Topic.10 The Roaring 20s


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Topic.10 The Roaring 20s

  1. 1. United States History Topic 10: The Roaring 20s Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
  2. 2. Culture of Slang [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] During the 1920s, United States society developed a culture of “ slang ”; Write down what you believe each of these words/phrases mean. Cat’s Meow Crush Gatecrasher Blind Date Big Cheese Bump Off Gams Heebie Jeebies High Hat Flapper Gyp Darb Gin Mill Bees Knees
  3. 3. Two Americas [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>The United States was not a harmonious society in the 1920s; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We were divided over social and cultural issues such as religion, race, moral values, and lifestyles; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban based, indifferent to religion, and generally liberal ; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In favor of freer sexual standards and were “wet” [against the prohibition of alcoholic beverages]; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small town and rural based, conservative ; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected freer sexual standards and considered drinking a sin that had to be outlawed by the government… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Harding’s Crooks [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Qualifications for Administration jobs didn’t matter to Harding; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointee be a “regular guy”, fun to talk with, fun to drink with, and fun to play cards with; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a result, he hired a lot of crooks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Attorney General sold pardons, paroles, and jobs to the highest bidder; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Director of the VA stole supplies intended for VA hospitals and sold them under-the-table; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Interior, tried to swindle the country out of its military oil reserves; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teapot Dome Scandal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Silent Cal [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>In 1923, Harding died suddenly from a stroke, unaware of any corruption in his administration; </li></ul><ul><li>The VP, Calvin Coolidge took office; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fired and prosecuted the Harding crooks, restoring public confidence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His motto was “do nothing”, sleeping away most of his five years in office; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big business was able to do as they pleased, setting up financial policies that will lead to the Great Depression… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. “ Soak the Poor” Policy [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, launched his “soak the poor” policy ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convinced that high taxes of WWI era hampered business growth, he eliminated wartime profits tax and reduced tax rates for upper brackets; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He left rates for lower brackets at wartime levels; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mellon attempted to shift the bulk of the national tax burden on to the backs of ordinary wage earners and away from the wealthy… </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. “ Soak the Poor” Policy [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Comparison of Mellon’s Tax Plan with the Obama Tax Plan… </li></ul>Income Mellon Tax Plan Obama Tax Plan Upper Bracket $200,000 10% [$20,000] 30% [$60,000] Lower Bracket $10,000 30% [$3,000] 10% [$1,000]
  8. 8. Prosperity of the 1920s [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>During the 20s there was a tremendous demand for consumer products; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons included the availability of credit to the consumer; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low interest rates; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of the “installment plan”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another reason was increase in “discretionary income”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money left over after necessities were paid for; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to buy “durable items” (radios, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, refrigerators, and automobiles)… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Restrictions on Immigration [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>World War I limited immigration to the United States; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This also proved that the US could thrive without help from foreign immigrants; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to immigration quotas disappeared; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions feared an immigrant workforce; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief was if immigrants came to the US, then it would drive American worker wages down… </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Restrictions on Immigration [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>The United States set up immigration quotas in order to regulate the flow of immigrants; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotas were set-up based on the current proportion of immigrants groups; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This system would ensure that the ethnic make-up would remain the same; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1924, Congress reduced immigration to the United States greatly; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each ethnic group was limited to 2% each year as counted from the 1890 census ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also banned Asians entirely… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Restrictions on Immigration [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Based on the 2% immigration quotas: </li></ul>
  12. 12. The “Red Scare” [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>The United States was put on edge following World War I; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “ Red Scare ” took hold in the United States; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People feared people who showed anti-American behavior [especially those whom were foreign]; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indiana killer was acquitted in two minutes for shooting a man who had yelled “to hell with the United States”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In DC, a sailor shot a man who refused to stand for the National Anthem as a crowd cheered… </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The “Red Scare” [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>In 1920, the US Atty. Gen. Mitchell Palmer led raids on leftist organizations ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The raids became known as the Palmer Raids ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By doing so he created the groundwork for what will become the F ederal B ureau of I nvestigation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They collected names of thousands of people suspected to be Communists… </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The United States Goes Dry [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>At midnight on January 16, 1920 the United States went dry… Prohibition had gone into effect; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition was led by many women’s organizations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol was linked to domestic violence and child abuse; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Ford argued that drinking had effects on labor productivity; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The anti-alcohol movement had dubbed alcohol the “Kaiser's Brew” and the “Devil’s Brew”… </li></ul>
  15. 15. The United States Goes Dry [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>The wording of the 18th Amendment banned the manufacture and sale of “intoxicating liquors”; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It did not, however, ban possession, consumption or transportation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcing the laws was almost impossible and smuggling and bootlegging were widespread; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was the I nternal R evenue S ervice who was originally assigned with the task of enforcing the law… </li></ul>
  16. 16. The United States Goes Dry [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Prohibition produced bootleggers, speakeasies , moonshine , bathtub gin , and rum runners ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition doubled the number of bars that there were before the law was passed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franklin Delano Roosevelt [FDR], who ran for President in 1932, pushed for the repeal of the 18th Amendment… </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Problems with Prohibition [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Federal gov’t never provided city and state governments with the funds necessary to enforce the new law; </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans simply liked to drink; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported Prohibition publicly for the sake of appearances but continued to drink on the sly… </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Problems with Prohibition [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Prior to Prohibition middle and upper-class people seldom drank more than a little wine with supper; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard liquor now became a part of middle-class life and the “cocktail party” replaces the tea party as the most popular form of middle-class entertainment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawbreaking increased; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquor transported by truck across the Canadian or Mexican border, or brought by boat from Europe, produced huge profits for rum runners… </li></ul>
  19. 19. Organized Crime [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Prohibition created modern organized crime ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To meet needs of people who wanted liquor… enterprising men organized liquor distribution networks that rivaled legitimate businesses in their complexity and efficiency; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then used profits to diversify into prostitution, gambling, extortion , etc… </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Organized Crime [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Authorities would occasionally try to crack down on organized crime; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But convictions were hard to obtain because rival gangs refused to testify against each other, witnesses were intimidated or killed, and police and judges were bribed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was connection between Prohibition and organized crime that led to repeal of 18th Amendment in 1932… </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Race Becomes an Issue… Again [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>Some of the most vicious racial violence in this country’s history took place in the early 1920s; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A shift in demography of minorities caused racial tensions in parts of the country that had never had to face these issues; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rosewood, Florida, a small community of 150 was burned to the ground while whites were trying to find an a man accused of rape; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The only house standing was the house of the only white resident; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1994, the State of Florida paid $2.1 million in reparations … </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Race Becomes an Issue… Again [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>A new version of the Ku Klux Klan appeared in the 1920s; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This new Klan did not only target African Americans; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also went after Jews, Catholics, immigrants, divorcees, and bootleggers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Klan considered themselves defenders of Prohibition, true morality , and true Americanism … </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Race Becomes an Issue… Again [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>In the 1920s, the Klan helped 16 Senators get elected as well as numerous Representatives; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1923, there were 3,000,000 Klan members in the United States; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1925, the leader of the Klan was sentenced to life in prison, the Klan fell apart; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1930… they just had 45,000 members nationwide… </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Scopes Trial [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ] <ul><li>In 1925, John Scopes was tried in Tennessee, for teaching evolution , which was a violation of state law; </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ at some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace the savage races” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival of the Fittest Theory ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scopes pleaded guilty… and was fined $100; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1967, the Tennessee Supreme Court struck down the law… </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Restrictions on Immigration [ Topic.10 The Roaring 20s ]