Address identifying computers in TCP/IP based (Internet) networks
Reliance on centralized management authorities
IP address management history
In early Internet history, a nonprofit group called the IANA ( Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) kept records of available and reserved IP addresses and determined how addresses were doled out
Starting in 1997, IANA coordinated its efforts with three RIRs ( Regional Inter-net Registries): ARIN ( American Registry for Internet Numbers), APNIC ( Asia Pacific Network Information Centre), and RIPE ( Réseaux IP Européens)
In the late 1990s, the United States Department of Commerce ( DOC), which funded IANA, decided to overhaul IP addressing and domain name management
The DOC recommended the formation of ICANN ( Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), a private, nonprofit corporation. ICANN is now ultimately responsible for IP addressing and domain name management
Users and business obtain IP addresses from ISP (Internet service provider)
You can learn more about IANA and ICANN at their Web sites, www iana.org and www.icann.org
In the late 1970s, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was created by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to break through this barrier.
The OSI model was meant to help vendors create interoperable network devices and software in the form of protocols so that different vendor networks could work with each other.
The OSI model is the primary architectural model for networks. It describes how data and network information are communicated from an application on one computer through the network media to an application on another computer. The OSI reference model breaks this approach into layers.