, he sent his air force, the Luftwaffe , to destroy Britain from the air; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the time of attack the RAF had just 702 planes, Germany had well over 2,600… </li></ul></ul>
  32. 54. <ul><li>Hitler began to bomb civilian targets in London; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler bombed London and other parts of GB from July 1940, to May 1941; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In May the bombing stopped and the RAF had successfully held off Hitler’s invasion of Great Britain… </li></ul></ul>
  33. 55. <ul><li>Hitler shifted strategy and in June 1941, he invaded the Soviet Union; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This broke the German/Soviet Non-Aggression Pact; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It took Hitler no time to take the Ukraine and the German troops were headed toward Moscow; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler’s generals advised Hitler to move on to Moscow… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instead, Hitler moved on to Leningrad and set up shop in the Ukraine; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the time Hitler was ready to move on to Moscow the temps had plunged to 40 below zero; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German troops suffered frostbite and the German weapons and equipment froze up… </li></ul></ul>
  34. 56. The Holocaust
  35. 57. “ In Germany they first came for the Communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn’t speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me – and by that time no one was left to speak up.” - Rev. Martin Niemoeller
  36. 58. Holocaust (hol·o·caust): n - 1. Great destruction resulting in the extensive loss of life, especially by fire 2. Greek word that means burnt whole or consumed by fire
  37. 59. <ul><li>Anti-Semitism: a prejudice or hatred for the Jews as individuals or collective group; </li></ul><ul><li>Accusations : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazis argued that Jews were truly responsible for the death of Jesus Christ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jewish supposedly used Christian children’s blood to make ethnic foods; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews refused to convert to Christianity; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were considered by the Nazis to be agents of the devil… </li></ul></ul>
  38. 60. The following quotes are from the Reich Press Chamber… it was their job to ensure censorship of German media outlets… the Chamber issued numerous directives regarding coverage of the 1936 Olympic Games… “ Press coverage should not mention that there are two non-Aryans among the women: Helene Mayer (fencing) and Gretel Bergmann (track and field).” July 16, 1936 “ The racial point of view should not be used in any way in reporting sports results; above all, Negroes should on be insensitively reported… Negroes are American citizens and must be treated with respect as Americans.” August 3, 1936
  39. 61. <ul><li>Conference on the Jewish [ Evian Conference ] November, 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Jews must pay for all Kristalnacht damages; </li></ul><ul><li>Forbidden to run retail shops, independent trades, etc; </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler wanted to see if feasible migration of Jews to other nations… other nations refused; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler will use this reasoning to fuel his argument; “these countries don’t want them either”… </li></ul></ul>
  40. 62. <ul><li>Prelude to the Holocaust; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1939, Germany invaded Poland (3 million Jews); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1941, Germany invaded Russia (5 million Jews)… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change of tactics; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning of the Jewish detainment the Germans used the Einsatzgruppen ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Einsatzgruppen were specially trained German soldiers, ordered to execute Jews; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They moved into German occupied territory and were responsible for the death of 1 million Jews… </li></ul></ul>
  41. 64. This is a portrait of two-year old Mania Halef, a Jewish child; Mania was among 33,771 persons shot by SS guards during the mass executions at Babi Yar, September 1941
  42. 65. The Final Solution Women, children and the old were to be sent for “special treatment” The young and fit would go through a process known as “destruction through work” Shooting was inefficient as the bullets were needed for the war effort Upon arrival the Jews would go through a process known as “selection” Jews were to be rounded up and put into transit camps called Ghettos The remaining Jews were to be shipped to “resettlement areas” in the East Conditions in the Ghettos were designed to be bad so that Jews would want to leave Jews living in the Ghettos were to be used as a cheap source of labor
  43. 66. <ul><li>Jews would be shipped in large #’s to island of Madagascar; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII made this plan impractical, otherwise it mostly likely would have been carried out… </li></ul></ul>
  44. 68. <ul><li>How did the Germans decide who was Jewish? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If one of your parents was Jewish, then you were Jewish; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If only one of your grandparents was Jewish, there was a possibility that you could be German; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some cases suspected Jews had their noses measured; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beginning in 1940, all Jews had to have their passports stamped with a “J”; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jewish were also required to wear the yellow star… </li></ul></ul>
  45. 71. German Tactics Deception Starvation Terror Jews were told they were going to “resettlement areas” Jews had to purchase their own train tickets Jewish workers were told to bring tools New arrivals were given postcards to send to their friends Jews in Ghettos were fed 1000 calories/day A human needs 2400 calories to maintain their weight Starving people can be manipulated and controlled easily The SS publically shot people for smuggling food or any other act of resistance
  46. 72. <ul><li>What happened to the new arrivals at the camps? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All new arrivals went through a process of selection ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers, children, elderly, and the sick were usually sent to the “showers”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The able bodies sent to work camps where they were killed by a process known as “destruction through work”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At Auschwitz , trains pulled up to a mock station; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At some camps the Nazis would play classical music to help calm the Jews… </li></ul></ul>
  47. 77. <ul><li>The Nazis would force large groups of prisoners into these cement rooms; </li></ul><ul><li>Once in the room canisters of Zyklon B would be dropped in from above; </li></ul><ul><li>The chambers were usually disguised as showers or bath houses; </li></ul><ul><li>The SS would try to pack 2000 people into this chamber… </li></ul>
  48. 78. <ul><li>This picture was taken from Auschwitz; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One days killing during the peak of gassings at the camp… </li></ul></ul>
  49. 79. The Nazis believed that you could effectively work the fat right out of Jews by feeding them only 200 calories per day…
  50. 80. They were right… this is the same group of prisoners as in the previous picture, just six weeks later…
  51. 81. “ Evil is when a few good men decide to do nothing.”
  52. 82. <ul><li>Poison Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In or about December 1943, and in or about October 1944, experiments were conducted at the Buchenwald concentration camp to investigate the effect of various poisons upon human beings. The poisons were secretly administered to experimental subjects in their food. The victims died as a result of the poison or were killed immediately in order to permit autopsies. In or about September 1944 experimental subjects were shot with poison bullets and suffered torture and death.” </li></ul></ul>
  53. 83. <ul><li>Freezing Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ From about August 1942 to about May 1943 experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp, primarily for the benefit of the German Air Force, to investigate the most effective means of treating persons who had been severely chilled or frozen. In one series of experiments the subjects were forced to remain in a tank of ice water for periods up to 3 hours. Extreme rigor developed in a short time. Numerous victims died in the course of these experiments. After the survivors were severely chilled, rewarming was attempted by various means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In another series of experiments, the subjects were kept naked outdoors for many hours at temperatures below freezing. The victims screamed with pain as their bodies froze.” </li></ul></ul>
  54. 86. <ul><li>High Altitude Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ From about March 1942 to about August 1942 experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp, for the benefit of the German Air Force, to investigate the limits of human endurance and existence at extremely high altitudes. The experiments were carried out in a low-pressure chamber in which atmospheric conditions and pressures prevailing at high altitude (up to 68,000 feet) could be duplicated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experimental subjects were placed in the low-pressure chamber and thereafter the simulated altitude therein was raised. Many victims died as a result of these experiments and others suffered grave injury, torture, and ill-treatment.” </li></ul></ul>
  55. 88. <ul><li>Phosphorous Burns Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ From about November 1943 to about January 1944 experiments were conducted at the Buchenwald concentration camp to test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations on phosphorous burns. These burns were inflicted on experimental subjects with phosphorous matter taken from incendiary bombs, and caused severe pain, suffering, and serious bodily injury.” </li></ul></ul>
  56. 91. <ul><li>Malaria Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ From about February 1942 to about April 1945 experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp in order to investigate immunization for and treatment of malaria. Healthy concentration-camp inmates were infected by mosquitoes or by injections of extracts of the mucous glands of mosquitoes. After having contracted malaria the subjects were treated with various drugs to test their relative efficacy. Over 1,000 involuntary subjects were used in these experiments. Many of the victims died and others suffered severe pain and permanent disability.” </li></ul></ul>
  57. 92. <ul><li>Sea Water Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ From about July 1944 to about September 1944 experiments were conducted at the Dachau concentration camp, for the benefit of the German Air Force and Navy, to study various methods of making sea water drinkable. The subjects were deprived of all food and given only chemically processed sea water. Such experiments caused great pain and suffering and resulted in serious bodily injury to the victims.” </li></ul></ul>
  58. 96. <ul><li>Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, set in motion events designed to cause a famine in the Ukraine to destroy the people there seeking independence from his rule; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, an estimated 7,000,000 persons perished in this farming area, known as the breadbasket of Europe, with the people deprived of the food they had grown with their own hands… </li></ul></ul>
  59. 118. <ul><li>Summer/Fall 1941: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British decipher German’s secret coded radio messages; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear reports about # of Jews killed in certain towns; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Info distributed to British Secret Service & Churchill; uncertain if shared w/ U.S.; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not made public because British did not want to give away fact that they had broken code… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>January 1942: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan 7, 1942 – Pravada (Soviet newspaper) prints about mass executions of Jews by Germans; subsequent reports widely dismissed as exaggerated anti-Nazi propaganda… </li></ul></ul>
  60. 119. <ul><li>The Holocaust officially ends in 1945; </li></ul><ul><li>August 1945; U.S., Britain, France, & Soviet Union created International Military Tribunal [IMT]; </li></ul><ul><li>Nuremberg Trials , IMT tried German leaders suspected of committing war crimes ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>22 Nazi leaders prosecuted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 acquitted; 7 given prison sentences; 12 sentenced to death by hanging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower ranking gov’t officers tried; 24 executed; 107 sentenced to prison </li></ul></ul>
  61. 120. <ul><li>As early as 1935, the United States began to show concern for the uneasiness in Europe; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt wanted to get arms to the European nations allied with them; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt's advisors were against him, citing that more arms in Europe meant less in the US; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US will remain neutral until 1941… </li></ul></ul>
  62. 121. <ul><li>In the first 10 months of 1942, German submarines sank over 500 US merchant vessels; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Americans and British defeated the Germans in North Africa; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The victory led to safe shipping across the Mediterranean Sea, opening the door for invasion of Southern Europe… </li></ul></ul>
  63. 122. <ul><li>The Allied forces were planning a massive invasion of Europe – Operation Overlord ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British and US forces committed to saturation bombing ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These forces dropped over 2,697,473 tons of explosives in Germany; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bombing killed 305,000 civilians and destroyed 5.5 million homes; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Allied forces massed over one million troops in England, under the command of Eisenhower ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It took six weeks to capture the beachheads ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies liberated Paris in August 1942, and crossed into Germany in September… </li></ul></ul>
  64. 123. Allied Invasion of Europe, 1945
  65. 124. <ul><li>Continuous battles took place throughout 1944; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Red Army was within 45 miles of Berlin in February 1945; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On April 30, Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendered one week later; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On May 8, 1945, the Allies celebrated V-E Day ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The war in Europe was over… </li></ul></ul>
  66. 125. <ul><li>After Japan invaded China the United States forced an embargo; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States also froze Japanese bank accounts in the US; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan continued to negotiate with the US through 1941; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States demanded that Japan leave China… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a last ditch effort to avoid war Japan agreed to stop expanding; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also agreeing to not invade Russia; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also agreeing to not declare war on the US if they went to war with Germany; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In October 1941, the Japanese gov’t fell and Gen. Hideki Tojo took control… </li></ul></ul>
  67. 126. <ul><li>At 7:02am, 12.7.41, an Army radar unit picked up blips moving toward Oahu ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Army privates reported the find to their superior officer; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He told them not to worry, as they were probably American B-17s returning from California; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The planes were Japanese whom had launched off an aircraft carrier 200 miles off the coast of Hawaii… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At 7:55am, the first bombs fell on Pearl Harbor; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moored in the harbor were more than 70 ships, including 8 of the fleets 9 battleships; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four hundred airplanes were also stationed nearby… </li></ul></ul>
  68. 127. <ul><li>A second attack took place at 9:00am, but the damage has been done; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven of the eight battleships were sunk or destroyed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>188 of the 400 planes were destroyed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The worst damage took place on the Arizona; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 of the ships sailors drowned or burned to death; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altogether 2,403, soldiers were killed in the attacks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another 1,178, were wounded; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan only lost 55 men… </li></ul></ul>
  69. 128. <ul><li>In the war at home, people had to be ready for the war --- the US turns again to propaganda ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion pictures became the ultimate form of propaganda in the United States; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The greatest contribution of Hollywood was building morale ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The films in the US portrayed the war and the peoples’ war; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These films also usually included women serving as well… </li></ul></ul>
  70. 129. <ul><li>During WWII the federal government took a larger economic role in the United States; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government offered incentives to industrial business; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government forced prices up on agriculture, farmers were able to gain huge profits; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The war brought prosperity to Americans, on levels they had never seen before; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Per capita rose from $373 in 1940, to $1074 in 1941; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This rise in income also caused inflation … </li></ul></ul>
  71. 130. <ul><li>At 8:15am, 6 August 1945, “Little Boy” was dropped over Hiroshima , Japan; </li></ul><ul><li>On 9 August 1945, “Fat Man” was dropped over the Japanese city of Nagasaki … </li></ul>
  72. 131. <ul><li>The Manhattan Project which began in 1942 and continued through 1946, developed the world first nuclear we apon; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project was able to develop and deliver three nuclear weapons in 1945… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasoning presented to Truman : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bombs that were developed had the capacity to wipe out an entire city; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dropping of such a bomb would possibly prevent the need for Allied forces engaging in conventional warfare … </li></ul></ul>
  73. 132. <ul><li>At 8:15 Hiroshima time the atomic bomb “Little Boy” exploded over the city; </li></ul><ul><li>90,000 people were killed instantly by the bomb; </li></ul><ul><li>In total it is believed that 140,000 people died from the bombing in 1945; </li></ul><ul><li>On August 9, a second bomb was dropped over Nagasaki; </li></ul><ul><li>This bomb is estimated to have killed 70,000 people instantly; </li></ul><ul><li>A further 120,000 people have died since from bombing related complications… </li></ul>
  74. 133. <ul><li>The brightness of the bomb was likened to that of one thousand suns; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who were within 300 yards of the epicenter were vaporized leaving only their shadows on the ground; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further away the radiation and heat was intense; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin was stripped off of bodies; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burns seared into flesh; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyeballs were sucked out; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs burst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation even entered bone marrow… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today bombs are in excess of one million times the size of the Hiroshima blast… </li></ul>
  75. 134. <ul><li>During the 1944 presidential campaign; President Roosevelt unveiled plans for “ G.I. Bill ”; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bill promised many “perks” for soldiers enlisting; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those enlisting were promised educational support, medical support, and housing loans; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the GI Bill worth it? </li></ul><ul><li>Unwilling to switch leaders during time of war, the public chose Roosevelt to see them through the war… </li></ul>