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Topic 02.Colonization, Towards Revolution

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Topic 02.Colonization, Towards Revolution

Topic 02.Colonization, Towards Revolution


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  • 1. United States History Topic 02: Colonization, Towards Revolution Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
  • 2. First Colonies
    • There are major differenced between the founding of the Northern colonies and the Southern colonies;
    • Jamestown [1607] was founded by a joint stock company;
      • JSC’s are formed when investors pool their monies to fund the exploration;
      • King James authorized several joint stock companies to set-up colonies…
  • 3. The Virginia Company
    • The first JSC was the Virginia Company;
      • The Virginia Co. settles Jamestown in 1607, as the first permanent English colony in the United States;
      • Why is Plymouth credited with this?
      • It is a bias in US History: early historians are trained at Harvard and credit the Plymouth colony;
      • We get Thanksgiving from this credit…
  • 4. The Virginia Company
    • Jamestown was a proprietary colony… a business colony;
      • Jamestown almost fails in the first year;
      • The colonists found iron pyrite, this caused them to mine instead of planting food…
      • Most of the settlers were nobles and had no knowledge of farming;
        • They discovered Native storages of food and created problems with them right away;
        • The colonists also had terrible sanitary conditions…
  • 5. The Jamestown Savior
    • The colony was saved by John Smith; have you heard of him?
      • Smith was a 28 year old war hero… according to himself;
      • He was exactly what the colony needed…
      • Smith did several things:
        • Enforced discipline
        • Forced building and planting to be completed
        • Negotiated with the Natives
      • There is no truth to the Disney version… sorry = (
  • 6. The Jamestown Savior
    • Smith did not last long, he was recalled in 1609, after colonists complained about him;
      • That winter was terrible for the Jamestown colonists;
      • Food was nowhere to be found;
      • Scientists have found teeth marks in the bones of Jamestown remains…
      • The problem was that the Virginia Co. had sent skilled craftsmen, not laborers;
        • The goal of the company was to make money, period…
  • 7. The Northern Colonies
    • In comparison, the Northern colonies were also settled by joint stock companies;
      • The major difference was that the Northern colonies were established on religious motives…
      • There was a religious war in Europe between the Church of England and the Catholic Church;
        • Some did not like the new Church of England;
        • The puritans believed in purifying the corruption in the Church…
  • 8. Separation Takes Place
    • There were two groups of Puritans, the Separatists and the non-Separatists;
      • Separatists wanted to separate from the Church completely;
      • They called themselves pilgrims, as they were on a pilgrimage to develop a church of their own…
  • 9. Separation Takes Place
    • The Pilgrims convinced the Plymouth Company to fund their colony;
      • They established Plymouth in 1620;
      • They did not have the same problems with Natives as did Jamestown, as there had been an epidemic in 1618-19…
      • However, the winter was a Boston winter and half of the colonists die the first year;
        • The colony will wind up being absorbed by other colonies in the area founded by non-Separatists…
  • 10. Separation Takes Place
    • The Massachusetts Bay Colony was made up of six towns in the Boston area;
      • These people believed that it was God’s purpose to settle in this new land;
      • It was their job to show the world how to act…
  • 11. How the South Became the South, the North the North
    • What are some differences between the Northern and Southern states?
    • Differences begin during colonization;
      • Jamestown will begin to excel when tobacco becomes their “cash crop”;
      • People settle on plantations on the rivers;
      • People travel via river, so major roads do not develop;
      • This process also slows the development of cities and towns…
  • 12. How the South Became the South, the North the North
    • In contrast, the New England colonists sailed with the intent of living in communities;
      • Religious beliefs drove the settlement of towns;
      • It was actually illegal to live alone;
      • It was your neighbors responsibility to tell you that you were a sinner;
    • In conclusion, the South spread out along the river systems, while the North settled in villages and towns along man-made roads…
  • 13. The Southern Population
    • Because of the plantation system in the South, indentured servitude begins;
      • Indentured servants signed over their freedom for a term of seven years;
      • They would serve a master in the colony in exchange for travel and board;
      • When freed from servitude they would receive 50 acres of land…
    • Masters preferred that servants be young males, this boosts the male population in the South…
  • 14. The Southern Population
    • Due to the heavy male population the South will see fewer marriages;
      • Fewer marriages mean fewer children and families;
      • Colonists did not want slaves; they were too expensive and people died too quickly;
      • Most servants died in the first year, the seasoning year…
      • With the young males in charge it creates and unstable society;
        • The Frat House analogy…
  • 15. The Northern Population
    • The Northern population was different because of religion;
      • The colonists have a reason to succeed;
      • Colonists travel together as families and extended families;
      • This system of settlement helps to create a stable society…
      • Networks of people were already built in;
        • People want to take care of each other because they know one another;
        • The North does not need servants due to the lack of farming…
  • 16. The Northern Population
    • The Northern colonists were more literate than in the South;
      • They believed that you must be able to read the Bible;
      • Education was stressed from a young age;
      • The Northern colonists quickly built public schools in their towns;
        • This did not exist in the South due to the lack of children and families…
  • 17. Toward Revolution
  • 18. Loosing Control
    • In the late 1600s, things changed in England;
      • The French and Indian War occurs in England, and the British find out quickly war is expensive;
      • The British debt had grown huge and they needed to figure out how to gain more income;
      • The new British Empire was vast and needed to be protected;
        • This would be expensive, so people must be taxed…
  • 19. Loosing Control
    • The British decided that they would tax the colonists more and tighten control;
      • The colonists had smuggled lots of goods into the colonies;
      • They British wanted more control and they felt the colonial govt’s were too independent
      • They come up with a two prong approach to change things;
        • The British were alre ady paying 25% more in taxes than were the colonists…
  • 20. A Military, Standing By
    • The British Gov’t decided that they would keep a standing Army in the colonies;
      • Colonists were forced to pay for housing troops and pay to supply them as well;
      • The fear was that the colonies could be attacked by either the French citizens in Canada or the Natives…
  • 21. Freeze, Don’t Move
    • The second move by England is the Proclamation of 1763;
      • The line marked where white settlers could not go;
      • It ran down the East coast along the Appalachian Mountains;
      • The secondary result was that the Proclamation kept colonists on the East coast and easier to supervise…
  • 22. Bad Policy
    • Both policies enraged the colonists;
      • For instance, some colonists had already moved west of the Proclamation line;
      • Other colonists were upset with the troops in the colonies;
      • Relations between the British and the colonists will only get worse…
  • 23. Sugar Act
    • 1764 the British gov’t passed the Sugar Act [Molasses Act];
      • Increase tax revenue on sugar being shipped to the colonies;
      • Smuggling was a major problem;
      • British lowered the tax, but toughened the system of enforcement;
      • When the tax was more expensive it was cheaper to smuggle and bribe officials than to pay the tax;
        • If caught, offenders go to Vice Admiralty Court… in Nova Scotia;
        • It also implemented new enumerated products…
  • 24. Sugar Act
    • The southern colonies were not impacted very much by the Sugar Act;
      • The northern colonists were willing to fight the act, as it impacted them greatly;
      • They organized boycotts of English manufactured goods;
      • Merchants in NY and Boston argued that once the British see they can do what they want they will abuse the system…
  • 25. Stamp Act
    • Stamp Act taxed all valid legal documents, newspaper, playing cards, any paper sold commercially;
      • Given a stamp to show you paid the tax;
      • The stamp act was very unpopular; it was put into place during a downturn in the economy;
      • This was an internal tax and this was the job of colonial gov’t;
      • Colonies had no elected reps. to British Parliament;
        • Therefore the colonists thought they had no right to tax;
        • The British gov’t said it was okay because of virtual representation…
  • 26. “ American” Reaction
    • The colonists reacted strongly because they did not believe that the Parliament had the right to govern the colonies;
      • Colonists believed in a form of Whig ideology, with constitutional ideas;
      • They believed that gov’ts naturally became oppressive;
      • When gov’ts become oppressive the people have the right to change it, by revolution if necessary;
      • The Whig ideals held on in America, not in England…
  • 27. “ American” Reaction
    • Protests and newspaper editorials ripping the British were all around the colonies;
      • They would hold mock trials for tax collectors and mock funerals for “liberty”;
      • They would “pop” the houses of stamp and tax collectors;
      • They would burn down the stamp warehouses;
      • Colonial legislatures passed formal protests to Parliament…
  • 28. “ American” Reaction
    • Tensions begin to increase; several stone throwing incidents and snowball throwing in the Northern colonies;
      • The colonists were clashing with the soldiers, especially in Boston;
      • They complained about the treatment of women in Boston by the soldiers; the soldiers also took jobs from Bostonians;
      • Tension on March 2 at the docks, soldiers are confined to barracks for the weekend;
        • Monday people gather at the Customs House;
        • Seven more soldiers show up and they load their weapons, Captain Prescott arrives and fix bayonets…
  • 29. “ American” Reaction
    • John Adams will defend the soldiers for murder;
      • They are acquitted, two convicted of manslaughter and branded with an “m” on their thumb;
      • 1770 -72 a quiet time, no one grievance to unite the colonies;
      • Boston Tea Party December 1773;
        • The response was the closing of Boston harbor;
        • Rearranged the Massachusetts gov’t making all gov’t positions appointed by the crown…
  • 30. The End of Colonial Life
    • Thomas Gage was made the governor of Mass;
      • He was in charge of all British soldiers;
      • In essence the Mass gov’t became a military gov’t;
      • The Coercive Acts were one of the last straws;
        • If the colonies ever get out of line this is how the Crown will handle it;
        • Colonists were not unified in what to do;
        • They will hold a meeting in Philly known as the 1st Continental Congress, all colonies will send delegates except Georgia…