(2) 7 Cs


Published on

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

(2) 7 Cs

  2. 3. <ul><li>Completeness </li></ul><ul><li>Conciseness </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Concreteness </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Correctness </li></ul>Principles of Business Communication
  3. 4. COMPLETNESS A business message is complete when it contains all facts the reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire. Conti…
  4. 5. COMPLETNESS <ul><li>Completeness is necessary for several reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>First, complete messages are more likely to bring the desired results without the expense of additional messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, they can do a better job of building goodwill. </li></ul><ul><li>Third, they can help avoid costly lawsuits that may result if important information is missing . </li></ul>Conti…
  5. 6. <ul><li>Last but not the least, papers that seem inconsequential can be surprisingly important if the information they contain is complete and effective. </li></ul><ul><li>In high-level conferences, in courtrooms, and in governmental hearings, the battle often centers on an ordinary-looking message that becomes important because of the complete information it contains. </li></ul>COMPLETENESS Conti…
  6. 7. <ul><li>As you strive for completeness, keep the following guidelines in mind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer all questions asked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give something extra, when desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for the five W’s (What, Why, When, Where, Who) and any other essentials . </li></ul></ul>COMPLETENESS
  7. 8. ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS <ul><li>Situation -1: </li></ul><ul><li>A distributor of software, when replying to a dealer’s letter, answered only four of seven questions. Because the original questions were unnumbered and somewhat buried in five long paragraphs, the respondent apparently overlooked or disregarded three of them. The reply, being incomplete and unfriendly, caused the distributor to lose the business and goodwill of a potential customers. </li></ul>Conti…
  8. 9. <ul><li>Sometimes before you can answer an inquiry , you need certain specific information from the inquirer. Then it is a good idea to list the needed details on a reply from that the inquirer can fill out and return to you. In this way both your answer and that of your respondent will be complete. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Situation 2: </li></ul><ul><li>On May 8, 2008 the owner of mutual fund stock wrote to an investment Company that he wanted to sell his shares. He asked, “just how does your company want me to authorize this sale?” He received following reply on May 19: </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you wish to terminate account # 9248 and liquidate the shares held by this company, we need a letter of instructions signed by both you and your wife just as the account is registered. Please be sure to give us the name of your fund, your account number, and the name of the person to whom proceeds are to be mailed” </li></ul>Conti…
  10. 11. <ul><li>In situation 2, message about the transaction resulted in delay, annoyed and disappointed the customer. Had the company supplied a reply form, the desired sale could have been completed promptly. </li></ul>
  11. 12. GIVE SOMETHING EXTRA, WHEN DESIRABLE <ul><li>The words “when desirable”, in the above heading, are essential. Sometimes you must do more than just answering the customer’s specific questions. They may not know what they need, or their questions may be inadequate. For example, suppose you are the Secretary of Karachi Golf Club and receive the following inquiry from an out-of-town member: </li></ul>Conti…
  12. 13. <ul><li>I think I would like to attend my first meeting of the Golf Club, even though I’m not acquainted in your city. Will you please tell me the place/venue where the next meeting will be held? </li></ul><ul><li>If you answered only this one question, your letter would be incomplete. Realizing that your reader is a newcomer to your city and to the club meetings, you should include in your reply a welcome note plus such needed details as directions/road-map for reaching the building; parking facilities; day, date, and time of meeting; and perhaps also the program for the next meeting. Your message will then have the “something extra” that a reader really needs and appreciation. </li></ul>
  13. 14. CHECK FOR THE FIVE W’s AND ANY OTHER ESSENTIALS <ul><li>Another way to help make your message complete is to answer, whenever desirable, the “five W” questions __ who, what, when, why, where __ and any other essentials, such as how . The five-question method is especially useful when you write requests, announcements, or other informative messages. </li></ul>Conti…
  14. 15. <ul><li>For instance, to order merchandise, make clear what you want, when you need it, to whom and where it is to be sent, and how payment will be made. To reserve a hotel banquet room, specify the accommodations needed (what), location (where), sponsoring organization (who), date and time (when), event (why), and other necessary details (how). </li></ul>
  15. 16. CONCISENESS Conciseness is saying what you have to in the fewer possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities. Conti…
  16. 17. CONCISENESS <ul><li>A concise message saves time and expense for both sender and receiver. Conciseness is saying what you have to say in the fewest possible words. Conciseness contributes to emphasis. By eliminating unnecessary words, you help make important ideas stand out. To achieve conciseness, try to observe the following suggestions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate wordy expressions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include only relevant statements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid unnecessary repetition. </li></ul></ul>Conti…
  17. 18. <ul><li>WORDY CONCISE </li></ul><ul><li>During the time that While </li></ul><ul><li>In accordance with As you </li></ul><ul><li>your request requested </li></ul><ul><li>In view of the fact that because </li></ul><ul><li>Please don’t hesitate to write please write </li></ul><ul><li>Under date of dated </li></ul><ul><li>Under the circumstances because </li></ul><ul><li>In due course soon </li></ul><ul><li>In the event that if </li></ul><ul><li>In most cases usually </li></ul>
  18. 19. INCLUDE ONLY RELEVANT STATEMENTS <ul><li>The effective, concise message should omit not only unnecessarily wordy expressions but also irrelevant material. To be sure you include only relevant facts, observe the following suggestions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick to the purpose of the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid irrelevant words and rambling (confused) sentences. </li></ul></ul>Conti…
  19. 20. <ul><ul><li>Omit information obvious to the receiver, do not repeat at length what that person has already told you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid long introductions, unnecessary explanations, excessive adjectives and prepositions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get to the important point tactfully and concisely. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. AVOID UNNECESSARY REPETITION <ul><li>Sometimes repetition is necessary for emphasis. But when the same thing is said two or three times without reason, the message becomes wordy and boring. Here are three ways to eliminate unnecessary repetition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a shorter name, after you have mentioned the long one/complete name. Instead of “Electronics Product Manufacturing Company,” just use “Electronics Company”. </li></ul></ul>Conti…
  21. 22. <ul><li>Use pronouns or initials rather than repeat long names: Instead of citing “North Central Auto Insurance Company, Inc.” again and again, use “it” or “NCAI” </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out all needless repetition of phrases and sentences. </li></ul>
  22. 23. CONSIDERATION Consideration means preparing every message with the receiver (s) in mind – putting yourself in place of receiver. Conti…
  23. 24. CONSIDERATION <ul><li>Try to visualize your readers (or listeners) with their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions and probable reactions to you request. This is also called “you-attitude” (empathy). </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration underlies the other six C’s of good business communication. You adapt your language and message contents to your reader’s/receiver’s needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show reader benefit or interest in reader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize positive, pleasant facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply integrity and ethics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on “you” instead of “I” and “we.” </li></ul></ul>Conti…
  24. 25. FOCUS ON “YOU” INSTEAD OF “I” AND “WE” <ul><li>We & I Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>I want to send my congratulations for. </li></ul><ul><li>We will soon ship the goods in your May 4 order. </li></ul><ul><li>We pay 8% interest on… </li></ul><ul><li>You – attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulations to you on your success in MBA.. </li></ul><ul><li>You should receive by May 8 the apex screens you ordered on May 4. </li></ul><ul><li>You earn 8% interest on... </li></ul>Conti…
  25. 26. SHOW READER BENEFIT OR INTEREST <ul><li>Whenever possible and true, show how your readers will benefit from whatever the message asks or announces. In that case they will be more likely to react favorably and do what you suggest. </li></ul>Conti…
  26. 27. EMPHASISE THE POSITIVE, PLEASANT FACTS <ul><li>A third way to show consideration for your reader (or listener) is to accent the positive. This means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressing what can be done instead of what cannot be done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on words your recipient can consider favorably. </li></ul></ul>Conti…
  27. 28. APPLY INTEGRITY AND ETHICS <ul><li>To be truly considerate, you need also to apply integrity – high moral standards, personal honor, truthfulness, sincerity – to your written and oral messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Without integrity, business communications would prove worthless, and our confidence in people would be shattered. </li></ul>
  28. 29. CONCRETENESS Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general.
  29. 30. CONCRETENESS <ul><li>To ensure concreteness of the message, following guidelines should help you compose concrete, convincing messages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use specific facts and figures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put action in your verbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose vivid, image-building words. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Whenever you can, use specific statement or a figure for a general word to make your message more concrete and convincing. </li></ul>USE SPECIFIC FACTS AND FIGURES <ul><li>Clear/Specific Messages </li></ul><ul><li>This computer types 400 word campaign letters in one hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Our product has won first prize in four national contests within the past three years. </li></ul><ul><li>These Goodson power brakes stop a 2-ton car traveling 60 miles an hour , within 240 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Vague/Unclear Messages </li></ul><ul><li>This computer reproduces campaign letters fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Our product has earn several prizes. </li></ul><ul><li>These brakes stop a car within a short distance. </li></ul>
  31. 32. PUT ACTION IN YOUR VERBS <ul><li>Strong verbs can activate other words and help make your sentences definite. To compose strong sentences, you should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use active rather than passive verbs, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put action in your verbs instead of nouns. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. ACTIVE VOICE V/S PASSIVE VOICE <ul><li>Passive (Subject receives </li></ul><ul><li>the Action) </li></ul><ul><li>Tests were made by us or match was won by us. </li></ul><ul><li>A full report will be sent to you by the supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision on holding convocation was taken by the Director SAI. </li></ul><ul><li>Active (Subject performs </li></ul><ul><li>the action) </li></ul><ul><li>We made test or We won the match. </li></ul><ul><li>The supervisor will send you a full report [or You will receive a complete report from your supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>The Director SAI decided to hold a convocation. </li></ul>
  33. 34. ACTION IN VERBS, NOT IN NOUNS <ul><li>Action hiding in a quiet </li></ul><ul><li>noun </li></ul><ul><li>The function of this office is the collection of payments and the compilation of statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Jones will give consideration to the report. </li></ul><ul><li>The contract has a requirement for……… </li></ul><ul><li>Action in the verb </li></ul><ul><li>This office collects payments and compiles statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Jones will consider the report. </li></ul><ul><li>The contract requires that ……………. </li></ul>
  34. 35. CHOOSE VIVID, IMAGE-BUILDING WORDS <ul><li>Vague (unclear) </li></ul><ul><li>There are a great man y solder joints in the space-craft, and each must have just the right amount of solder. </li></ul><ul><li>This is pure clover honey, made by honeybees. </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid (bright/clear) </li></ul><ul><li>The spacecraft has 2 million solder joints. If an extra drop of solder had been left on these joints, the excess weight would have been equivalent to the payload of the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Honeybees have gathered nectar from about 4 million clusters of clover and traveled about 150,000 miles---or equal to six times around the world--- to deliver this package of Bradshaw honey to you. </li></ul>
  35. 36. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE <ul><li>Lateral (imaginative) </li></ul><ul><li>and dull) </li></ul><ul><li>Ali’s work in group was exemplary. </li></ul><ul><li>Some women were stopped in their promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative </li></ul><ul><li>Ali is the spark plug of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Many women faced the “glass ceiling” in their company. </li></ul>
  36. 37. USE CONCRETE INSTEAD OF ABSTRACT NOUNS <ul><li>Abstract: </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration was given to the fact that… </li></ul><ul><li>Termination of the insurance contract will be in June. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the situation suggests that Mr. Ali is right. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete: </li></ul><ul><li>The committee considered …….. </li></ul><ul><li>The insurance contract ends in June. </li></ul><ul><li>I think Mr. Smith is right. </li></ul>
  37. 38. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS <ul><li>You can sometimes build a more realistic and interesting word picture by adding well-chosen adjectives and adverbs. In the example below, adjectives are underlined; adverbs are in capitals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The camera has a system that gives you good pictures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pony camera has a UNIQUELY precise metering system that assures you PROPERLY exposed, true-color pictures. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Sensory Appeal <ul><li>Your five senses, where applicable should play their role to make the message more appealing – give emotional touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisements do have lot of emotional appeal. </li></ul><ul><li>Phrases like “buy me, love free” and “get connected & stay along for ever” </li></ul><ul><li>Use of non-verbal cues to make message more appealing and effective. </li></ul>
  39. 40. CLARITY Clarity means getting the meaning from your head to the head of your reader, in its original sense & spirit.
  40. 41. CLARITY <ul><li>It means getting your message across so that receiver will understand what you are trying to convey. You want the recipient to interpret your words with the same meaning that you have in your mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishing above goal is difficult, because individual experiences are never identical and words may have different meanings to different persons, in different scenarios. </li></ul>Conti..
  41. 42. <ul><li>Choose short, familiar, conversational words; also use familiar conventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Construct effective sentences and paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve appropriate readability (and listening ability). </li></ul><ul><li>Include examples, illustrations, and other visual aids, when desirable. </li></ul>HOW TO ACHIEVE CLARITY Conti..
  42. 43. CHOOSE SHORT, FAMILIAR, CONVERSATIONAL WORDS <ul><li>SAY NOT </li></ul><ul><li>After Subsequent </li></ul><ul><li>Error Inadvertency </li></ul><ul><li>For example e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Home, house Domicile </li></ul><ul><li>Pay Remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>Show, uncover Disclose </li></ul>Conti..
  43. 44. CHOOSE SHORT, FAMILIAR, CONVERSATIONAL WORDS <ul><li>Possibly Unfamiliar </li></ul><ul><li>or Unclear: </li></ul><ul><li>Assessed valuation charge to your principal. </li></ul><ul><li>Easement for ingress and egress </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions Familiar </li></ul><ul><li>to the Layperson: </li></ul><ul><li>Property value for tax purposes increase the balance of your loan. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement allows passage in and out. </li></ul>Conti..
  44. 45. CONSTRUCT EFFECTIVE SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS <ul><li>Arranging your words in well - constructed sentences and paragraphs is an essential task. Important characteristics to consider are length, unity, coherence, and emphasis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length - as short as desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity - to express main ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence - for clear meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis - for forceful, clear expression </li></ul></ul>Conti..
  45. 46. USE SHORT SENTENCES <ul><li>The suggested average sentence length should be about 17 to 20 words. When a sentence exceeds 40 words, try to rewrite it into more than one sentence. A sentence can be divided into more parts by using semicolon (;). </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am very busy because I have an important project to deliver by the end of this week; I shall not be able to accompany you for the picnic on coming Sunday, January 18 .” </li></ul>Conti..
  46. 47. UNITY, TO EXPRESS MAIN IDEAS <ul><li>In a sentence - whether simple, compound, or complex---unity means that you have one main idea, and no other ideas in the sentence must be closely related to it. </li></ul><ul><li> “ I like Mohsin, and the Pak Tower is in Islamabad” obviously is not a unified sentence .” </li></ul>Conti..
  47. 48. COHERENCE, FOR CLEAR MEANINGS <ul><li>In a coherent sentence the words are correctly arranged so that the ideas clearly express the intended meaning. Place the correct modifier as close as possible to the words it is supposed to modify. In the following examples notice why each “unclear” sentence conveys a wrong meaning, and how it is corrected in the “clear” sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being an intelligent person, I am sure you can complete your research project in time. (Unclear) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As you are an intelligent person, I am sure you can complete your research project in time. (Clear) </li></ul></ul>Conti..
  48. 49. EMPHASIS, FOR FORCEFUL, CLEAR EXPRESSION <ul><li>The quality that gives force to important parts of sentences and paragraphs is to be emphasized. Writers must decide what needs emphasis, and then choose correct sentence structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The jet fighter finally approached the speed of sound and it became very difficult to control. (less emphasis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As it finally approached the speed of sound, the jet fighter became very difficult to control. (better emphasis) </li></ul></ul>Conti..
  49. 50. ACHIEVE APPRPPRIATE READABILITY & LISTENABILITY <ul><li>Besides aiming for qualities of unity, coherence, and emphasis, you should adapt your business messages so that their word-and-sentence level will be appropriate for your recipients general education level. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to focusing on clarity of words, sentences, and paragraphs, you can also sometimes use various visual aids effectively. </li></ul>Conti..
  50. 51. COURTESY Courtesy is the respect, sincerity and empathy that your recipient / audience desires and deserves. Conti..
  51. 52. COURTESY <ul><li>Courteous messages help to strengthen present business friendship, as well as make new friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy stems from sincere you-attitude. It is not merely politeness with mechanical insertions of “please” and “thank-you”. </li></ul><ul><li>To be courteous, considerate communicators should follow the four guidelines discussed under Consideration. </li></ul>Conti..
  52. 53. <ul><li>Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative. </li></ul><ul><li>Omit expressions that irritate, hurt, or belittle. </li></ul><ul><li>Grant and apologize good-naturedly. </li></ul>COURTESY Conti..
  53. 54. BE SINCERELY TACTFUL, THOUGTFUL, AND APPRECIATIVE <ul><li>Tact Instead of Bluntness: </li></ul><ul><li>Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt, these traits are a common cause of discourtesy. Sometimes they stem from a mistaken idea of conciseness. </li></ul>Conti..
  54. 55. <ul><li>Tactless, Blunt </li></ul><ul><li>Your letter is not clear at all; I can’t understand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously, if you’d read your policy carefully, you’d be able to answer these questions yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently you have already forgotten what I wrote you two weeks ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactful </li></ul><ul><li>If I understand your letter correctly…… </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes policy wording is a little hard to understand. I’m glad to clear up these questions for you. </li></ul><ul><li>As mentioned in my May 10, letter to you. </li></ul>
  55. 56. OMIT EXPRESSIONS THAT IRRITATE, HURT, OR BELITTLE <ul><li>The thoughtful business communicator should avoid expressions that might offend the reader. Such expressions are discussed here in three groups: irritating, questionably humorous, and belittling statements. </li></ul>
  56. 57. IRRITATING EXPRESSIONS <ul><li>I do not agree with you </li></ul><ul><li>If you care </li></ul><ul><li>I am sure you must realize </li></ul><ul><li>Inexcusable </li></ul><ul><li>Irresponsible </li></ul><ul><li>Why have you ignored </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that </li></ul><ul><li>You claim that </li></ul><ul><li>You did not tell us </li></ul><ul><li>You failed to </li></ul><ul><li>You forgot to </li></ul><ul><li>Your stubborn silence </li></ul>
  57. 58. QUESTIONABLE HUMOR <ul><li>Humor is often quite effective in business writing. However, before you try to be funny, be sure that your humor is good-natured and appropriate for the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor should be culturally and religiously acceptable. </li></ul>
  58. 59. GRANT AND APOLOGIZE GOOD-NATUREDLY <ul><li>Whenever you grant a customer’s request, begin your letter with the best news first and inject a courteous, ungrudging tone. Notice the difference in tone of the following two paragraphs: </li></ul><ul><li>Grudging </li></ul><ul><li>Your request causes a great deal of extra paperwork to change monthly payments. However, we hereby approve the new schedule of payment, as you requested. </li></ul><ul><li>Good Natured </li></ul><ul><li>As you requested, we will give more concession and facilitate you in making the payment in easy installments. </li></ul>
  60. 61. CORRECTNESS <ul><li>The correctness principle comprises more than proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. A message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insults or loses a customer and fails to achieve its purpose. The term correctness, as applied to a business message means, the writer should: </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><ul><li>Use the right level of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check accuracy of figures, facts, and words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain acceptable writing mechanics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose nondiscriminatory expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply all other pertinent C qualities. </li></ul></ul>CORRECTNESS
  62. 63. A Letter With Many Errors
  63. 64. A Letter Without Errors
  64. 65. <ul><ul><li>Q # 1: Describe all the 7 Cs of BC; give at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>least one example for each principle. (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q # 2: Write a letter to Director SAI requesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for fee concession; apply 7C principles, where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applicable. (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Please submit in next class; No delay. </li></ul></ul>Assignment # 2
  65. 66. Thank You