Topic.05 The Road to War

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Topic.05 The Road to War

Topic.05 The Road to War

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  • 1. United States History Topic 05: The Road to War Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
  • 2. An Increase in Industry [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • The United States began to encourage the growth of industry by 1800;
      • The first factory, devoted to spinning cotton into thread, opened in 1790 in New England;
      • By 1815, there were 213 such factories;
    • Contributions to US industrialization :
      • Interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney)
      • Water & steam power
      • An increase in the demand for American made goods
  • 3. An Increase in Industry [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Robert Fulton invented the steam engine in the 1800s;
      • Fulton’s invention allowed for the development of the steamboat;
      • This allowed for two-way travel on the US rivers…
    Was the steam engine important for US industry?
  • 4. Capturing California [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • The United States became involved in the Mexican War;
      • One of the goals was to capture California territory and expand the US coast-to-coast;
      • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave the US more than 500,000 sq. miles of territory;
    • President Polk agreed to pay Mexico $18.25 million dollars …
    Does that sound like a fair price? = $36.50 per square mile
  • 5. Protesting the War w/ Mexico [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Many people were upset by the War with Mexico; belief was that it was unjust to attack a country for land;
    • Henry David Thoreau was jailed for not paying taxes to support war;
    • He later wrote in “Civil Disobedience”;
    • “ That government is best which governs least.”
    Do you agree with Thoreau?
  • 6. Did you know? [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Do you know how the San Francisco 49ers, NFL Football team got their name?
  • 7. Rushing for Gold [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • With Cali part of the US in 1848, gold is discovered;
      • This discovery will ignite one of the most massive migrations in human history;
      • More than 90,000 people will make their way to Cali in the two years following the discovery of gold…
  • 8. The Trip of a Lifetime [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Pres. Polk: “There looks to be enough gold in Cali to pay the costs of the Mexican War many times over.”
    • Murder and crime were common in Gold Rush towns;
    • There were almost no women in the “Wild West”…
  • 9. Coming Over & Spreading Out [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • By 1860, the country’s pop. Was 31.4 million people, nearly 4x what it was in 1800;
      • People were coming from all over the world to see what “America” had to offer;
      • Immigrants tended to settle with their own people;
      • Cities tended to be dark, smelly, filthy and violent;
    • The avg. city factory worker, labored 6 days a week, 10 – 11 hours a day would make $5.00 ;
      • The minimum cost of living in 1851, was $10 a week…
  • 10. Coming Over & Spreading Out [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Most immigrants (early 1800s) were from either Germany or Ireland;
    • Fare to cross the Atlantic was between $10 - $12;
    • The ships would bring Southern cotton to England, and return with the North’s “cash crop” – cheap labor…
  • 11. I, Um… Know Nothing [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • The rise of immigration also increased the anti-immigrant feeling;
      • Mainly in areas where immigrants were competing with native-born Americans for jobs;
    • Nativists were members of an underground movement, the “Know Nothing” Party ;
      • The Know Nothings wanted an end to immigration;
      • They became the American Party in a attempt to appeal to the mainstream, gaining 1 million members by 1855;
      • The party imploded prior to the Civil War with internal conflict…
  • 12. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Slave sale advertisement.
  • 13. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • When?
    • The trade begins in the mid-1400s when the Portuguese and Spanish start slaving in Africa;
    • The trade will continue through the US Civil War (though technically the slave trade is outlawed in 1808)…
  • 14. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Why?
    • Three reasons all combined:
      • Labor shortage (not enough workers)
      • Ethnocentrism (feelings of superiority)
      • Greed
  • 15. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Where to? Where from? North America South America Africa 5% 60% 35% 65% 30% 5%
  • 16. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Figure: Estimated Annual Exports of Slaves from Western Africa to the Americas, 1500–1700. Source: John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 118.
  • 17. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • By the numbers;
    • 30 million taken from their homes;
    • 10 million die during capture;
    • 10 million die during crossing;
    • 10 million sold into slavery…
  • 18. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • The Crossing
    • Canary Islands to the Windward Islands;
      • Ships were attacked by pirates often;
      • Trip was very long…
  • 19. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Conditions on the slavers;
    • Crowded, unsanitary conditions;
      • Slaves rode on planks 66” x 15”, with only 20” of headroom ;
      • Males chained together in pairs;
      • Kept apart from children and women;
      • High mortality rates…
  • 20. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Plan of the British Slave Ship Brookes , 1788. This plan, which may undercount the human cargo the Brookes carried, shows how tightly Africans were packed aboard slave ships.
  • 21. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Slaves were fed twice daily;
    • Poor and insufficient diet
      • Vegetable pulps, stews, and fruits;
      • Denied meats or fish;
      • 10 people eating from one bucket;
      • Unwashed hands spread disease…
  • 22. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
  • 23. A “Dred”ful Decision [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Dred Scott was a slave who was taken by his master to Illinois, a free state;
      • They returned to Missouri, and Scott sued for his freedom, claiming his time in Illinois had made him free;
      • “ Scott is not a United States citizen and thus has no right to sue; as a Missouri resident, Illinois law does not apply to him; as a slave, he was property, just like a mule, and the government had no right to deprive his master of property without a good reason.”
  • 24. A “Dred”ful Decision [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • The Scott decision helped to boost business on the Underground R.R.;
  • 25. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Southern Claim: Northern slaveholders were much crueler to their slaves than Southerners were ;
      • 1600s & Beyond… in North, slaves were considered profitable imports to be sold to South or disposable assets to work on northern farms until worn out from work;
      • In south, slaves viewed as permanent work force, laborers to be protected, nurtured, & developed…
  • 26. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Northern treatment of slaves…records indicate:
      • After slave rebellions or as punishment – most were hanged, some quartered, drawn, slow-roasted over open fire for 8 hrs , etc;
    • 1991, Howard Univ. in Washington studied bones from ‘African Burial Ground’ in NY City… discovered arm & leg bones of 20 yr olds… were misshapen, indicating they had been worked to death…
  • 27. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Southern claim: NY city was capital of slave trade—even after outlawed;
      • Most of 500,000 African slaves transported to Southern plantations came in Northern-owned ships ;
    • Rhode Island family (the Browns) made so much $$$; they became major donors to Rhode Island College; later renamed Brown College; and today is known as ivy league school of Brown University…
  • 28. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Southern claim: slavery was less cruel in the south…southern slaves lived much like free blacks—and whites;
      • Many slave owners & pastors held view that slavery was ordained in the Bible & that it was the Christian duty of slaveholders to take care of “their people.”
    • Mortality rate of slaves in south much lower than that in Caribbean;
    • Contrary to claims of abolitionists, slaves allowed to marry…
  • 29. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Slave labor has also been mischaracterized as lasting from “sun-up to sun-down”;
      • Research indicates: cotton plantation slaves worked aver. Of 58 hr/wk (verses 72 hr/wk for British textile workers or 60 hr/wk for Northern commercial farmers);
      • Most worked only ½ day on Sat. & not at all on Sun;
    • Not all slaves were field hands ;
      • Skilled workers such as millers, carpenters, furniture makers, blacksmiths, etc;
    • Typically could move freely about countryside, hunting w/ firearms, visiting farms, hiring selves out for money, etc…
  • 30. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Slaves & masters lived side by side;
      • Slave cabins often built just yards from owner’s house;
      • Slave owners served as plantation doctors, wives served as physician’s assistants to slaves;
    • What do the following statistics mean?
      • 25% of white southerners owned slaves;
      • 1/10 of 1% owned more than 200;
      • 2.5% of 4 million slaves living in south in 1860 actually worked & lived on large plantations…
    • “ They mean that the typical southern slaveholder was more likely to be working in the field beside his slaves than sitting on the verandah sipping a mint julep.”
  • 31. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • It is true that there were some large slaveholders in the south;
    • 3rd largest in SC – William Ellison;
      • Owned more than 50 slaves;
      • Claimed wealth more than $65,ooo..higher than 90% of neighbors;
      • Staunch supporter of Confederate cause…one son left for artillery unit, switched from cotton to production of foodstuffs needed to feed Confederate Army;
    • He was black…and a former slave…
  • 32. Lincoln vs. Douglas [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] In the BLUE corner… Illinois State Senator 5’ 1” Stephen Douglas In the RED corner… Illinois State Rep. 6’ 4” Abraham Lincoln POW! WHAM!
  • 33. The Lincoln-Douglas Debate [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Lincoln and Douglas were debating for a seat in the US Senate;
    • Their strategy was simple;
      • Douglas tried to make Lincoln look like an abolitionist, which he was not;
      • Lincoln tried to make Douglas look like he was pro-slavery, which he was not;
    • Douglas won the election ;
      • But Lincoln won a national reputation…
  • 34. Spark # 01: John Brown [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • John Brown, an abolitionist, believed that he had been commanded by God to free the slaves;
    • On Oct. 16, 1859, Brown led a group of 18 white and black men on a raid of the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA;
      • After killing the mayor and taking some hostages, Brown’ gang was surrounded by militia and US troops commanded by Robert E. Lee…
    • Brown and five others were captured, the rest killed; Brown went to trial and was hanged …
  • 35. Spark # 02: Lincoln’s Election [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Lincoln was nominated by the Republican Party for the Election of 1860;
      • The Republicans believed Lincoln would appeal to the North and the West;
      • Douglas was the official Democratic nominee; however, a splinter group supported a man by the name of John Breckenridge;
    • Lincoln did not win the popular vote; but easily won the electoral vote, and became President …
  • 36. Spark # 02: Lincoln’s Election [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    • Before he could even take office seven Southern states had already pulled out of the Union;
      • Once the fighting started, they were followed by four more…
    As the sun rose on the morning of April 12, 1861, secessionist guns fired on Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. The United States Civil War had begun.